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D EDO? 1200145 1 

CatifomJa Stale Library 


Call No. If- 


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Number 1-.-. 

Growth of the HiniDg Indnstry. 

Few people beyond those directly iotereated ' 
realize the grett advance which has taken place 
within the paat few years in the mininji; indus- 
try, or bow mach is being done to day. To one 
who, like the writer, reads the ** interior" I 
papers published in the Tariooa mining towns 
and oamps on the Pacific Coast, this realization | 
is, however, complete. lo alt dtreotiona | 
hnndreds of men are prospecting for, working, i 
developing, Hnding and making mines. Thon- 
aands of these mines are entirely unknown and 
unheard of outside the little camps where they 
are located. Yet there are possibilities in all, 
and their owners are working to develop them, 
It is work, work, work, in all directions; but 
there is encouragement always. Never a week 
passes but there are numerous "strikes" re- 
corded, and each of these eerves to show that 
the ** tarn " of others is liable to come at any 

And of these smaller mines that are prodnc- 
ing ore we hear little, but every crushing of 
rook adds so mach to the wealth of the com- 
mnnity. The miner who realizes his few buQ> 
dred from a ** crushing " is not heard of as is 
the mine that advertises its dividends in the 
thousands. Yet in the aggregate it is these 
little mines tbat make the immense difference 
between "total product " and " dividends " in 
the statistics at the end of the year. Even the 
mines worked at a loss add something to the 
wealth of the commanity. If it costs $2000 to 
get out $1000 there is $1000 more than there 
was. The original $2000 has merely changed 
hands, and the amount realized is in the chan- 
nels of trade. The community is benefited if 
theindividnal ia not. 

Not only are there now many new camps be- 
ing opened, but old mines abandoned in our 
days of extravagance are being re-opened and 
worked with profit. Ore ia being worked 
cheaper than ever before, and our metallurgicdl 
skill is greatly improving. In the older mining 
regions many of the evils have been done away 
with. The top-heavy system is fast going out 
of style and more money is spent for actual 
work than for style in officials. To cheapen 
matters, water-power and electricity are re- 
placing steam wherever practicable. Fao* 
pie are working mines more systematically 
and carefully, having the future in view more 
than was formerly the case. Altogether, the 
whole outlook cf the mining industry is encour- 

Mining Suit Compromised — The great 
mining suit which haa been pending for years 
between the Eureka Hill Mining Co., and the 
Bullion-Bsck Mining Co. of Tintic, Utah, haa 
been compromised upon a basis satisfactory to 
both parties. The property involved in these 
suits is valued at over $2,000,000. Ex Gover- 
nor Perkins ia president of the California com- 
pany that purchased the Bullion Beck interest, 
and John 0. Packard ia president of the Eareka 
Hill Mining Co. The basis of compromise is 
vertical lines from the surface down, and con- 
cessions have been made on both sidta. 

Portable Smelting Farnaoe. 

These portable smelting furnaces with Wil- 
Ham's improvements are made from 16 to 
20 inches diameter, as shown in the ele- 
vation and section. Figs. 1 and 2. They 
have adjustable bottom plates the same as 
the large furnaces illustrated in the Press 
last week, and are aho of the water- 
jacket type. They are made of thinner iron 
and separated into parts lo as to be trans- 

Fto. 1. 

Namber of Paying Qcartz Miaes. 

A California paper, after canvassing.the 6eld, 
puts the number of paying quartz mines in the 
United States at 150. While this may include 
all the larger companies operating, it by no 
means takes in the much greater number of 
smalt ones who make a livelihood at this busi- 
ness, and generally some money besides. There 
are, in fact, more than 150 companies who make 
quartz mining pay in California alone, some of 


There is again trouble at the Wilkeaon coal 
mines, Washington Territory, where the minera 
are rioting. 

France takes more of our crnde mineral oil 
than any other country, but in rehned oil Ger- 
many takes the lead. 

ported by pack mules. There are four tuyerea 
connected to an annular wind-box in the usual 
manner but with flexible pipes and detachable 
nozzles, so the tuyerea can be bared for exami- 
nation instantly. There are four arches, so 
that every part of the interior ia acceasible for 
cleaning. Two of the arches are cut through 
at the bottom to permit a lead-well and siphon 
to be used if required. 

The blast required for these email fur- 
naces can be provided by any of the well- 
known means, and when power is not avail- 
able, hand apparatus, such as is shown in 
the drawing, can be used. These furnaces will 
amelt from one to five tons in 10 houra, accord- 
ing to the amount of blast and nature of the 
ore. These furnaces are also made by Messrs. 
W. T. Garratt &. Co. of this city aod furnished 
with all the required fittings. 

theae consisting, of course, of only a few indi- 
viduals. The above estimate must therefore be 
grossly out of proportion to the whole number 
of companies so engaged. 

In other sections of the country theae com- 
panies are not so numerous as in California, and 
that because we have here more deposits of this 
kind than are to be found elsewhere, the facil- 
ities for working them being also especially 
good. Our people, through long experience, 
have become masters of the business, while our 
methods and appliances for carrying it on have 
also been brought to a high degree of perfec- 
tion. We have for our population an unusually 
large number of self employers, a fact dne to 
theae other exceptionally favorable conditions. 
That the number of paying quartz companies 
in the entire country as fixed on by our contem- 
porary is much too small is evident. 

The £ey Monument. 

Our people are just beginning to realize how 
much the late James Lick did for them when he 
left his great estate for the benefit of the public 
in California. The Lick Observatory is com- 
pleted and in running order. The California 
Pioneers have their fine building and the 
Academy of Sciences will soon have theirs. It 
will not be very long before the free baths will 
be available, and one of the statues for which 
he provided has just been unveiled. It wilt be 
remembered that Mr. Lick left sums for several 
statues and gronps. Some people among us 
thought this rather a waste of money and a 
queer thing to do, but aa a community we have 
too few objects of art among ua. There is no 
public art gallery of note as in older cities, and 
in statuary there ia nothing here. The group 
that James Lick has provided as an ornament 
for the City Hall grounds will be a notable 
feature in this city, and it remained for him — a 
Califomiau — to be the first to erect a statue to 
the author of the " Star SpangUd Banner." 

Appropriate to the celebration of the birth- 
day of the Nation were the ceremonies attend- 
ant on the unveiling of the statue of Francis 
Scott Key in Golden Gate park. The sum of 
$60,000 bad been set aside to build this, and to 
an American sculptor, W, W. Story, was given 
the task. This monument is the largest and 
most imposing structure of the kind in Califor- 
nia, Three stepa lead up on each side to a 
square pedeatal amply ornamented with corner 
buttresaes, bevels, panela and mouldings. From 
each corner rise four Corinthian fluted pillars 
bearing aloft a handaome marble canopy, under 
which, in a sitting posture, is the bi'onze figure 
of the poet. On the top of the cupola stands 
the female figure of *' America " bearing a flag- 
stafl, from which falls in graceful and massy 
folds the famous banner. On two of the four 
panela the words of the poem are engraved. 
On the third is the inacription, and on the 
fourth a lyre in emblematic device. The whole 
structure is 52 feet high, and the figure of 
" America " with the colors ia 13 feet, and that 
of the poet 8 feet. 

An immense throng of people gathered to 
witness the ceremonies of unveiling. This was 
one of the most imposing features of the cel- 
ebration of the 4th. Addresses were delivered 
by Park Commissioner Hammond, W. H, L. 
Barnea, T. J. Clunie, Irving M. Scott, and 
Mayor Pond. National airs were played by the 
band, and when **The Star Spangled Bmner " 
was given by the band and 100 voices, the 
great audience joined in the chorus. This was 
alao done with the national anthem, '* America." 
The occasion was one to stir the patriotism of 
the people, and will be long remembered by all. 

The terma under which the Calumet and 
Hecla and the other American mines passed into 
the Copper Trust were 13 cents per pound for 
all the copper the mines could produce during a 
period of three years. It was further agreed 
that should the price of copper go above that 
figure the mines going into the combination 
should receive half the profit accruing from the 
advance over 13 cents. 

The Virginia CArojitcie says the developments 
in the Wild Goose and Harris mines in Jumbo 
district, near Franktpwn, caused great excite- 
ment among miners, and the foothills west of 
Mt. Davidson are swarming with prospectors. 

Mining and Scientific Press 

[July, 7, 1888 


We admit, uniodorsed, opinions of correspondents. -Eds. 

Kernville Notes. 

Editors Press: — Djubtless a few noteafrom 
this secluded locality -will be of interest to some 
of your readers, for though mioing has ceased 
to be the leading industry of California, still 
the miners are not all dead, and there are in- 
dications that the mining industry may yet re- 
vive and be established upon a more enduring 

There are many leads here which have not 
been worked since the time that flour was haul- 
ed from Stockton with ox teams, a distance of 
300 miles; and yet many of those leads, now 
abandoned, have yielded fortunes to the pru- 
dent miner, or a poker stake to the average min- 
ing superintendent. 

For the most part the placer mines were ex- 
hausted 30 years ago. A few placer deposits 
remain, but as a rule the young men now herd- 
ing sheep and cattle look upon placer mining 
as a lost art. Quartz mining is still indulged in 
by a few workmgnien who have arastras or 
littleBve stamp millp, by which they are settled 
with their families and doing a legitimate and 
quiet business. 

The great Sumner mill, erected at a cost of 
$1,000,0000, and in connection with which 
more than §2,000,000 have been recklessly 
squandered, stands listlessly idle. The main 
ledge (the Big Blue) has baen worked to the 
level of Kern river, and an incendiary destroyed 
the ponderous hnifiting works and pumping 
gear, which cost $65,000. The main body of 
the yield of this mine undoubtedly came from 
small feeders coming in from the southwest; 
and as the extraction of ore from these is nec- 
essarily slow and tedious it would not pay to 
refifc an SO-stamp mill. The fact is if we ever 
expect to place gold mining upon an enduring 
basis here we must have down with "Eogliah 
syndicates" and ^250,000 mills. 

There is much talk of a railroad having been 
projected through the Kern river canyon, and 
two or three corps of engineers have examined 
the ground. Having passed the canyon and 
attained an attitude of 2600 feet, there is an 
open way through the Monachee valley and to 
the Colorado desert beyond. The canyon offers 
as feasibla a pass as any river gorge in Cali- 
fornia, and could be passed with an absolutely 
level grade, coming out among the foothills of 
Posa creek. This route would pass to the East, 
where the early prospector bought water by the 
quart and wood by the pound. It would doubt- 
less revive the spirit of mining and open a new 
Dorado. Kern river probably outranks any 
other mountain stream in the State during the 
dry part of the year. Its principal branch 
courses southward across Tulare county and a 
part of the way across Kern (a distance of 100 
miles) before taking to the canyon through 
which it passes to the valley. Immense areas 
of timber are adjacent to either bank, and the 
water of the canyon would furnish milling 
power to mill all the ores west of the Colorado. 
Mr. Sherman, of Havilah, at one time used a 
part of this power to drive two quartz mills at 
that place. The power was transferred a 
distance of six miles by means of compressed 
air conveyed through four inch pipes. But in- 
cendiaryism has followed up a very genial and 
worthy gentleman from one point to another 
through some six confligrations, until now it 
may be difficult for him to resuscitate his 
fortune. Thanks to the law, the devil is in the 
penitentiary. The experiments of Mr. Sherman 
with compressed air are sufficient to explode 
many theories in regard to the transmission of 
power by that means, and good engineers have 
declared that a sufficient power could be gener- 
ated and shipped under a pressure of 500 pound 
to the inch, to propell all the traffic of this 
coast across the mountains. — S. B. 

Kernville^ Cat. 

Los Burros Mines. 

Editors Press: — Los Barros Mining district, 
22 miles west of Jolon, Monterey county, sit- 
uated in the San Lucia range of mountains, on 
the coast, three miles from the ocean, is begin' 
ning to receive considerable attention. This 
district is a little over one year old, the first 
discovery having been made in April, 1SS7, by 
Wm. Crnckshank & Son on their claim known 
as the List Chance. This mine has a well 
defined ledge 4 feet wide, 35 feet from the sur- 
face and averaging from $300 to $400 per ton. 
A three-stamp mill has been erected. The 
mine has paid all expenses and left a handsome 
sum in the owners' hands besides. Other lo- 
cations are the No. 2 Manchester with a good 
pay ledge, Otihir with a good pay ledge six 
feet wide, and Ajas (a free gold). 

There are a great many other locations in the 
district, some of them with good prospects. 
There is plenty of water and timber and an ex- 
cellent climate. The nearest railway station is 
Kings City, thence by stage to Jolon (20 miles), 
then 22 miles over a good trail to the mines. 
There is a good wagon road half way and from 
there pack train or saddle horaes may be 
obtained, J. L. Bovle. 

M. Htonette makes a white artificial stone 
from sand, which has been used for polishing 
plate glaEs. 

The Astronomer's Dream. 

[Trarslated for the Press from the French by M. N. M.] 

In his poetic manner, the eminent French 
Astronomer Camille Flammarion says: *'Ihad 
a dream which was not all a dream. In it I 
found myself observing people who about a 
hundred millions of years ago inhabited a 
planet situated in the cortege of one of the re- 
mote stars in space, in the midst of a sidereal 
universe analogous to that which now exists, 
though not the same, because the universe of 
that time is destroyed and the universe of to 
day did not then exist. There were, as in our 
epoch, conatellitions and stars, but they were 
not the same constellations, nor the same stars. 
There were suns, moons, inhabited worlds, days, 
nights, seasons, years, centuries, beings, im- 
pressions, thoughts, facts; bat they were not 
the same. 

Our earth was not yet formed. The ma- 
terials which composed it were fioating in space 
in a state of diffused nebulosity, gravitating 
around the solar center, which was gradually 
condensing. There was neither water, nor air, 
nor soil, nor stones, nor vegetables, nor ani- 
mals, nor even any of the bodies reputed sim- 
ple by the chemist, as oxygen, hydrogen, azote, 
carbon, iron, lead, copper, etc. The gas which 
would by its condensations and ulterior trans- 
formations give birth to the divers substances, 
gases, liquids or solids, which at the present 
time constitute the earth and its inhabitants, 
was a simple gas, homogeneous, containing in 
itself unconscious chrysalis, the possibilities of 
future times. 

But No Prophet Could Forecast 
The unknown which was slumbering in its 
mystery. Our planet presented then, the as- 
pect of those vague nebulie of gas, which the 
telescope discovers in the depth of the skies.and 
which the spectrescope analyzes. In thp midst 
of the stars the nebulous sun was floating in 
process of condensation. Humanity, with 
all its history, each one of us with all his ener- 
gies, all terrestrial beings were in germ in that 
nebula and in those forces ; but the beings and 
the things that we know were only to exist after 
a long incnbation of centuries. In the place of 
what was to he the Earth, there was nothing 
but a gas, fioating in the starred immensity. 
Y"et it was not in the actual place where we 
are at present, because the Eirth, the planets, 
and all the solar system came from afar and 
travel speedily, : * * * * * 

In the history of creation, 100,000,000 of 
years pass like a day; like a fugitive dream they 
are effaced, and vanish into the bosom of eter- 
nity, which absorbs all. * * ^ Though our 
planet did not then exist, there were, as today, 
stars, suns, solar systems and inhabited worlds. 
The beings that peopled those worlds lived 
their lives as we live ours. 

It was an exciting spectacle for the thinker 
to contemplate the great labor of all those ba- 
inga. In indifference, or in passion, in pleas- 
ure or in sorrow, in smiles or in tears, they were 
living, agitating, reposing, combating, pardon- 
iog, accusing, forgetting, loving, hating; swept 
away in the fatal whirlwind; coming into the 
world, dying; succeeding each other blindly, 
through generations and centuries; ignorant of 
their origin and of the future fate of monads 
and of souls; sports of nature which inflates 
worlds and boings, stars and atoms, centuries 
and minutes, like those bubbles of soap which 
a child blows in the air. It was the spectacle 
which the earth presents to us to-day; multi- 
tudes waging a battle for life and ending only 
with death. The view that must strike us 
most in that retrospective contemplation is, 
that the earth did not thenexiat. 

No Human Being Approached 
Anywhere near to the time when ic could be 
one of its inhabitants. Nothing, nothing of 
what exists around us now, was then in exist- 
ence. Nevertheless, upon those ancient worlds 
80 long since vanished, those who were en- 
livening them had their corrent history, flour- 
ishing cities, cultivated fields, social organiza- 
tions, wars and battles, laws and tribunals, 
sciences and arts, historians, economists, politi- 
cians, theologians, and men of letters who were 
striving to discern the true from the false, and 
to write conscientiously what they too called 
" universal history." For them, all creation had 
been stopped in their time and at their place; 
for them, everything was finished; the rest of 
the universe without bounds, the rest of etern- 
ity without limits was lost in insignificance, 
eclipsed by their actuality. They did not 
know that eternity was before them and would 
be after they had passed away. 

They lived, the learned and ignorant, the 
illustrious and obscure, the rich and poor, the 
opulent and miserable, the religious and the 
skeptical, as if their lives were never to have an 
end. These, were accumulating, without for- 
getting for an instant, a fortune which their 
sons were eager to dissipate; those, were dream- 
ing and contemplating, without care of the 
morrow; here some bittallions were ii Aiming 
the populace by their patriotic clamors; yonder 
some couples were uniting in mystery their 
quivering souls. Pressed as they believed they 
were, by affairs ot imperious importance, car- 
ried away by the allurements cf pleasure, or 
lifted up on the wings of ambition, they ot that 
time, as of this, were plunging in the vortex of 

The History of the Eternity 
which precedes us, is not only of peoples, of 
kingdoms, and of empires which have dis- 

appeared; it is of entire worlds, of groups of 
worlds, of archipelagos of planets, and of uni- 
verses. To eternity there is no beginning. The 
forces of nature have never been inactive. In 
nature, our measures of time, our conceptions 
of duration, do not exist. For it, there is 
neither past nor future, only a perpetual 
present. It continues unchangeable through its 
incessant transformations and manifestations. 
It is we who pass away; it remains. 

I cannot refiect without terror upon the in- 
numerable beings who have lived in the worlds 
that have disappeared; upon all the superior 
intellects which have thought, acted and guided 
humanity in the path of progress, of light and ot 
liberty. I cannot think of those Platos, Marcus 
AureUuses, Pascals and Newtons of the van- 
ished worlds without asking myself what has 
becoThe of them. It is very easy to reply that 
nothing of them remains; that they have died 
as they were born; that all is dust and returns 
to duet; the reply is easy but not very satis 
fying. * - * 

Assuredly I have not the simple pretension 
of resolving the great mystery. It seems to 
me that in treating these unfathomable prob- 
lems of eternity and of infinity we are pretty 
much in the condition of ants endeavoring to 
inform themselves of the history of France. 

It Would be Without Doubt 
As useless as it would be childish to lose our- 
selves in the nebulosities of metaphysics by try- 
ing to find a solution which will probably al- 
ways escape us, but is it not a subject of- con- 
templation worthy of our thoughts, to refiect 
upon that particular aspect cf creation, Time; 
to reflect that throughout eternity other earths 
inhabited like ours, have floated in the light of 
their suns, that through all eternity there have 
been beings enjoying life, and that during all 
time, the hour of the end of their worlds has 
sounded on the secular dial of destiny their 
doom, shrouding in turn the universe and be- 
ings in the winding-sheet of destruction and of 
oblivion ? It is impossible for us to conceive a 
beginning which had been preceded by an 
eternity of inaction, and so far as science con- 
ducts us, it shows us everywhere forces in per- 
petual activity. If infinite space dazzles us by 
its immensity without limits, eternity without 
beginning and without end rises up more for- 
midable still, perhaps, before our terrified con- 
templation. The voices of the past speak to 
US from the depths of the abj^ss and they speak 
to us of the future. The^cw^ of the worlds 
which have disappeared, is the future of the 
earth. * * * * * 

In 100 000.000 of years, the earth on which 
we are will no longer exist, or if any ruin of it 
vet remains, it will be only a mournful desert. 
The divers worlds of our solar system will have 
fiaished their vital cycle, and the varied his- 
tories of mankind which succeeded each other 
will have been long extinct. Our sun itself, 
will without doubt, have lost its light, and will 
roll a dark obj tot in the nocturnal immen'iity. 
Thrown back, perhaps, by the laws of destiny 
into the crucible of perpetual metamorphosis, 
it will be reunited with a supreme shock to that 
defunct old sun, and, hurled like it through the 
eternal void, may be revived from its athes a ra- 
diant pha^aix, relighted by the transformation of 
the movement into heat. 

In Thac Time, Moreover as Now, 
The nebulie will have produced suns, and as to- 
day, bouniiless space will be studded with stars 
without number, gravitating in the harmony of 
theirreciprocal attractions; then, as now, earths 
will be balmced in the light of their suns, the 
mornings and evenings will succeed each other, 
blue skies will expand, clouds will float in the 
charm of twilight, and perfumed atmos^hefes 
will blow over woods and valleys. Nature will 
sing the marvelous budding of life, as today, 
and chant the hymn of youth and happiness 
and imperishable spring-time, in that immense 
universe where the historian of the past sees 
only tombs. * * * « • * 

If there are no limits to space, if toward some 
point of the heavens to which our thought 
takes its course, it can fly evermore, without 
anothing to stop it, whatever may he the rapid- 
ity of its flight, whatever may be the duration 
cf its indefatigable soaring, if, in a word, 
space is inflnite in every sense, it is the same 
as eternity. 

Infinite space is actually gemmed with in- 
cipient worlds, with worlds wbich have at- 
tained a virile age, it is strewn with worlds in 
decadence and worlds dead, it disseminates in 
all the boundless regions of immensity, gaseous 
nebu!re, suns of hydrogen, oxyd stars, planets 
in formation, satellites cooled, and comets 
disintegrated. The forces of nature show 
themselves everywhere in activity ; the energy 
of creation remains constant, without possibil- 
ity of augmentation or diminution, and all the 
sciences coincide in testifying that what we call 
destruction, annihilation, is only transformation. 
Astronomy reveals Time to us, as it reveals 
Space ; it shows that our present epoch has 
nothing particular in the history of nature any 
more than has our present place, and invites us 
to recognize duration as well as space, those two 
forms of reality, contemplating in the same syn- 
thesis the grand aspects of the universe. 

This Dream Was Not All a Dream 
For the beings who have lived upon the 
diS'erent worlds in space during the eras 
anterior to our solar system, the earth, with all 
its history, was only a possibility of fecunda- 
tions for the future. Historiographers of 

terrestrial peoples, Moses, Herodotus, Man- 
ethon, Ma-Tuan-Lin, Titus Livius, Tacitus, 
Gregory of Tours, Bossuet, all you who imagine 
yourselves writing ** universal history," and 
thou, great Leibnitz, who didst commence at 
the creation of the world the history of a small 
German duchy, and thou, also, charming 
author of the Metamorphoses, who to us haet 
related of old the origin of heaven and the 
gods, the astronomer smiles at your famous 
annals, as he smiles at the genealogies of kings 
and the conquests of the Cseiars, 

Combats cf ants upon small spaces, natural 
illusions of children who caress their puppets ! 
Let some one invent a new microscope that will 
enable us to distinguish Charlemagne and Ni- 
poleon in the ant- hill of Lillipnt. We no 
longer find them. And the whole earth, where 
then is it? The abstraction of the thonght 
comes to us of living bsfore and after it. The 
entire history of it has vanished like a flish of 
lightning wbich passes over in the Btillness of 
a long summer's day. * * * * 

As I contemplated those panoramas of time . 
and space, which the centuries of the past 
defiled slowly before me with their large cor- 
teges of disappeared glories, the beings who 
peopled the revived worlds to their furthest 
extent cast away their shrouds and walked in 
the flowery paths of life; all that secular and 
prodigious past became present, and the mill- 
ions of extinct suns, of era upon era, became re- 
lighted and resplendent. Innumerable stars 
appeared in the sky, which our mortal eyes 
have never seen, and the light of lite radiated 
upon celestial shores which succeeded each 
other to infinity. Suddenly, an immense black 
veil fell from the bight of the skies in front of 
those luminous bodies, and I beheld no more. 
Before that veil the planet on which we are 
was turning with its velocity of a hundred 
thousand kilometers an hour, and I was again 
in the condition of the other inhabitants of this 
earth, who live without seeing btyond their 
horizon, and who imagine that in time, as in' 
space, our mediocre race of human beings is 
the only one that ever had a place in the uni-; 

Laziness and Luck. 

About three years ago Frank Martin sold his 
Horn Silver mine at Era for S56,000. By bis 
drinking and gambling he has reduced this to 
about SIOOO, and his wife now petitions the 
Portland court, to have a guardian appointed 
for him. — Idaho Per/hter. 

To read the above paragraph, saya the Ntz 
Perce (Idaho) News, one would naturally say 
that there was nothing in it; that it was a com- 
mon every-day occurrence. But read this: 
Three years ago Frank Martin was as worthless 
a vagabond as could well be produced — one of 
those who never missed a meal nor paid a cent. 
He resided at a place called Era, in Alturas 
county, in this Territory, had no o6oupation 
and sponged his living from his brother, who 
had a small ranch and kept the postoffije by 
the roadside. One day his brother's wife re- 
quested Frank to cut some' wood. He refused,' 
whereupon she beat him out of the house with 
a rolling-pin and forbade him to ever enter her 
doors agam. Sad and dtjected at the condition 
of affairs, Frank walked up a hill in the rear of 
bis once happy home, until within a short dis- 
tance of its summit, when he sat down upon a 
flat rock, at the same time stretching out his 
legs and braoing his feet against a small bowl- 
der in front of him. He had not been there 
long when the bowlder gave way and went 
rolling down the hill. Frank raised himself and 
listlessly followed after the rolling stone, and 
just here will we digress and say that his then 
experience exploded the aphorism that a "roll- 
ing stone gathers no moss " — and picking it up, 
was surprised at its weight and general appear- 
ance. He showed the stone to some' miners 
soon after, and they pronounced it horn silver 
ore ot the richest character. Thereupon Frank 
prospected the place and soon found a ledge 
that paid big from tbe start, so that in less than 
a month after opening the mine Mr. Ff:ank 
Martin's check was worth its face, from @3000 
to S5000. He had hosts of warm friends — in- 
deed his friends were red hot — reaching from 
Houston on the north to Blackfoot in the cen- 
ter and Hailey and Salt Lake in the Eist. 

One evening, after delivering a shipment of 
his ore to the reduction works at Hailey, Mr. 
Martin dropped into a restaurant and ordered a 
square meal. He was promptly served by a 
comely waiter girl, and, being in a somewhat 
hilarious mood, challenged tbe girl to marry 
him then and there. She accepted his proffer, 
a Justice of the Peace was sent for and tbe 
twain were made one. About six months after 
this he sold bis mine for the sum above stated, 
and, naturally enougb, the transition from exr 
treme indigence to much wealth unshipped 
what little intellect he had. 

Moral — Wealth is a blessing to some but a 
curse to others. 

Photographing from the Light of Fire- 
flies. — Dr. John Vansant, of the United States 
Marine Hospital at St. Louis, claims to be the 
first to have taken photographs by the light of 
firefiies. He placed 12 fireflies in a three-ounce 
bottle, covering its mouth with fine white bobi- 
net. The average duration of the flash of each 
insect was half a second, and the Inminous area 
on the abdomen was about one-eigth of an inch 
square. The time of exposure wasSOflishea. 

Salt Lake City is to have an industrial 

July 7. 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

The Close Fist Company. 

Some Things That Stand In the Way of 

'* The old claim is pretty well worked oat, io 
faot hu beea for a good while; but it is bard 
for two old ohapa to move. So Pard aud I have 
picked over and up the bedrock, cleared up the , 
crevicea and worked poor dirt year after year. 
But recently Pard aaid he wu going to see if he 
could not buv or loaae a piece of ground owned 
by the Close Fist Mining and Water Oumpany. 
He said he know just what the company paid 
for the ground ten years ago, and as they have 
never stuck a pick iuto it he thought they 
would be glad to get what they gave for it or 
to lease it on reanonabte terms. So he saddled 
up the old mute and lit out. He returned yes- 
terday. I saw ho was disappointed and had 
seen things that had * loaded ' him. After 
sapper I asked: ' 

" Well, what did you do?" I 

** Nothing," said he rather short. 

He drew several long whiffs from his pipe and 
then said: 

**1 don't onderstand some things. I could 
not get that ground for love or money — unless I I 
paid ten times what I oould afford to. The ' 
company that owna it have not touched it for i 
ten years, in fact, have never stuck a pick into 
it; but that makes no ditJerenae. AU I could 
get out of the agent was: * We have no ground 
to sell.' Of course that settled it. In going 
and coming I saw at least a dozen old claims 
that I know would pay decent wages to Ubor- 
ing men that are and have been idle for years, ' 
and not the remotest hope of their being work- 
ed. I heard mal- 
edictions, loud 
and deep, poured 
out on the own- 
ers of patents 
that cover bun- 
reds and thou- 
sands of acres of 
good mining 
ground that is 
good for these 
times. One man 
aaid to me: * The 
anti-debris peo- 
ple are hard 
enough, the Lord 
knows, but they 
are not one-half 
as poison as this 
infernal law that 
permits a few 
men to hold thou- 
sands of acres of 
mining ground 
in idleness year 
after year,' Well, 
I had to give up 
the mining proj- 
ect, BO I thought 
I would go and 
see if I could get 
that farm old Bill 
D. left to his 
widow who lives 
somewhere in the 
East, and if I 
could, you and 
I could go to 
raising fruit and 
garden truck. 
There is as nice 
a farm, or rather 
a nice piece of 
land as lays out 
doors, and worth 
four times the i|! ., ,.|||i:.'v [ ,',' \ .,,■ 

price asked, but , ^ y 

there is no title. 

A mining patent covers the ground, and so we 
would be liable to be bounced any day. For 
mining, the 160 acres ain't worth 10 cents, but 
it would make a lovely home for anybody with 
muscle and brains. It saw a place all grown up 
to brush and weeds, and my attention was 
arrested by seeing a scrubby peach tree and a 
tangle of roses among the general waste. 1 wae 
told that a few years ago there was a fine or- 
chard of apple, peach, pear and plum trees and 
a good set of farm buildings on this place. It 
is now a wreck. A mining patent covers it and 
drove out tbe farm-owner. I saw five of these 
abandoned and wrecked orchards and farms on 
my trip — places that seem to curse their present 
owners. Not one of these places I saw will 
ever be mined, but the mining law baa ruined 
them and left them monuments of either the 
law*s stupidity or somebody's rascality, blamed 
if I know which. It seems to me our lawn 
ought to permit the cultivation of ground until 
the owner of the mineral wants to take the 
mineral out. Again, does it not seem tough 
that mining ground can be held year after year 
in great tracts aud oot ba worked, when there 
are hundreds of men that would be glad to get 
it ? Between the valley farmers and the miniog 
patent owners, it looks as though the people ot 
the mountains would have to leave." 

*' Well," I asked, " what are you going to do 
about it ?" 

** I am going to stay here a little while longer 
and then git, and the Close Fist and its 
allies can take the county and put on all the 
Chinamen they want to. I am too old to enter 
a fight with millions of money, owned and 
manipulated without fear of God or men, so 
when we have skinned the last particle of dust 
out of this old claim we will dig our few hills 

of potatoes and take our line of march for — the 
Lord only knows where." 

The old man knocked tbe ashes oot of his 
pipe with a vioioaa whack on his thumb-nail, 
cast aside-long glance at an old rifle that hangs 
on the cabin wall and went oat. — Nevada 

Cost of MiniDg. 

Dr. George C. Munson of the Denver miot in 

his report of the production of the Colorado 
mines, gives the following as the output of some 
of the Clear Creek county mines: 

Coloniilo l'oite.I Sl»l.lll 04 

( olondo Cuntral . . 283 806 7» 

DUiiiuiid T\iori«l 141,084 82 

PreeUntI 105.8^6 9'J 

Io Ko>ooldj» 175 17G 40 

Albro. 60.301 10 

Little Matllu 52.342 41i 

PmtUH 11.1.4aa 75 

Seveii-Thfrtv 143,i:Jl 67 

Two Siatcra 03,600 04 

He gives the f^lLowiug aa the total products 
since 1850 of three ol the oldest mining coun- 

CI«r Clear $36,502,693 63 

e.Ujiln 47.463,818 76 

Sjummit 13,704,(31 03 

The estimated cost per ounce of mioing gold [ 
and silver iu the different counties is as follows: < 
Boulder, Sl-TO; Chaffee, .145; Clear Creek, .48; j 
Custer, A'Mi; E'lgle, .21; Gilpin, .54; Gunnison, 
48; Hinsdale, 64; Lake, . 1^516: La PlaU. $2 50; 
Ouray, .755;' Park, $1.29; Pitkin, .165. 8a- I 
Kuacbe, .4.'!: Sao Juan, .13; San Miguel, .SL.47; , 
Summit, .145 ! 

The estimated value of the bullion produced i 
in Cjlorado from the date of the first discoveries ■ 

The Prospeotor. 

The prospeotor is seldom a man of means, 
says the Nevada Co. Herald. Neither is he a 
scientific mineralogist. The man of means does 

there have been more and better developments 
made the post three years in quartz than dur- 
ing any similar period in the history of the 
county. Instead of two quartz-mining dis- 
tricts, which the county had five years ago, it 
now has five. Graes Valley is the oldest dis- 

not care to dig in the earth for gold-bearing trict, and it is better today than ever. Nevada 
ledges, and the mineralogist finds everything City district has had a " b»d eye " for a time, 
, u t. _*^ n>i. c<- ., ■ I but it is certainly shapine itself for a hie ehow- 

hut quartz. Ihe Simon-pure prospector ts a ' ■ ,. .., 1x^1.1 .. «■*, cuww 

^ f K t~ , ,og nfter a while. While extensive work has 

poor man, and he goes to prospeuting knowing been suspended in this district for awhile, de- 
that he may find something which will remove velopments of an important character have been 
poverty from him, and place him in a position ; going on in the interior which will prove our 
to enjoy the real pleasures of life. With this assertions. Washington, Eureka, and Colum- 
hope be goes into the hills and canyons, into bia Hill are safe fur a good showing for years 
tbe woods and thickets, and hunts for gold- ' to come. From private letters we are informed 
bearing ledges. It is not a pleasant task, j of very flattering prospects in two other coun- 
Diy after day he searches, and day after day { ties, and these strikes have been made by men 
he IS disappointed. But he does not give up, 1 who have been liberal in prospecting for years 
and at last he finds that for which he is hunt- 1 without favorable results until now. God bless 
ing. A ledge which ** looks good " is struck. | the liberal gold prospector ! They deserve suo- 
He fixes his ciimp there, and proceeds to sink a | cess and in the end they always get it. Mining 
shaft. He is alone and the work proceeds . is coming into great prominence again in Cali- 
slowly. He may be oaved on and killed, or ' fornia. E<^ery good strike kindles a desire for 
any one of a hundred accidents may befall him, ! investment of capital. Mining, when success- 

ful, ■afl'ords greater profits than any other field 
of work. It will attract its share of capital 
from this time on, and mining counties 
will jump into a new era of prosperity. — Neva- 
da Co. Herald. 

A Historic Calirornia Town. 

Generally by a historic town in California we 
mean a town which has lived through the Mex- 

. > ■■ ■■■■ >^ Vl '' '■■(iVv ■■'• 

'■■ '■ ■■ ■'';;i:\;; 

in 1859, to the close of the year 1887, ia as fol- 

Gold .?32,67.3,125 92 

bUver 176,145,640 8u 

Total §257,818,766 72 

The Copper Qukkn Kuau, — Active work 
has begun oo the new line of railroad to run 
from Fdirbank, on the New Mexico and Ari- 
zona RiiU'oad, a branch of the Sinta Fe, to 
Biibee, where the mines of the famous Copper 
Queen Mining Company are located. The dia 
cance will ba about forty miles. Tbe road will 
run through Tombstone mining district, but 
will not strike the town of Tombstone. It is 
said that the road will be built by the Copper 
Queen Mioing Company, through probably it 
will bB operated by the Sinta Fe Company. 
For the present the road ia intended to supply 
a local demand, but the probability is that it 
will eventually be extended to the rich mining 
country in Sonora, Mexico, immediately south 
of Bisbee. 

John Williams, a well-known mining man 
and an old resident of CUifornia, died at Placer- 
ville on Tuesday of hemorrhage of the lunca. 
John Williams has been io California since 1852, 
and has traveled through Brazil, Central Amer- 
ica, Africa and Australia in connection with 
mining matters. 

A Useful Device. — A rubber funnel which 
may be fitted over the head, big end up, so as 
to enclose all the hair while the barber sham- 
poos a customer. A tube hangs down behind, 
so as to carry away the ends, while a hose for 
flushing out the hair, funnel and tube is pro- 

and there is no one near to offer assistance 
Yet he does not fdlter, but digs steadily, only 
pausing long enough to go to town or to a 
country store and lay tn a fresh supply of pro- 
visions. Sometimes weeks, or even months, 
are spent npon the " prospect." At last he 
strikes a body of good ore. He feels sure that 
a fortune is near at hand. But he caunot de- 
velop it. He must enlist capital or sell hie 
proipeot. To this end he selects a quantity of 
specimens and goes to town. Then the hardest , 
part of all the work begins—that of getting ' 'ca° regime and continued throogh American 
somebody interested in the *' find." | occupation, but we refer now to a town which 

If the rock shows a large quantity of free l sprang up since the occupation and is one of 

the oldest towns 
with a purely 
American his- 
lory. It is the 
town of Benicia, 
which was found- 
ed by the early 
American settlers 
and was designed 
as the metropolis 
of California. 
The place was 
made the capital 
of the State, and 
it seemed that 
the substantial* 
ity of the city 
was assured. But 
by one of those 
vagaries for 
which trade is 
noted, the scene 
of busy commerce 
shifted, the capi- 
tal was moved, 
the interests 
which promised 
to contribute to 
a city's growth 
were diepereed, 
and the town of 
Benccia, with its 
wealth of natural 
advantages, i s 
yet one of the 
smaller munici- 
palities of the 
State, and awaits 
with never-dying 
hope tbe fruition 
of its early prom- 
ise. It baa a per- 
manent popula- 
tion of 3000 or 
more. It is about 
.30 miles from San 
Francisco, and 57 
from Sacramento. 


gold there will be no trouble in getting men 
who have money to go and examine the ledge. 
But in many cases the inspectors declare it is 
too small, or not as good as represented. They 
have a long consultation, have assays made of 
the rock, decide that it is not what they sup 
posed, and finally decline to put any money 
into it. Then the proapector begins again. Hs* 
goes from one capitalist to another. The months 
drag by, and at last he finds that he must 
either sell his find or leave it. Somebody has 
offered him a low figure for his claim, and he 
may or may not accept it. Nobody recognizee 
his ritjht to ask a fair price for it. They tell 
him it is only a prospect; it may pinCh out, or 
be only a pocket-ledge, or anything bat a good 
mine in embryo. At last he sells the property, 
and the new owners develop it. It becomes a 
good paying mine — a valuable property. The 
proapector, who has spent months upon it, has 
received a few hundred dollars, and the new 
owners reap a harvest of many thousands. It 
is this method of treatment on the part of capi- 
talists that puts a check on the prospector's 
work. The man who hunts for gold is not en- 
oooraged. His reward ia too email. He must 
do his prospecting at his own expense, and 
then, if he is aucceaaful, there is nobody willing 
to give him a fair compensation for his time and 
labor. On the contrary, every man would 
sooner take advantage of him. This checks 
prospecting, and when prospecting is checked in 
a mining region, the prosperity and development 
of the region itself ia checked. 

Mining Prospebity. — There ia no question 
about the splendid outlook for the mining in- 
dustry of California. In all our exchanges we 
seeaccounts of good striken, aud in this county 

The Central Pacific railroad runs through the 
town, crossing the Caiquinez straits upon the 
monster ferry Solano, which conveys cars and 
locomotives across the stream. At Port Costa, 
on the other side of the straits, connection is 
made with the Southern Pacific railway, which 
runs to Los Angeles. There is thus a conver- 
gence of railway lines at Benicia and Port Costa 
that makes this locality favorable for manufact- 
uring and shipping, and immense wharves and 
warehouses have sprung up, and there has been, 
established, in some measure, the results that 
the early settlers of Benicia foresaw. But the 
intereata are now Ecattered. Could they have 
been concentrated in Bmicia, the city would 
be one of the most flourishing in the State 
to-day. The favorable conditions, however, 
are being more and more appreciated, and 
Benicia undoubtedly has a proeperous era ahead. 

The site of the city cousists of hills (ind slop- 
ing or rolling land. The hights back from 
the water front offer elegant building spots, 
and already numerous showy and fpreten- 
tious dwellings are to be seen. The view 
from these elevated sites is fine indeed, looking 
out upon the turgid waters of the straits, and 
over to the highlands of Contra Costa county 
beyond. To the west, the waters of San Pablo 
bay spread out, offering a water stretch as far as 
the eye can reach. 

Our view of Benicia looking toward the 
southeast, shows a part of the town in the fore- 
ground. Beyond flows the magnificent Strait 
of Carquinez, a mile in width, connecting the 
upper bay of Suisun and the lower bay of San 
Pablo. Opposite lie the low rolling Contra Costa 
hills, while away to the southeast looms up the 
purple dome of Mount Diablo, as shown on the 
left of the distance in the picture. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 7, 1888 


The following la mostly condensed from journala publifihed 
in the interior, in proximity to the mines mentioned^ 



Sutter Ckeek.— Cor. hm?idoT Ledger, June 30; 
PrepaTations are being made for sinking at the 
Wildman mine, whicli will be commenced in a short 
time. In all probability they will sink loo ieirt, 
which will, we hope, develop an excellent mine. 
The mill in the meantime will be run if possible. 

Newton Copper Mine.— Some 10 or 12 men, 
all while, have been started to work at this mine, and 
are filing up preparatory to underground operations. 
Sieve Moyle of Sutler creek is foreman. A boaroing- 
house was started last Monday for the accomoda- 
tion of the hands. Altogtther everything wears a 
busy outlook around this property. 

Miscellaneous.— Martin Jones, president of the 
Amador gold mine, came up to Jackson from San 
Francisco last Saturday. 10 fix up matters connected 
with the mill-site purchased Irom the Amador Queen. 
A right-of-way has been secured over a small strip 
of the Doyle claim, but the mortgagees of the Ama- 
dor Queen have yet to sign the deed conveying the 

Live Oak.— Amador Dispatch, June 30: The 
roill at Live Oak mine was started up last Monday to 
crush the rock taken out of that mine a sample sack 
of which has been left at this office, and looks to be 
a very high grade. The shrlt is down about 180 
feet with a ledge 18 or 20 inches wide and grow- 
ing richer as they go down. 

Gold.— Angels Record. July 3 : We were shown 
a specimen that came from the Whittle mine, which 
looked first-class, ii being covered with gold. About 
100 tons of the ore is being hauled to Smith's mill 
to be crushed. 

VoGT Mine. — Calaveras Chrotikle, June 30: The 
Vogt gravel mine on the Mokelumne river, about 
three miles above the Big Bar bridge, upon which 
.Mr. H. Vogt has been prospecting for about a year 
past, has, we understand, shown evidence sufficient- 
ly satisfactory to justify the erection of machinery. 
in the way of hoisting gear and pump, to operate 
upon it. We are iniormed that the machinery is 
now at Valley Spring awaiting tiansportation to the 

\]-v\c\.—Mt. Echo, June 27: The boiler at the 
Utica mme was badly slra'ned last Monday morn- 
ing, necessitating the drawing of the fire from the 
furnace. Work was suspended in the mine for 
several hours, pending the repairing of the boiler. 
Everything is again running in full blast. Prepara- 
tions are making at the Utica mine for the erection 
of the new hoisting works. The frame work will be 
75 feet in hight when completed, and will be the 
largest ever built in the county; 40 stamps more will 
soon be added to the 20 now in operation. The en- 
gine and boiler for the Confidence mine arrived 
during the week, and will be put in position as soon 
as practicc'tble. The mill, we understand, will start 
up in a few weeks. Everything is progressing finely 
in the mine and a very good grade of ore is being ex- 
traded. Samuel Gillman will resume work on the 
Green Mountain mine, situated about three miles 
west of Angels. The ledge is now seven feet in 
Width and prospects well. It is worked by means of 
a tunnel. 

Coal Measures.— .£'.v^(3j/V(?r, June 28: C. D. 
Davis, from the Coast Range, reports that there is 
great excitement there in reference to coal. Prospect- 
ors are scouring the hills and valley in search of coal 
veins. They have discovered many indications, but 
as yet little has been done toward developing their 
finds. Coal and petroleum exists there, and indi- 
cations are found in many places, but it will take 
time and money to develop the finds sufficiently to 
judge of their extent. The great trouble with the 
coal veins is in the manner in which they lay. Hav- 
ing been thrown up by upheavals of nature the veins 
stand on an incline. 

Prospecting. — Inyo Independent, June 30: For 
some weeks past C. K. Fox his been prospecting in 
the foothills east from Independence station. Toward 
the end of last week he struck a ledge that is open- 
ing out big. The vein is now about four feet wide 
and gives every indication of being a large ore body. 
The ore is galena, carrying a high percentage of 
lead and a good deal of silver. Henry Galvin is in- 
terested with Fox. 

Lead. — During the pist ten days there has been 
considerable advance in the price of lead. Miners 
who had quit work are resuming operations again. 
Whittier, Fuller & Company of Melrose, Alameda 
county, have sent orders for shipments 10 operators; 
they offer $4.12 per hundred. The terms offered for 
silver are also a little better than for some months 
past. This is causing better feeling at the lower end 
of the county. The Haggin mine has been leased 
by Mr. Anthony. The mine is located 24 miles from 
the Riley mill and the ore will be hauled there to be 
worked. Several miners have been at work in the 
mine for some weeks past. Recently quite a body 
of ore was struck; assays give over 300 ounces of 
silver per ton. In the mine the ground is soft and 
will be expensive to work; timber must be hauled 50 
miles. Mr. Anthony will go to the mine at once and 
intends to push the work rapidly. The district is in 
a mountainous and desert country about 100 miles 
southeast from the railroad at Keeler, 


High-Grade Ore. — Transcnpf, June 28: There 
has just been crushed at J C. Locklin's custom-mill 
a 20-ton batch of ore that yielded $75 a ton. It was 
extracted above water level in a recently developed 
mine of this district, and there is plenty more equal- 
ly good yet to be taken out. A few days ago one 
ton taken from another mine in the same neighbor- 
hood yielded $90 worth of gold. 

Pkosi'ECTING. — Grass Valley Union, June 28 
The prospecting work that is being done in the 
Brunswick mine is quite encouraging. The work of 
sinking a shaft on the Ford & Reilly ground (now 
the Oro Hill mine} is going on regularly. There is 
a great deal of work being done in the Omaha mine 
now, men being at work on all the levels from No. 

5 to 10, either as tributers or on regular pay. One 
of the most encouraging features of the work has 
been the finding of good Day ore in the north drift 
of the No. 6 level, where the finding of good rock 
had not been anticipated. The general appearance 
of the mine is encouraging. The water has been 
pumped out of the Lone Jack shaft to the depth of 
403 feet, audit is being found a tedious and trouble- 
some job, as owing to the mine having been idle for 
over 20 years there is a great deal ol slum in the 
shaft, which is not nice material to handle. There 
is but little known in reference to the former working 
of the Lone Jack, and in pumping out the mine it is 
like exploring an unknown region. At the depth of 
400 feet it is found that two shafts are sunk below, 
one following the hanging and the other thefootwall 
of the ledge. It is not known how deep these shafts 
go, and relieving them of the accumulated debris is 
going to be slow work, but Supl. Mainhart will " get 
there all the same." The Lone Jack was once a 
good gold producer, and that the pay-shoot will be 
found again there is every reason to believe. 


Pluck Rewarded.— Plumas National, June 
30: F. B. Whiting has been the owner of the 
French Ravine quartz ledge for years and has 
always expressed his unlimited faith in its rich- 
ness. A short time ago he started a turnel 
in the ledge, and last Monday he was rewarded by 
striking a rich vein, finding one piece valued at 
$500, with indications of a permanent paying ledge. 

•iRAVEL.— Plumas National, June 30 : Johnson 
and Richwine, on Mill creek, near Rich Bir, are 
taking out good pay. Horace Reynolds will push 
his tunnel for pay on Mill cr^ek, He has just ar- 
rived from below with a large supply of provisions 
and mining supplies. Camille Girard, at Lower In- 
dian Bar, on the North Fork, is making good 
wages. Whiting's French Ravine ledge is panning 
out satisfactorily. The big China company on 
Fale's hill, has suspended work for the want of 
water. Bennett & Morton, at Five Points, 
are cleaning bed rock with good result-. 
Henry Orr and Hank Luman have struck 
a good streak of gravel at the Orr claims and 
are looking happy. Porter and Fogarty are driving 
their tunnel into Claremont, and expect to strike the 
•'Blue Lead'' in a short time. Dunk McDonald 
and ]no.Augu-t, on Mill creek, are regularly pan- 
ning out the dust in paying quantities. The quartz 
mill at the Orr, Bushman & Co. mine, is p-ogressing 
sat'sfactorily, and will be in running order some time 
next month, when we expect to hear of some good 
cleanups. Johnnie Higgins, at Michigan Hill, is 
prospering, and wears a smiling countenance, a 
sure indicition of good diggings. Duncan & Patten 
have a force of men at work on the Ohio Point quartz 
ledge, running a tunnel, with every indication of a 
good paying mine, J. E. Mills still has a force of 
men on the Halstead mine at Rich Gulch. The 
2000-foot tunnel of the Consignee Co., near Crom- 
berg, is being pushed steadily ahead. There are 
about 12 or 15 men at work on the Plumas Co.'s 
bedrock that are doing well. The Plumas liarcka 
is working about 250 men. and it reported as paying 
better than at any time for 20 years. The old mine 
is inexhaustible. Johnson & Goodwin have sus- 
pended operations on the Middle Fork for the sea- 
son, on account of the scarcity of water. Erichson 
and the Murdock brothers, on Waponsie, have good 
claims, and are in good paying gravel. 

prospect was better. About 600 tons of rock from 
the tunnel and shaft are on the dump. The Buffalo 
company has consolidated with Henry Carpenter, 
who owned the south side of the creek and worked 
on and exposed the ledge, while mining in his claim 
tor gravel, but did not know the fortune there was 
in sight, A lower tunnel, started near the creek, 
will tap their shalt and upper tunnel, securing good 
air and deeper backing. The ledge was reached 
with the lower tunnel the other day, and the rock 
prospects well. It is intended shortly to put up a 
2o-stamp mill. 

The Buffalo Mine.— 7Vii^«»c, June 29: Active 
work is going on at the Buffalo mine. Six men are 
employed there and they are pushing ahead the work 
with vigor. The upper tunnel has been run 350 feet 
and therein is opened up a splendid body ol ore. 
No. 2 adit last Sunday was in 50 feet. It will take 
but a short time to run this tunnel a long distance 
into thehiU, when it is safe to wager the owners will 
have somt thing that will open the eyes of fjeople. 
The prospects to be obtained throughout that mine 
are something immense. The writ:;r can vouch for 
this as he was there last Sunday. The compary is 
well satisfied with the condition of their propei ty, 
and they propose as soon as possible to arrange tor 
the building of a milt. 

San Benito. 

Quicksilver.— San Benito Advance, June 30: 
Six hundred pounds of quicksilver were shipped 
from the Gypsy mine last week. The miners are 
now working in ore that contains 75 per cent of 

San Dieso. 

Sale. — Julian Sentinel, June 29: Wm. Miher 
has disposed of a one-third undivided interest in the 
Fraction mine at B inner, to David Edwards, for 
$500; same toThoraas Rowlan, same consideration. 

STRUCK It Rich.— On Tuesday afternoon last, 
Messrs. D. Ferguson, Ed. Armstrong and S. Fergu- 
son marched into the office and commenced piling 
specimens of ore upon our desk. Upon examination 
we found the rock to contain considerable free gold, 
but when we asked where it came from the boys 
were suddenly taken with a severe attack of dumb- 
ness. Thpy claim to have struck a good ledge, but 
refuse to give its location, saying "it's only a litfe 
way from here." The boys are highly elated over 
their discovery, 


Prospecting.— Redding Free Press, June 30: 
Andy Woodward has returned to his home at Stella 
and resumed prospect ng on Mad Ox Gulch. I-.0U 
Gross started up the country the other day to view 
.<;ome extensive deposits of fire clay that has been 
opened up near Siale creek; he found it in abundance, 
and of superior quality. This will be a great advant- 
age to our growing city. Ed. Reid has resumed 
operat'ons on the Samson mine, wiih a view to pro- 
viding for campaign expenses. Messrs. Van Burgen, 
Thorne & C0..0I San Francisco, have bonded the 
Kit Carson Mine on the Igo road for $3,000. As 
they informed our reporter, they will go down one 
thousand feet if necessary to test the capacity of the 
ground, and they have the capitdl to do it. 


A Rich Quartz Ledge.— Cor. Mt. Messenger, 
June 30: The Huifilo mine, ha.lf a mile below the 
Primrose, in Hog canyon, I recently had the pleas- 
ure of visiting and was shown around by one of the 
partners, Mr. Lee. The public may be prepared to 
hear in a short time of it turning out to be one of the 
richest quartz ledges in the mountains. It is a most 
singular formation but prospects extraordinarly well 
from wall to wall, and is in width from 8 to 20 feet. 
The ledge is mostly a decomposed mass except 
where the white quartz stirts like an immense honey- 
comb, and from the decomposed matter has been 
panned as high as $12 to the pan in free gold, and 
in many pans from %i. and upward, and in one I ob- 
tained 50 cents. The white honey-comb quartz that 
seems to keep the ledge in position is often spangled 
richly with gold, besides some galena and sulphurets. 
The dark, soft matter is full of small quart?, crystals, 
and, in places, it might be shoveled out into sluices; 
and what would be taken in other ledges for scat- 
tered masses of porphyry here is the color of that 
with the consistency of clay, and might be dug out 
with a spade. The company have in a tunnel north 
on the ledge, 350 feet that prospects as favorably. A 
shaft was put djwn 50 feet, and on the bottom the 


Quartz and Hydraulic— Yrekayt??^/-/?^/, July 
4: The San Francisco Co., operating the quarii 
mine at Gold Hill, Scott river» with Mr. Sbt-pard 
as superintendent, have struck an extraordinary rich 
lead or seam, about two or three inches wide in the 
center of their ledge, which is over half free gold. 
Their mill of ten stamps, run by water-power is kept 
in operation all the time, crushing quartz from the 
main shaft to see what the average qaariz pays, leav- 
ing the richest portion to be cruihed separate, alter 
taking out what can be secured by hand. It is re*- 
ported the company intend adding more stamps to 
the mill in a short time. The Warlren quartz mill, 
removed from Greenhorn and set up on Yreka F^ts, 
Just west of town, is now in running order, and a 
portable steam engine used lor threshing, was 
hauled to the mill last Thursday, so that it will be 
in readiness for crushing just alter the 4th. It will 
be operated by H. B. Green, giving all the quartz 
miners of Yreka and vicinity, who have good ledges 
in the Humbug mountains west of here, a good op- 
portunity to thoroughly test thetr claims, Hon. R. 
H. Campbell is now windihg up the Working of his 
hydraulic claim in Quartz valley as water is getting 
short, and will make a final cleanup in about two 
weeks. He has had an exceUent run this season, wiih 
good returns, and the prospects look more promising 
for future seasons, with the additional faciht es for 
working on a more extensive scale than heri. tofore. 
The old Steamboat mine on McAdams creek, now 
owned by a San Frahcisco company, is being 
worked on a large scale, employing many miners in 
drifting and other work. A new shaft has been sunk 
and the water kept pumped out by means of the reg- 
ular 25-horse power engine assisted by a donkey en- 
gine. A new boiler is also on the way tj replace 
the old one, not able to stand as mut:h steam as the 
engine can carry. Some fine prospects have lately 
been taken out of the Sorrenson quartz mine on 
Indian creek, now owned by John Stewart, which 
averages generally about $38 a ton. Geo. Baker of 
Indian creek is in the town and showed us some eX' 
ceedingly rich specimens from his cliim. He has 
found an old channel of the creek, 70 feet wide, 
filled with cement, gravel, ground up bowlders and 
quartz, which requires crushing in a quartz milK 
For some months past he his been digging a cut 10 
drain the water by connecting with an old tunnel 
built in early t mes, and is now able to work the 
claim with the greatest success. He had eight tons 
of this conglomerate crushed last week and realized 
$13.06 per ton, but some of the specimens found are 
near.y half gold, plainly visible to the naked eye. 
The indications are favorable for finding very rich 
pockets all through the channel. Messrs. Martin 
Squiers and Chas. Taylor have also lound very rich 
prospects in their quartz ledge on Indian creek and 
will soon take out a big stake, which their Industri- 
ous perseverance eminently merits. Weldman & 
Co. of Greenhorn own a very rich quartz ledge from 
which they have 100 tons or more on the dump. 
They piy all their expenses by simply pounding out 
quartz occasionally in a hand mortar. A few weeks 
ago they sold a fine specimen (or $125 to a San 
Francisco man stopping at the Franco, and refuse to 
sell out for less than $60,000, offers having been 
made to bond the mine for $20,000. This claim is 
almost within sight of Yreka, and the hills surround- 
ing us on the north and west are full of rich quart* 
ledges if the proper effort is made to develop them. 
Fine Ore, — Union-Democrat, June 30: It is re- 
ported that the Piatt and Gilson mine is sending 
forth some very fine ore. Soulsbyville is surrounded 
with eood and profitible mines. Messrs. Cullers 
and Evart are re-opening an old quaitz mine on the 
Mono road near the Excelsior hotel. We are told 
that present appearances indicate a good property. 
McTarnahan and staff went up last week to survey 
the North Fork mine, and also ditch to convey water 
to the grounds. Operations will very likely be com- 
menced on the mine soon after the Fourth. From 
Mr. Scott who was in town Thursd-iy, we learn that 
the hoisting works will be done in about three weeks. 
Then the work of sinking the main shaft will be 
prosecuted at once. The permanent character of the 
Black Oak mine is now well established, and pre.-ent 
returns from the mill are of a most gratifying nature. 
Hyde. — From Louis Blanding who returned from 
the Hyde mine Thursday, we learn that the outlook 
is very bright. The main shaft on the large lode is 
down to a depth of 350 feet. At that depth a cross- 
cut has been run toward the west, showing the lead 
to be fully 26 feet in width and of very good grade. 
The parallel ledge is also looking well— it is from 3 
to s feet in width and a tunnel taps it 100 feet from 
the surface. This lead is distint laterally from the 
main one about 150 feet. The ore of this lode is of 
high grade. About 200 feel south of the main shall 
on the large lead, another shaft is beiny sunk for 
development purposes. The work of exploration 
done on this mine in the last three months has 
proved it to be a splendid property. The m'll which 
is of the improved Huntington pattern is furnished 
with the blanding rock breaker, wbfdiby reason ofi 
it crushing the rock very fine,, enables the mill 10 
have a capacity of 25 tons per 2-4 hours. There are 
two separate engines ia tlie plant, one of which runs 

the hoisting works, and the other operates the mill. 
A feature worthy of notice in the machinery depart- 
ment is the boiler. This is a novel combination of 
the locomotive and tubular boiler, and gives great 


Bristol District. 
Copper Bullion. — Pioche Record, June 30: The 
small copper furnace at Bristol, erected recently by 
C. L. Rje. and of which mention was made some 
time sincp, was fired up a week ago yesterday, and 
a three days' run made, the result of which was 
seven tons of bullion, containing 95 per cent cop- 
per, produced from 14 tons of ore. The bullion car- 
ries but $2 per ton in «ilver. This eJcperimental run 
resulting successtully, the furnace will be fired up 
again as soon as it is relined, whxh, however, may 
be some weeks, as it may be necessary to procure 
fire-brick from Salt Lake City. In the mean time 
ore will be hauled to the furnace from the mine. 
About 200 tons of ore are mined and are now on the 

Cherry Oreeli District. 
Waiting for a Railroad.— Salt Lake Tribune. 
June 28: Forty-five miles south of Spruce mountiin 
is the well'known camp of Cherty creek, on the line 
of the old Overland Stage Co. This cimp has 
shipped $3,000,000 worth of ore. The ores are 
principally milling ores. The bulk of the mineral is 
silver, but there is a sprinkling of gold. Below wa- 
ter level the character of the ore changes to base 
ores, yet running very high in silver and lead, 
streaked heavily in chlorides. There are thousands 
and thousands of tons of ore in this camp on the 
dumps waiting the advent of a railroad to ship them 
to market. 

Garfield DlstMtit. 
THE Argo.— Esmeralda News, June 30: Z. 
Lyford has been doing the assessment work on the 
Argo mine, and while so engaged extracted 28 sacks 
of ore, carrying both gold and silver. Six sacks of 
the ore are con>idered very valuable and will be 
shipped to Selby's for reduction. The other 22 sacks 
of ore will be worked at the Mt. Diablo mill, Soda- 

Hawthotne District. 
Rich Ore.— Esmtralda Neu^s^ Juhe 30: Thfe 
figures $16,780, show the result of the working of 
the 15 tons of Pamlico ore crushed at the Kinkeid 
mill last week. In the last issue of the Nettys it was 
assei t d that the result of the working of this batbh of 
ore would " surprise the natives,'' and if it has not 
sut-prlsed them it certainly ought to. Just think of 
it, over $1113 per ton, and the beauty of it is, 
there is a quant ty of the same class of ore in sight in 
the mine, only awaiting the action of the pick, 
shovel and stamps. As has been stated all along, 
the Pamlico is the biggest little mine in the Unittd 
States, and it is only a matter of timb before other 
mines equally as valuable will be in operation in 
Hawthorne district. If many of our prospectors had 
the capital with which to open up their mines, such 
a stream of gold would be flowing out of Hawthorne 
district that would soon fill the coffers of many a 
poor man. As it is, the mines in the district are 
producing admirably well. One prospector, who 
has been at work on his claim but a short time, was 
made an offer of $7000 for his interest, but he 
qu'Ckly refused the offer^ saying that there was that 
amount of money itt s'ght in the mine. 

Tuscarora District. 

Improvements. — Tuscarora Times Kevieio, June 
30: Tuscarora is now on the high road to prosperity 
and is bound to become one of the most pemanent 
mining cimps in the Stale of Nevada. The devel- 
opments during the past year in the 400-foot level of 
the North Belle Isle> as well as those in the lowest 
levels of contiguous mines, from the deepest point 
yet reached and extending upward to the sUl'fd.cie, 
have attracted the attentioh of capit ilisls from abroad 
who have Invebl-d larg-ly in shares in the leading 
mines. Having upon several occasions visited Tus- 
carora in the interest of their investments and to 
note the developments beloW ground, they have be- 
come fully convinced as to the extent and richness 
of the ore bodies as well as their permanence. Be- 
ing farseeing, practical and competent business 
men, they foresee that the population ol this place 
will be greatly augmented and as a consequence its 
needs increased in a corresponding ratio. To fethedV 
the lack of facilities for reducing the large bodies of 
ore in their mines, the Commonwealth and Queen 
conipanies are about to erect a 20-slamp mill in the 
vicinity of their mines, which will be equipped with 
the largest and latest improvements in the way of 
roasting appliances for desulphurizing their ores and 
reducing the cost of reduction to the minimutn. 
When completed it is thought the mill will reduce 
the ores at a coit not exceeding $12 per ton. The 
site selected for the mill is upon the ea-tern slope of 
the Commonwealth property above the Diana hoist- 
ing works in Independence gulch, and ground will 
be broken for the buildings in a few days. The 
concentrating works of the North B-lle Isle and 
Queen, now in course of construction, will materially 
add to the wealth and prosperity of the mines and 
the camp by rendering available the immense num- 
ber of tons of low grade ore now lying useless on the 
dumps and in the slopes of all the mines which have 
been worked for any length of time, and which un- 
der the ordinary process would not pay for extract- 
ing and working. 

Washoe District. 

Alpha,— Virginia Enterprise, June 30: The 
work of sinking the shalt to the 500 level is making 
good progress. 

Overman.— Are extracting and shipping to the 
mills 300 ions a week. 

Bullion.— The south drift from the 600 station is 
making good headway. 

Con. Imperial. — Are making good progress in 
the work of retimbering the north Irit^ral diilt. 

Andes.— Oil the 240 level are sinking a winze be* 
low ,ihe north drift and are drifting south on the 
350 lt;vel. 

Eenton.— Considerable prospecting work is be- 
ing done on the 725 level. File mine is being 
worked through the Alia shaft. 

Savage.— On the 450 level are sloping ore from 
the north and south drifts, also from the south drift 
on the 500 level. They are extracting about 80 
tons of ore per day from between the 400 and 900 

Jolt 7, 1888. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

levels. 'I h« average twiiery assays $20 per ton. ores their Ubors will meet with a reward (ar bfvond 
Thfry have bullion on hand and previously shipped iheir expectations. They are now working seven 

lor thi^ niooth amounting to $20,350. 

CHAi.LENfiii.— The joint Confidence raise is pro- 
gressing (avor-ibly and good headway is making in 
the ootth drill on the 100 level 

S<:oKi'iuN.— The south drift on the 300 level is 
out a di^t mce of 353 )<^t< The luateiiAl is about 
the same as hereiolurc reported. ! 

Alta.— Arc extracting ore from the usual po'ntf. 
The mill and concentrators are krpt sleadify ruuning. 
The concenlraiors are doing good work. 

Utah.— 37a level: Opposite the south drill the 
north drill haa been extended 38 (ret; loial length, 
116 feet. The formation is vein porphyry. 

Best am> Bki.ciikk. — El Uorado level — 1 he 
nortiwesi drift Irom the mam west dii t has been 
extended 46 fert; total, 336 feet, the forcnaiion bemg 

BALriMoKic. — The work of clearing out the west 
drifts on the 3C0 level is about completed. 1 he 
pomt where ore was lound some months ago will 
shortly be reached. 

W&ST Yeli-ow Jackkt, — The northwest drift is 
ID 80 feet. At the bolloni of the drift a stratum of 
blue clay is coming in. In this clay arc some rich 
steaks of chloride ore. 

Iowa.— During the past week the south drift from 
the east drill has tieen extended 25 feet, giving it a 
total length of 100 feet. Ihe face is in promising 
vein material in which quartz predoininntes. 

Lauy Wasiiingio.n, — The crosscuts at points 
no and 210 feet above the 735 level are still in a 
mixture of quarlxand porpbyry. A hoisting engine 
is being set up at the Keystone shaft, which is now 
down 186 feel. 

Sec. Belcher.— The joint 1300 east drift has been 
stopped since last report, and a raise started in the 
south lateral drift Irom the first raise ata point about 
100 feet south ot the north line. It is now up nine 
feet above the top of the drift in fair grade ore. 

Belchkr. — The west crosscut on the 500 level is 
in 35 leel. The face is in clay itnd poryhyry. On 
the 1300 level the cabt drift has been stopped. The 
, Dew hoiatmg works at the old shaft are nearly com- They expect to commence work in the shall 
about July ist. 

Goui.u & Ci;rry.— Eldorado level — The southeast 
dr. ft from the top of the upraise Irom the drain tun- 
nel has been cviended 37 feet; total length, 154 
feet. This drift is in fair grade milling ore. During 
the week there has been extracted from the 250 and 
300 levels and shipped to the Douglass mill 216 tons 
ot ore; average baitery assays, $23.40, 

Crown Point.— On the 600 level the raise has 
been advanced 22 feet. The ground is of about the 
sjme characiT as at date of last report. On the 700 
level the southeast drift has heen advanced 44 feet 
totil length, 132 feet. The lace is in quailz giving 
tow assiys. The quartz is a good deal mixed with 
porphyry. The drill Irom the Sutro tunnel side is 
out 300 feet 

Hale & Nokcross. — During the week they have 
hoisted 1647 tons of ore Irom the 600 and 700 levels, 
and have shipped to the Mexican mill 951 tons 
average battery assays, $32 65. All the slopes 
throughout the mine are looking very well. No. 
east crosscut from the 400 level north drill has been 
advanced 45 leet. They have bullion on hand and 
previously shippedthis month amounting to $135,200, 
Occidental. — Upper tunnel: At 150 feet below 
the upper tunnel in ihe boiler winze the north drift 
has been extended 10 feet; total, i8 feet. Lower 
tunnel: 75 feet south of the norti incline winze the 
incline upraise has been carried up 20 feet; total, 120 
feet. At 150 south of the same winze the south drift 
has been extended five feet; total, 114 feet. In the 
winze leading lo the lower levels, 50 feet below the 
tunnel, the north drift has been advanced io feet and 
the south drift six feet. Extracted 134 tons of ore. 
Shipped to Ihe Excelsior mill 157 ions and to the 
Atlanta milt 139 tons. Average assay of wagon sam- 
ples, $22.25. 

Palmetto District. 
Leaching Plant.— Inyo Indepatdent, June 30: 
At Palmetto, over in Esmeralda county, Nevada, a 
new leaching, plant is being put up. Cornish roils 
will be used in connection with pans and settlers. It 
is calculated to work about 15 tons of ore per diy. 
The property is owned by the Catherwood Bros., 
bankers, of New York. Some very rich gold ore has 
been taken out. From a claim called the President, 
Mr. Catherwood, one of the proprietors, recently 
took a sample of the ore to San Francisco. I'ne 
sample weighed 93 pounds and yielded $407 in gold 
and J15 in silver, or $9 73 per ton. At tne mill and 
mine 30 men are now employed. The boilers and 
engine are in place and it is expected work will be- 
gin crushing ore about three weeks hence. Palmetto 
IS about 47 miles distint from Alvordon the C. & C. 
railroad, and 16 miles southeast from Piper's ranch. 


Eureka District.— Cor. Arizona /o«r«a/-VI//«^r, 
June 30: This district is situated about 65 miles 
west from Piescott, and near the divide b t*een 
Santa Maria river and Burns' creek. The mines ot 
this company, Walters, Smit^, Rybonand Wilson, 
are 12 in uumber, and situated on the top of the 
mountain near old Gray Back. The mines of this 
company are all grouped together in the fool-hills 
among the cedars, close to a never-failing spring ol 
water, good grass, and eisy of access by wagon roid, 
close to the big copper property of Lawler & Co., 
on Copper creek, and on the same mineral belt of 
the celebrated Hillside mine of Riggs & Liwler, the 
belt being encased between two large dykes of cop- 
per, the one on the west b;ing a good sirpng vein 
of copper, carrying from 20 to 30 ounces of silver, 
owned by John Long and called the Copper Queen; 
the one on the east being a big ledge of copper and 
silver, owned by W. N. Kelly, Fred Gaines, and 
Morrow & Caldwell, and is a fine prospect, carrying 
copper, silver and lead. The mines of Waters, 
Smith, Rybon and Wilson hart been partially devel- 
oped by Mr. Waters, the locbtir, before the Colonel 
look hold of them, and who induced Mr. Rybon 
and Wilson, of your city, to take hold with him and 
bring them to the front by further development, and 
testing the ores by shipping and reducing them, 
thereby proving to their own satisfaction the exact 
value of the mineral therein contained, and from the 
present outlook of the quantity and quality of the 

men, sinking and taking out ore and senuing it to 
the Piescott sampler. 'I'en thousand pounds will 
accompany this Icitcr. There are three of the mines 
that are being worked at present — Silver tjueen, 
Wilson and Maiiier. The Silver Ouecn his a shaft 
down 80 feet on a strong contact vein, the cont<ct 
being porphyry and diosite. It is a sulpho-carbon- 
ate of lead, carrying from 50 lo 100 ounces ol silver, 
and Irom 30 lo 40 per cm of lead. The pay streak 
is from 18 inches 10 3J4 'ceL The Wilson is a coo- 
tinualion of the same, adjoining the Queen on the 
south, with a 60-fooi shaft of the same ore. The 
Hamer and Gad has a 30 foot shaft of a higher grade 
of lead, though not as yei so much in silver, it going 
about 4 ounces of silver and 60 per cent lead, with 
a good, strong vein. The ore dump is a beauty to 
look at. and is increasing very fast as they sink, 
'lliis bell will be the coming camp of the northern 
pari of the Territory soon. Fred Maronev is work- 
ing on the Red Cloud, with a good showing of ga- 
lena ore. [Several prospectors are here, and you need 
not be surprised to hear of some new strikes soon. 

Bullion.— Arizona l-.nUrprise. June 30: On the 
26th, the Vekol shipped three bars of bullion, aver- 
aging 444 pounds, valued at about $4700. 

Casa Grande.— Another mine in the Casa 
Grande mining district has been sold to Easlcrn 
parlies, and Chris. Johnson is the lucky man this 
time. Chris, has worked long and faithfully to 
bring the Golden We^t mine out lo the front, and 
his late strike of a fine body of chloride ore in the 
crosscut is another chincher thai the mines in that 
district go down. Mr. Charles Eistman is in Casa 
Grande from his Mountain Cjueen mine near the 
Vekol, and reports the tunnel in 265 feet, with 
abundance of ore. Eastman and his partners will 
soon commence shipping ore to El Paso. Mr. J. A. 
Conlee, superintendent of the Monarch mining com- 
pany, came up from Casa Grande and went to 
Riverside Wednesday. A rich strike is report?d in 
the face of the 220 foot tunnel on the Silver Monarch 
mine. This mine is the coming bonanza of Pmal 


Lake City VixHts.— Sentinel, June 28: The 
Oneida Chief, owned by Reynolds Bros, was started 
up June ibt. The assays taken are said to average 
about 1000 oz. Considerable work will be done on 
the property the coming season. A large force will 
soon be put to work on the Montecello, owned by 
Reynolds Bros. Utica, N. Y., and managed by H. 
E. Wright, A crosscut of 150 feet will be run, which 
will give employment to a large force. The Park 
View people have stopped sinking and begun a 
crosscut tunnel at a depth of 50 feeL This is a very 
valuable property, and a large force of men will be 
put on at once. The "Seward County" mine, 
owned by T. E. Clauson, is expected to resume op- 
erations soon, as Mr. C. has determined — now that 
the D. & R. G. R'y has begun to build— to put a 
large force at work and develop this unusually valu- 
able property. E. B. Coleman is one of the owners 
of the Hamilton mine in Carson camp and is here to 
make some examinations, with a view to putting on 
a large force at once. This property is one of the 
richest in that locality. Over 15,000 tons of ore was 
tiken out last season which averaged over 1000 ozs. 
The ore output of Lake City, beginning with the 
completion of the D. &: R. G. R'y, say Oct. 15 to the 
end of the year, is estimated at fully 30,000 tons, 
possibly more. It is astonishing to notice the 
amount of ore taken out and awaiting shipment. 
Lake City certainly has the largest and richest mining 
territory tributary to her of any camp in the San 
Juan. The developments this season will be ex- 
tensive and add greatly to the output of the camp. 
Good buildings have been erected at the mine, in- 
cluding a spacious engine house. They have a 15 
horse-power boiler, pump, bolster, and other ma- 
chinery. Much more is to be added and it would 
not surprise us to see the Hamilton become one of 
the heaviest producers of high-grade ore in the State. 


Gravel —P/Yi?/, June 28: M. R. Phillippi and 
Lou Wintenburg came down from where the Her- 
mosa Hydraulic Co. is working on Monday, and re- 
port that the two weeks' cleanup, which occurred 
Sunday, amounted to $1400. But few realize that 
so much money is being taken out of the ground 
within a few miles of Hermosa. 

Placers. — Deadwood Pioneer, June 28; Placer 
miners have had no reason to complain of an insul- 
ficient supply of water this season. All stream? have 
run bank full for the last three or four weeks, 
and the supply of water has been all that the most 
exacting gum-boot miner could desire. 


the Wide West property, dcstimd to bean important 
factor in determining the pro:>pcriiy of this camp. 
The Idaho lode is one of the oldest in this camp and 
runs iJinillel with the Vishnu, li has not been 
worked until recently for many years, Mr. Fitz- 
gerald, one of the prop'ieiors, struck a fine body of 
ore there on Mond.iy of last week. The Ophir mine 
is gelling out seven or eight tons of very promising 
ore each day. The superintendent, Mr. Foljambt-, 
will have a mill* t^st ol from 60 to 75 tons made 
within the next fortnight at Jake Reeser's mill. If 
this should hn a success, the New York company 
will at once proceed lo put up a mill. The force of 
men al work upon this lode has been small thus far, 
Oko Fino. — Idaho Avalanche, June 30: The pur- 
chasers ol the Oro Fino group of mines hive regis- 
tered in London under Ine name of the Oro Fino 
Limited Co., by which name this famous group ot 
producers will hereafter be known. Judging from 
the way the owners are pushing matt-irs Silver City 
will soon l)e a lively camp. The superintendent here 
is quite reticent about what the company proposes 
to do; but the fact thai a new millsiie has bt-'cn lo- 
cated in town and the work of preparing the samefor 
a mill been begun. 1500 cords of wood advertised 
for, and bids for hauling 150,000 pounds of mill ma- 
chinery asked for, tells more than ta'k. We learn 
that he is also making arrangements lo put up a 
bucket tram to transport ore to the mill Irom the 
mine, iK miles distant. 

Sale. — It is loo early yet to learn the particulars, 
but we take pleasure in announcing that a sate has 
been about consummated here almost equalling the 
Oro Fino transaction made a few months since. The 
famous Poorman group of mines, some 12 in num- 
ber, among which are included the Belle Peck, Belle 
Peck Tunnel, Poorman, Silver Cork, North Empire, 
Oso and others, by this sale will pass into the hands 
of a syndicate of English capitilisis, who will at once 
bfgin to work them for all they are worth. This 
great combination of mines, placed under one man- 
agement, with abundance of capital, will be likely to 
I make things very lively on old War Eagle mountain. 
I Seai'OAM. — Cor. Idaho Messenger^ June 30: 
Many of our own people, as well as many of the 
strangers, have gone into the Seafoam country. 
That seems to be the objective point this season. 
The reports from there are very favorable as to the 
mining outlook. A large proportion of the old dis. 
covered quartz veins there are owned by men in this 
vicinity, either by purchase or discovery, and we are 
all more or less interested in the success of Ihat end 
of Custer county. Its distance is only 30 to 40 miles 
from Bjnanza, over a fair mountain trail. A large 
number of prospecting parlies have purchased sup- 
plies at Bonanza and Custer for the new El Dorado. 
It is understood that arrangements have been made 
with the Dickens-Custer Co. to work the milling ores 
that may be brought in during the summer from the 
Seaform and neighboring districts. All who return 
from Iht re speak in glowing leims of the prospects 
of the new camp. Recent explorations on a number 
of the cUims, prove that the ore veins are not con- 
fined to meresurfacecroppings, but that they go down 
in regular veins of rich ore, and can be traced over 
the hills from one location to another. 


Return of Gold Hunters.— ////"tfrMj^/w/a/w, 
June 25: "Punk" B^rtlett and Lyndon got back 
from the north last night, and Doc Gleason will be 
in with the team some time to-day. Boyles, who 
led the expedition, returned with him. Bartlettsays 
they did not succeed in getting to the rich diggings 
which Boyles told them of, where they had expected 
to find placer mines which would enrich them in a 
few weeks. They got away up into the northermost 
part of the territory and may have been across the 
line into the Briiish possessions. At any rate they 
got where the Indians were altogether too numerous 
for their peace ot mind. They were placed under 
surveillance by the Piegans and required to report 
twice per day. They were practically under arrest and 
were not permitted to proceed on their way. There 
was no use staying where they were, as they could 
do nothing there and were in danger of losing their 
stock, so they turned back. They are still firm in 
the faith that a golden land lay just beyond, and 
may perhaps make another attempt at some future 

Castle District. — Butte Inter-Mountain, June 
30: The Castle mountains lie south of White Sul- 
phur Springs, between the heads of Smith river and 
the Musselshell. The mines are located on the 
Musselshell side of the group and extend over a dis- 
tance of seven miles. 
•The Town of Castle contains about 100 resi- 
dences and business houses and is about two miles 
below the Cumberland mine, the original discovery of 
the camp, which was taken up by the Hensley |Bros. 
in 1886. Very little was known of the camp until 
August of last year. Since that time over 400 loca- 
tions have been recorded and a large amount of de- 
velopment work done. The Cumberland Mining 
and Smelting Co. developments are two shafts — one 
125 feet deep and one 150 feet deep, with levels run 
for a short distance andshowafine body of carbonate 
ore. Returns from a shipment made to the Aurora 
smelter netted them $30 per ton. The general run 
of their assays vary from 25 to 35 ounces silver and 
from 40 to 65 per cent lead. They are now at work 
grading for Iheir smelter, the machinery for which 
was shipped by Frazer & Chalmers of Chic.igo, on 
the 19th of this month, and if they get clear weather 
enough will soon have a 40-ton stack running at 
home. The American, owned by Hensley Bros, and 
J. D. Rhoades, is really the only dry ore yet struck 
in the district. Developed by a tunnel 150 feet on 
the lead and a shaft down 40 feet they have a three- 
foot contact vein between slate and granite, and 
have had no assay of less than 150 ounces. Several 
extensions of the American have been located, but 
no development work has yet been done. The Yel- 
lowstone, owned by Hensley Bros., located about 
one mile from the new town of Robinson and three 
miles from Castle, is a contact vein between lime 
porphyry, and development shows a very large body 
of about the same grade and character of ore as the 
Cumberland. This mine is under a bond to Helena 
parties for $50,000. 

The Hidden Treasure, a quarter of a mile 
from Robinson, owned by Dunn & Donovan, have a 
shaft down 100 feet and have some very fine ore. 

The Great Eastern, owned by Chapin & 

Pine Grove..— Inter-Idaho, June 28: We obtain 
from Mr. John M. Banfield some figures relative to 
the present prospects of Pine Grove, and what it 
really is now, that represent the present actual con- 
dition of affairs there, from which every one can de- 
duce their own ideas of its future. Pine Grove is 
one ot the mining camps which are not "coming," 
but has already come. The population numbers 
about 200, and there is one 20-stamp mill. The 
company employs about 70 men, and need more 
machinists and carpenters. The Gold Hill M. & M. 
Co. is composed of St. Louis men. They expect to 
start the mill in three or four weeks. Frank Andrews 
is running the Franklin mine and shipping ore to 
Rocky Bar. The ore goes from $40 to $90 gold. 
Sloan has leased the Valley Buck, and is taking out 
high-grade ore. The mines generally are all looking 
well and several are shipping ore. 
' The Venus Mine.— Wood River Times, June 
27: Vladislay Domski, from the East Fork of Wood 
River, says he has been doing deadwork since last 
fall, but that he is now in where he can soon begin 
extracting ore. After running the tunnel 190 feet 
he cut the vein and found it quite hard, but show- 
ing a streak of copper i\i inches wide. By drifting 
about 50 feet from this point, he expects to cut the 
continuation of the ori; chimney struck above, and 
which yielded high-grade ore. He will then begin 
sloping as soon as the vein is drained. 

Rocky Bar.— Cor, Idaho Statesman, July i: 
The mill and other buildings on Red Warrior gulch 
are going up speedily and they look well. This is Lewis, have a shaft down 200 feet. At many points 

of the shaft short lev<-ls have been run anri all show 
a fine body ol ore, the same character as that in the 
Yellowstone and Corliss. 

Thk T. V. PowDEKi.Y, owned by Hensley Bros., 
Higginsft; Chaffee, is developed by a tunnel 120 feet 
lo the lop of the lead at a depth 80 feet. It shows a 
carbooaie ore which carries from 25 to 100 ounces 
of silver and 30 lo 40 per cent of lead. 

The Shamrock, owned by Graham & Currie, 
one mile from Robin<;on, is developed by a shaft 50 
feel deep; have a three-fooi ore body carrying galena 
and silver from 30 I050 ounces. 

The Mother Lode, owned by Martin & Or- 
schall, has a shaft down 50 feet and quiic a large 
ore body, which assays from 50 lo 70 ounces of sil- 
ver. 50 to 60 per cent of lead and one-hali ounce of 
gold. Very few of the prospects here show any 
gold. The Belle of the Castles and the Blue Belle, 
Black Hawk, with a number of others, have a fair 
showing for the amount of development work done. 

The Alice, located 12 miles from Robinson 
toward the springs, is cerHinly one of the best 
properties in the dislricL It is now being operated 
by the Barker ik Davis, under a lease and bond for 


Banner.— Silver City Enterprise, June 29: The 
Banner mine gives promise of making one of the big 
mines of this stction. The ore has been continuous 
and occurs in large bodies. The development is 
progressing steadily. Malcomb McGregor brought 
over 60 tons of third-class ore from the Boss mine 
this week, which was worked at the Bremen mill with 
satisfactory results. J. B. Malonewasin irom Pinos 
Altos this week making arrangements to go down 
35 feet further on his claim, having already sunk 90 
leel. It is probable that in the near future the Bre- 
men mill will pass temporarily under the control of 
the Azlec company, and will be run on ores from the 
Aztec mines. Messrs. Crawford and Milstead con- 
template giving the mill up in a short time, as they 
are running short of ore. M. W. Bremen has pur- 
chased the Wyman interest in the Yankee Girl, al 
Gold Hill. The mine is now owned by Goodwin 
and Bremen. It is one of the finest prospects in the 
whole counlry, and will, no doubt, prove to be a 
payer. George Goodwin will have charge of the 
development of the mine. Last week Jake Long 
struck a 15-inch vein of ore in the Osceola, a north- 
ern extension of the Deep Down, at Pinos Altos, 
which is very rich in free gold. A good portion of 
the vein will average about $1000 per ton, while the 
whole of the vein is very rich. 

Placers.— Silver City Enterprise, June 29: The 
placers which were spoken of last week as having 
been recently struck in some part of the Pinos Altos 
mountains, have been located on Bear creek just be- 
low the mouth of Webster gulch, hence, the location 
is no longer a secret. Old timers have washed gold 
there before. The dirt pays about ten cents per 
pan, which is quite good. The gold is heavy and of 
a splendid quality. The boys who have the placers 
located are taking out water, and fortunately they 
have a suflicient amount for present purposes, and 
are preparing for a season of active work. The in- 
formation that M. W. Bremen has been made agent 
for the Bremen Mining Co., will be gratifying news 
to many people of this section, as it foretells the re- 
sumption of operations in the Bremen mine. Quite 
a force of miners will be put to work as soon as the 
right class o( men can be secured. 

To Start Up. — The Telegraph mines on the 
Gila river will be started up by the new company as 
soon as preliminary arrangements can be settled. 
Five more stamps will be added to the mill, making 
15 in all, and a wire tramway will soon be erected to 
convey the ore from the mines to the mill, which Jias 
heretofore cost $1 per ton to haul. The mill is run 
by water power, and as tj:ie ore occurs in large bod- 
ies, it has been estimated by good amhority that eight- 
ounce rock can be mined and milled at a handsome 


Rich Strike.— Bedrock Democrat, June 27: A. 
Geiser came in from Connor creek yesterday. He 
reports a rich strike having been made in the mine 
at that place two or three days since. Mr. G. says 
that the new find is a vein of ore four feet thick, and 
that the gold fairly glistens all over and through it. 
The Connor creek is and has been one of the " big" 
mines of Oregon for some 12 or 15 years. 

Wallowa Mines. — The mines of the Wallowa 
are assuming considerable prominence in mining 
circles. The principal property of that section is the 
Wallowa Silver Mining and Tunneling Co., under 
the general management of T. L. Brophy, an ex- 
perienced and practical miner. Work has been in 
progress on this mine for the past 10 months, and 
the developments thus far are beyond the most san- 
guine expectations. The main tunnel is in about 
200 feet and there are 500 tons of ore on the dump. 
Assays average all the way from $70 to $2000 a ton. 
Two carloads of the ore was shipped to Porland a 
few days since and awaits reduction, 


Review. — Salt Lake Tribune, June 29: There 
has been a slight relief in the lead market, which has 
brought ores in freely during the past week, but the 
improvement in price was so small that there is 
scarcely any relief in the general gloomy feeling. 
The ill gal importations of Mexican lead ores aie 
what make the main slaughter of the market. The 
receipts in this city for the week ending June 27th, 
inclusive, were to the value of $199,654,18, of which 
$103,217.27 was bullion, and $96,476,89 was ore. 
For the previous week the receipts were $71,976.19 in 
bullion, and $40,794. 28 in ore, a total of $112,770.47. 
The output of the Ontario for the week was of bul- 
lion. 17,283,40 fine ounces; from ore sales, $22,863.- 
62; total, approximately, $40,147.02. TheDalypro- 
duct lor the week was, bullion, 19,645.99 fine 
ounces. Fine bar receipts in this city for the week 
were to the value of $63,794.80; base bullion, $23,- 
008.60; copper m^tte, $3246.05. The Hanauer 
smelter produced for the week bullion valued at $ir,- 
280; the Germania, $8622.44. O''^ receipts in the 
city for the week were to the value of $55,578.54 by 
Wells, Fargo & Co.; $31,650 by McCormick & Co., 
and $9208,35 by T, R. Jones &; Co. 

Mining AND Scientific Press. 

[July 7, 1888 


Progress of American Iron Indastries. 

Mr. Swank's last anDaal report of the indua- 
triea of this country is awakening a most 
lively interest in the activities of this country, 
throughout Europe, and particularly in Great 
Britain. The English Colliery Ouardian, in 
alluding to the facts set forth in that report, 
says that "the progress of American industry 
is one of the moat striking facts of modern 
times. No country has ever developed her in- 
ternal resources so rapidly before. Particu- 
larly is this the case as regards minerals and 
iron and steel manufacture." 

*' Mr. Swank's figures," the Guardian con- 
tinues, "demonstrates that the United States 
continues to lead the world as a producer of 
Bessemer steel." The circumstance that the 
demands of the railroads in America for iron 
keep very heavy, and that in England steel for 
shipbuilding has largely superseded iron 
"sufficiently," remarks this authority, "ac- 
counts for the relative positions of the two 
processes (the Bessemer and the open-hearth) 
ID the two countries." 

America's steel rail production the same 
critic denominates as "a most striking fact" the 
circumstance that the steel rail production of 
the United States at the present time is more 
than twice the extent of the output in our own 
works, and concludes : "The position which 
America has attained as an iron and steel and 
mineral producer should not be cause wholly of 
envy, but rather of admiration, for is not 
America the child of the mother country ?" 

The British Iron and Coal Trade ./Review com- 
ments upon " the wonderful advances which 
that great country (America) has made in re- 
cent years in the manufacture of iron and steel, 
and in that spite of the fact that it has practical- 
ly no export business such as ours. But up to the 
present the United States has not felt the need 
of an export trade, as within its own territory 
there are consumers for all the iron and steel 
that is made there, and a good deal more be- 

"Mr. Swank has a surprising record to pre- 
sent," continues the Review^ "as to the in- 
crease of the trade of 1S87, which was un- 
doubtedly the moat active year that the Amer- 
ican iron trade has ever experienced. The 
year 1BS6 was counted a wondeifal period, but 
1887 far exceeded it, and in no leading indus- 
try has such marked progress ever been re- 
corded as is now reported in connection with 
the iron and steel trade." 

"One thing," says the editor, "in this re- 
turn is very remarkable — it is that in face of 
the vast increase in the consumption of steel 
the output of rolled iron should increase. This 
would show that the puddling furnace is more 
than holding its own against the encroach- 
ments of steel." 

friends, and is practically lost to the rest of the 
world. He is never heard from afterward, and 
whether he lives or dies, all trace of him is for- 
ever lost. There have been several desperate 
attempts made to steal or betray the secret, 
but in every instance it has resulted in the 
death of the would-be traitor. In one ease a 
letter attached to a kite, which was allowed to 
escape, was picked up by soma peasants, and, 
despite their protestations that they could not 
read, they vpere at once put to death by the 
guards to whom they delivered the letter, and 
it was afterward decreed that the guards them- 
selves should pass the remainder of their days 
within the works. The wonderful properties of 
this iron are so well known that it is unneces- 
sary to enlarge upon them. 

Soperseding; Steam. 

A Novel Amplication of Naphtha. 

A test, says the New York Herald, was made 
on the Uarlem river on Thursday last of an in- 
vention which, it is claimed, will furnish speed 
for small craft without eteam, and with an en- 
tire absence of heat and dust. It is well known 
that the loss of energy is less in liquid fael than 
in coal, the only difficulty in the way of utiliz- 
ing the former being its volatilization and the 
danger of an explosion. The invention in ques- 
tion, and in which naphtha is used both as motive 
power and fuel, claims to have overcome these 

In the bow of the boat a bulkhead is per- 
forated to admit sea-water, which circulates 
around a copper tank fitted with a tap screw. 
In this magazine liquid naphtha is stored, and 
from the reservoir a feed and two exhaust pipes 
lead to a retort aft, and to another bulkhead, 
which contains the mechanism. The engine 
and boiler consist of a series of spiral coils, be- 
neath which is the steam chest, vertical cylin- 
ders and piston rods. Forward of the retort is 
an injector which feeds naphtha vapor to the 
furnace, and a damper admitting fresh oxygen 
to aid consumption. By this arrangement the 
pressure of gas is increased or diminished, and 
the speed regulated. At the lower end of the 
retort is the cumbastion chamber which admit 
the vapor. When ignited the flame reaches 
every part of the spiral, boils the naphtha, and 
generates a pressure of 60 pounds per square 
inch in a few minutes. Only about six per cent 
of the gas generated it consumed as fuel, the 
remainder, after being utilized, being condensed 
in the exhaust pipes and entering the reservoir 
again as liquid naphtha. The engine, after be- 
ing once started, runs itself as long as there is a 
supply of naphtha in the tank, and as the feed 
fails to supply liquid the fire goes out automati- 
cally, and there can be no explosion. 

The launch on which the teat was made waa 
30 feet long, and designed to develop six-horse 
power. At a pressure of 60 pounds a speed was 
gained a little under eight knots. The boat 
consumed about two gallons of naphtha an 
hour, which at the market value to*day is a cost 
Manganese Steel vs. Ikon. — The pro- of 20 cents. Any person can learn to run one 
introduction of ' bolts and nuts, "f these engines and to steer at the same time, 
bars, plates, etc., from a tough, soft, manga- '^he entire engine and fittings are leas than one- 
ness ateel, in place of iron, haa met with much *^fth the weight of othera of the same pow^r, 
favor, their alleged superiority having been ^od occupy a compiratively amall space, 
abundantly proved. In London some interest* sides this, there are no cinders or aahea, 
ing tests of a severe and decisive character 

have been made, with a view to ascertain I Bull's Metal. — A new malleable alloy of the 
whether bolts of such material were really bronze kind has been produced by Mr. John 
strong as against the very heavy stresses and j Bull of London, by a process for which it is 


The Action of Watek Upon Lead Pipes. — 
Br. W. H. Thomas, in a recent lecture upon 
poisoning from drinking water gave the ration- 
ale of the action of water upon lead in pipes as 
follows: " Water generally contains a certain 
amount of carbonic acid. This acid acta upon 
the inner surface of the pipe, forming an in* 
soluble internal coat of oxy •carbonate of lead, 
which effectually prevents the water from fur- 
ther acting upon the pipe. Hence old pipes 
which have been down for years are far lees 
dangerous than new ones. Water which con- 
tains lime salts, as the carbonates and sulphates, 
also assist in forming an internal insoluble coat, 
as the carbonates and sulphates unite with the 
lead. New pipes are apt to be acted upon by 
the oxygen which the water contains. A solu- 
ble oxide is formed, which contaminates the 
water. The nitrites, nitrates and chlorides 
found in water contaminated by sewage are 
very injurious, as they disBolve the lead; so 
also peat and other vegetable matter have a 
similar deleterious effect. The Sheffield water 
from a certain source is acid, and most certainly 
dissolves the lead. The water in other towns 
has had a similar effect upon the lead. For 
some time the inhabitants of Keighley suffered 
from plumbism, as we do now, from drinking- 
water. Mr. Jarmaine of Huddersfield, recom- 
mended the authorities of Keighley to use lime- 
stone to counteract the acidity of the water. 
This was placed in conduits and the water was 
allowed to pass over it. They found at Keigh- 
ley that it has been necessary occasionally to 
add quicklime to aid the limestone, especially 
in summer when the water is scarce. This 
plan, which has been adopted at Keighley, and 
found to succeed, is now being tried in Shef- 
field, and I trust it will be equally successful 
here, ft is a matter of vast importance to the 
town of Sheffield, as the drinking water con- 
taining lead is now giving rise to a great 
amount of disease and Buffering." 

strains to which they are sometimes subject in 
practice, and to determine whether the sceel of 
which they are made would withstand bending, 
hammering close, and severe treatment in 
various ways, or whether the steel would only 
withstand heavy atresses slowly applied. 
Under these trials the metal exhibited a tough- 
ness unsurpassed by any other, being easily 
nicked and bent round away from or 
closed up at the nick. Bolts up to ginch were 
tested by holding the nut fast in a vice, and 
then hammering the bolt until it was bent 
down at the screwed part through an angle of 
130°, then taken out and doubled down and 
closed up with a heavy hammer on an anvil ; 
but though the screw threads were thus jammed 
up and compressed upon each other on the in* 
side of the bend, and opened out to double 
their pitch on the outside, the steel did not 
break. Its value for piston and other rods, 
and also in slabs for forging and welding into 
screw propellers for torpedo boats, likewise 
seems assured. 

Drawing Canal Boats With a Locomo- 
tive. — The experiment of drawing canal boats 
with a locomotive engine was recently tried by 
officials of the London & North Western rail- 
way with great success. A short track of 
eighteen inches guage was laid along the tow- 
path of the canal and a little locomotive weigh- 
ing about a ton, drew a number of boats at the 
speed of six or seven miles an hour with ease. 
There are still a few canals left in this country 
upon which the substitution of the locomotive 
for the mule might be. tried to advantage. 

Russia Iron. — Probably the only secret proc- 
ess which has been kept inviolate, and for ages 
openly defied the world of science, is the iron 
trade of Russia. The secret of making Russian 
sheet iron is owned by the Government, and is 
such an immense monopoly that it is currently 
supposed to defray the entire expenses of the 
Government. The works constitute an entire 
city, isolated and fortified against the rest of 
the world. When a workman enters the aer- 1 

vice, he bids a last farewell to his family and | cesaive, 

claimed that it secures the introduction and 
admixture of the component metals in accurately 
controllable and defiuite proportions, forming 
true alloys of high strength and uniformity. 
Some of the specimens of cast, rolled and turned 
rods show remarkable uniformity in extension 
throughout the whole length of the test part, 
and not so marked a contraction in one spot 
only, as is usual. In one of the teat specimens 
the elastic limit waa reached at 24 tons per 
square inch, above which the metal suddenly 
extended about two per cent; it then dropped 
a little in tenaile resiatance and recovered, as in 
the case of mild steel, further extension being 
very alight up to 30.6 tons. After this the ex- 
tension waa uniform up to the point of rupture 
at 34.76 per square inch. 

Fine Wire Drawing. — A correspondent of 
the English Mechanic writes as follows in a re- 
cent labue: "The Asiatic wire drawers have 
very long ago used castor oil in preference to 
any other kind. Their dexterity ie surprising, 
the wire for the Trichinopoly chains of gold 
and silver being like hair, and every good work- 
man draws his own. A manmade me a plate 
for the fine gauges from a flat rasp of English 
steel, which I atill poseeas. He drew copper, 
zinc and brass equally welt. Castor oil, being 
one of the cheapest in India, is used to soften 
harsh leather shoes and ropes. The fresh leaves 
of the castor oil tree, too, are gathered, bruis- 
ed and rubbed in the hand, then stuffed tight- 
ly into stiff European boots, male or female, 
and 80 remain all night; the leather then be- 
comes quite supple. For feeding large drilla, I 
like this oil mixed with soft soap." 

Propeller Blades. — From experiments made 
last year in the Danish navy it appears that 
there is but little difference in the efficiency of 
the two-bladed and four-bladed propellers, the 
same blades being used in each case, so that 
the loss of one-half of the propeller surface waa 
balanced by the lessened friction. At speeds 
greater than twelve knots, however, the vibra- 
tions with the two-bladed propeller waa ex- 

Man in His Relation to Coal. — The last of 
a course of six lectures upon scientific subjects, 
which have been delivered last winter ac the 
Brooklyn Institute, was given on March 1st, by 
Professor J. S. Newberry, before a large and 
appreciative audience. His aubjsct waa "Man 
in His Relation to Coal." The lecturer gave 
an extended history of the discovery and use 
of coal, and ita effecta upon civilization. " The 
growth," he said, "of industrial business is the 
distinctive feature ot modern life, and the cause 
that has maintained and sustained the mechan- 
ical Bciences is coal. Should our supply of coal 
cease, all the wheels of industry would be 
stopped and we would soon go back to the dark 
ages. Tbe force given out by a ton of coal is 
equal to the force exerted by six men and a boy 
throughout a year. Coal waa an element en- 
tirely wanting among the ancients. The Eng- 
lish coal mines have been the secret of British 
wealth and commercial supremacy. Eaglish 
statesmen acknowledged this, and in speaking 
of the power of their country invariably con- 
nect it with her coal production. The coal and 
iron industries of a oonntry are inseparable, 
and it is fortunate for us in America that there 
is, to all appearances, aa inexhaustible supply 
here of both of these precious minerals." 

Dust Particles in the Air. — Mr. John 
Aitkin, a well-known investigator of the at- 
mosphere, has recently made a series of experi- 
ments on the number of dust particles in ordi- 
nary air. So far his results show that outside 
air, after a wet night, contained 521,000 dust 
particles per cubic inch; outside air in fair 
weather contained 2,119,000 particles in the 
same space, showing that rain is a great puji- 
fier of the atmosphpre. The air of a room was 
found to contain 30,318,000 particles in the 
same apaoe; that near the ceiling containing 
88,346,000 per cubic inch. The air collected 
over a Bunaen flame contained no less than 
489,000,000 particlea per cubic inch. The num- 
bers for a room were got with gaa burning in 
the room, and at a hight of four feet from the 
floor. These figures, though not absolute, 
show how important is the influence of a gas-jet 
on the air we breathe, and the necessity for 
good ventilation in apartments. Mr. Attken 
remarks that there seem to be as many dust 
particles in a cubic inch of air in a room at 
night when gas is burning as there are inhabit- 
ants in Great Britain, and that in three cubic 
inches of the gases from a Bunsen flame there 
are as many particles as there are people in the 

Utilizing Sun Heat. — One of the most in- 
teresting and practical methods of utilizing the 
heat of the sun is that recently invented in S-i- 
lem, Mass. The arrangement consists of a 
shadow box, the bottom of which is of corru- 
gated iron, and the top of glass. This is placed 
outside the building in such a position that the 
sun shines directly upon it; the heat rays of t>he 
sun pass through the glass and are absorbed by 
the iron, heating it to a high temperature, and 
by a system of ventilation a current of air is 
passed through the apparatus and into the room 
to be heated. By thia means the air has been 
heated on sunny days to about 90" Fahr. by 
paasing over the iron. 

Electrical Progress in 1887. — The Elec- 
trical Review, in a recent review of the progress 
of electrical science during 1887, says: *' Little 
was added to oar knowledge of eleotrioity dur* 

ing 1887, but there was a remarkable develop- 
ment of its practical applications. One of the 
most important scientific discoveries was that 
sparks in tubes dissociated iodine, bromine and 
chlorine. Immense improvements have been 
made in the construction of dynamos, motors, 
accumnlators and secondary generators, and in 
consequence the electric lighting and working 
of railroads and tramways has entered upon a 
commercial and useful stage. The application 
of powerful electric currents to smelting, as in 
the Cowlea process for producing aluminum, and 
to welding, as proposed by Eiihu Thomson, ia 
gaining rapid progress, while the use of enorm* 
ous dynamos for the deposition of pure copper 
from impure ores is gaining ground with giant 

Conversion OF Heat Into Electricity. — 
Messrs. Hurghauaen and Neruat have re- 
cently performed an experiment which is very 
carious from a acientific point of view. On 
placing a thin aheet of metal in a magnetic 
geld and keeping its two extremities at unequal 
temperatures, they remarked that the ex- 
tremities exhibited a very feeble, yet appre- 
ciable different of potential. Moreover, the 
direction of the current varied according to 
the direction of the lines of force of the mag- 
netic field. The experimenters operated with 
a plate of bismuth, 5 centimeters square and 
2 millimeters in thickness placed in a field of 
5,000 units. The difference in temperature 
was obtained by placing against the ends of the 
plate two sheets of mioa, one of which was dipped 
into cold water and the other was heated by 
the flime of a gaa burner. Under such circum- 
stances, a difference of potential of 0.00125 
volt waa obtained. 

A Remarkable Telephone. — The Hartford 
Courani remarks: The adjutant-general's office 
at the capitol has been connected with the room 
of the quartermaster-general on the third floor 
by means of a Hall short-distance telephone 
line. The wire employed is composed of six 
strands of steel, wound around a cord covered 
with a preparation of paraffine, which prevents 
induction. No battery is required, and the 
voice of a person standing in tne room at a dia* 
tance of twentv feet from the instrument can 
be distinctly beard at the other end of the line. 
By means of thia remarkable invention the ad- 
jutant-general and his asaociatea can carry on a 
conversation with those connected with the 
other departments without leaving their desks. 
The new telephones have been used with great 
success in other cities. The limit is five miles, 
but the inventor hopes to exceed this in the 
near future. 

Where Phosphorous and Manganese are 
IN Basic Pig Iron. — According to Herr C. 
Reinhardt, the proportion of phosphorous and 
manganese in basic pig-iron is almost invariably 
greater at the edges of a section than it is in 
the center. In the case of slowly cooled gray 
cast iron the quantities of phosphorus and man- 
ganese vary throughout the mass, but appear 
to do so together. In a mass of the metal, 
phosphorous is very unevenly distributed in the 
various Uyers, and its amount appears to be 
greatest at the aarface. The same may be said 
of manganese, and with a rapidly cooled sam- 
ple both metals are found in the largest propor- 
tion, not only in the surface layer, but upon the 
whole exterior'surface of the pig-iron. 

Edison and Flying Machines. — Mr. Eii- 
aon is now working on an electrical flying ma- 
chine wbich the Spanish Government has com- 
miaaioned him to construct for the purpose of 
observation in time of war. The lifting and 
propelling machinery will consist of revolving 
fans to which power will he supplied through a 
wire connecting with an electric dynamo on the 
earth. No doubt aerial navigation to the length 
of a wire is practicable, but inventive genius 
will hardly be content to rest thus circum- 
scribed. Man certainly will yet be able to soar 
through tbe air as freely as the feathered por- 
tion of creation. 

The Curves of Fish. — A paper was read at 
the recent meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers by Mr. Parsons, on the 
subject of the "Area Curves of Fish," which 
developed some interesting data, which may 
prove serviceable to ship builders. It was 
claimed as an invariable law in the natural for> 
mation of fi^h, that tbe cross section of greatest 
area in the fi^h was always found to be at ex- 
actly tbe same relative distance from the tip of 
the snout, thus indicating a constructive law of 
great importance. 

The Earth Crust Under the Sea. — The 
attention of the French Academy of Sciences 
has been drawn by M. Faye, the eminent as- 
tronomer, to the apparent geological law that 
the cooling of the terrestrial crust goes on more 
rapidly under the sea than with a land surface. 
From thia he argues that the crust must thick- 
en under oceans at a more rapid rate, so aa to 
give rise to a swelling up and distortion of the 
thinner portions of the crust; in other words, to 
the formation of mountain chains. 

When vessels or timbers sink to great deptbs 
in the ocean, the pressure is so great that the 
water is by this means forced into the pores, 
and the wood becomes too heavy to rise again. 
It is the fact of this same pressure that makes 
it impossible for divers to descend to any great 

July 7, 1888. 

jMiNiNG AND Scientific pres^ 

state Board of Healtii. 

The report of the State Board of Health for 
May fuTDiahea retaroa from 90oitie8 aud towuu, i 
which give a mnrtftlity of 10>t5 id aa aggregate , 
population of 7-'^. ^50. Thia average of death-' 
rate indicAtea a very favorable uooditioD of ' 
public health throutihoat the State, being a per- f 
u«Dtage of only 10. S per annum. When this is : 
rootraaced with the aggregate mortality of the | 
Ktaturn Statts, the great aalubrity of Califoraia ! 
beoomes notably favorable. 

Id Ihe Hat of fatalities conaumptioD leada, 
Dumbering 174. Of coarse a large proportion 
of these cases owe their origin to an Ktstern 
climate, the parties having come to California 
to improve their condition. 

PueumoDia comes next, numbering 7-, a de- 
crease from the last report, but giving more 
than a general average for the month of May. 

Diphtheria claims 36 deaths, 15 of which oc- 
curred in S»D Francisco, but not more than its 
proper average according to population. 

Bronchitis was fatal in 25 cases; congestion of 
the lunge, 14; oroup, i'2; ecirlet fever, 9; 
typhoid fever, 28— a alight increase over last 
month's report. The dreaded and deadly 


la charged with 30 cases, 2.'l of which are 
placed to the oiodit of this city. The very 
large excesa of cancer cases in this city over 
other portions of the State is due to the fact 
that nearly all persons who are attacked with 
this malady, and who can afford the means, 
come to Sin Francisco for relief, but generally 
too late to be of any avail. 

Cancer Can be Cured. 

We are in the frequent receipt of letters and 
inquiries asking if the party in this city, to 
which we have made such frequent reference, 
still continues in successful practice, and 
whether we still have as much contidence in her 
skill as ever. We invariably answer in the af- 
firmative, for cases of successful cures are con- 
stantly coming under our notice — some of which 
are fully as remarkable as any which we have 
heretofore noticed. 

A few weeks aince we met a lady from Vic' 
toria who was then under treatment for cancer 
on the tongue. The case had been pronounced 
one of unmistakable characterby the leadingphy- 
siciana of Victoria, who could give the patient 
no assurance of relief. By the advice of friends 
who knew Mrs. Dr. Cook she came at once to 
this city, and in due time returned home 
a ivell woman, without submitting to either 
the knife or plaster. Constitutional treatment 
with some simple healing salves were the only 
remedies employed. It stands to reason that a 
oancer thus cured is cured for all time, while 
the application of the knife or plaster, without 
coDstitutionrtl treatment, simply aggravates the 
trouble in 19 cases out of 20. 

There ie a gentleman from Victoria now 
under treatment for oancer under the tongue, 
sent here by this same lady. His malady has 
made great progress, and but little encourage- 
ment was first given of any possible help; but 
the symptoms have since became highly favor- 
able, and there is now a strong probability of a 
successful issue. 

There is another case to which we would 
britfly allude of a very elderly lady in New 
Bedford, Mass., in a family in whose welfare we 
have long felt a deep interest by reason of old 
acquaintance. Contrary to her usual custom, 
Dr. Cook allowed herself to be persuaded to do 
what she seldom does — send remedies with 
written inslroctions for use without personal in- 
terview. The ease was one of long standing — 
the patient, in the opinion of her physician, be- 
ing too old and feeble to endure a surgical 
operation. The remedies were sent, and her 
physician had the manliness to watch the case, 
and when he saw it was fully cured, had the in- 
dependence to say so and write to that effect in 
a letter of congratulation which h.e addressed to 
Mrs. Dr. Cook. There was no hesitation in 
pronouncing it a case of unmistakable cancer. 

If the physicians of this city would drop their 
cruel aud antiquated system of medical ethics 
and adopt the course pursued by the New 
Bedford physician, the monthly reports of death 
from cancer here would dwindle to the very 
lowest ecale of mortality of any in the long list 
of human maladies. But how can we expect 
such a result so long as respect for medical 
ethics is held more sacred than that for human 
life ? 

If the faculty would let patients exercise 
their own discretion in choeing a physician in 
this special malady it would soon almost dis- 
appear from this city, and in this connection 
we would repeat the statement which we have 
before made, that no person has ever applied 
to Mrs. Cook in the early stage of the disease 
who has not been permanently cured. We have 
had several such cases of failure reported to us; 
but in every one we have found them to be with- 
out foundation. We will publish any such case 
of failure that is proven to be genuine. It is 
true she has lost many cases, but not one 
which has not been treated for a greater or 
leas length of time by other physicians, while 
ahe has cured great numbers who have been 
given over to die by others. We have given 
these three cases as a sample of the many re- 
cent ones to which we have not yet made any 
reference. We dwell at this length upon this 
subject beoause of our interest in humanity, 
and we know we have the secret sympathy 

of many physicians, who dare not apeak out 
their honest convictions becanse they know if 
they do bo they go counter to the ethics of the 
profeasion, and will be made to suffer for it. 
What we have done ia without pay or hope of 
reward. If the preaa would take up the mat ! 
ter much good would be done. One of our 
leading dailies recently sent a reporter to in- 
terview ua. He was introduced to the doctor 
and a number of her patients, was thoroughly 
satifetijd that we were correct in this discua- 
aioD, and wrote out a column fully endorsing 
the same. The article was aubmicced to the j 
managing editor of the daily, who refused to | 
insert it without the payment of one hundred 
dollars. He was refused even one hundred 
cents, consequently the article never saw the 
light. Many lives might have been saved by 
such an endorsement. But no, the almighty 
dollar was more to that journal than human 

Prevestion of Scarlet Fevek.— Sulphur ia 
recommended aa a preventive of ecarlet fever. 

I think it might be uaeful, but the standard 
specific for that purpose is belladonna in some 
form, allopathic or homeopathic. Tde latter 
form is easier to manage with children, as it can 
be given in sugar pills. Belladonna fulfills 
three purposes. It is a preventive. In a caee 
where the attack of fever is inevitable and can- 
not be prevented, it is then a preparative aud 
pallative, mitigating the severity and danger of 
the attack when it oomea. It is also a specific 
remedy for the disease. As soon as it is sus- 
pected that a child has been exposed to scarlet 
fever, four or six belladonna sugar pills, such 
as are need for homeopathic medicines, should 
be given morning and evening until the time is 
passed when the disease should have appeared. 
If one prefers allopathic treatment, let him not 
fail to obtain directions from a physician as to 
the dose to be given. The remedy should not 
be used carelessly and unadvisedly, but it is the 
specific for scarlet fever, whether the olject 
sought is prevention, mitigation, cure or avoid- 
ance of unfortunate after effects, such as affec- 
tions of the ear or eye. — J. P. Rohinaon. 

Crematories. — It cannot be denied that cre- 
mation is a growing practice. Crematories are 
beginning to pay expenses in this country, and 
at the crematories of Europe there were 14,000 
incinerations last year. There are 22 crema* 
tories in Europe, of which 10 have been bailt 
within the past vear. Tnere have been (iOO 
incinerations in Germany and 800 in Italy. 
There are seven crematories in the United 
States, and six in progress of construction. One 
will soon be conHtructed for this city. 


A Valuable Plant. — The espinosilla, or 
thorn plant, says Marchial Oropeza, a well- 
known Mexican naturalist, ia native to Mexico, 
and abounds in various parts of the republic, 
principally near this capital, at San Angel, Tex- 
ccco, Santa Fe, etc. It is one of those beau- 
tiful wild plants which adorn the plains of 
Mexico, and it is found particulaily in cold, 
dry spots. It has been thus christened because 
on touching it a sensation is felt similar to that 
which a plant covered with thorns would pro- 
duce. The Aztecs lacking soap — so necessary 
to their health and happiness — found its sub- 
stitute in the espinosilla. They agitated a 
bough in water and it produced a lather, with 
which they washed, using the plant aa a scrub- 
bruah. Even to-day it is used by women aa a 
hair preservative, having extraordinary powers 
in that direction. But its moat uaeful applica- 
tion is as a medicinal agent to fight fevers, aa it 
is an excellent diaphoretic. Its ancient name 
is beautiful. Holtz-itilxochitl, a compound 
word. Holtz-it il — humming-bird, and xochitl 
flower; thus translated being flower of the 
humming bird. It is a perrennial plant of vari- 
able height, but never more than three feet in 
height ; of a pivotal root, rather flexible, of 
white surface, corrugated, from which spring 
secondary roots, thin and separated. In gen- 
eral, the plant is rough and thoiny, mord bo as 
as its age increases. The taste ia bitter, es- 
pecially of the leaves, but the root has two 
tastes ; when first tasted bsing sweet, after 
which it is bitter. 

acres of rich farm land in Vernon township, 
and great damage hae bean done to growing 
oropB. The soil is saturated and rendered uae- 
less by reaaon of being poisoned by crude oil, 
some landa being, it ia reported, completely 
ruined, at lea^t temporarily. A great quantity 
of the oil haa flawed into the streams, and fish 
are dying by handreda. The fish commission- 
ers are doing all in their power to avert the 
disaster that threatens the fishing interests. 
The Neakill river bridge nirrowly escaped be- 
ing destroyed by fire, owing to some maliciona 
person setting fire to the oil one night. The 
Standard Oil Cumpany, it is said, will be aued 
by the farmers for the damages austained by 
the oil flood. 

Life-Saving Ropes. — The leeiflature of 
New York passed a law in 1887 requiring 
every hotel keeper in the state to keep a life 
saving rope in every room in his hotel ; but 
thus far the law has been practically a dead 
letter. Of 246 hotels rpcently examined in the 
city of New York, 228 were found not to 
have complied with the law. The authorities 
have now determined to test the validity of the 
law, and as a test is to be made in the case of 
a prominent hotel keeper, it promises to be one 
of peculiar interest. The efficiency of the rope 
as a means of saving life in case of a fire in a 
big hotel has not been determined ; but it seems 
plain that a rope ia a good deal better than 
nothing. The expense of providing the ropes 
and the proper fastenings is said to be large ; 
still, it can be only a mere bagatelle compared 
with the possibility of aaving even one life in 
an emergency. 

A New Source of Trouble from Oil Pipe 
Lines. — There was conaiderable excitement in 
Sussex County, N. J., a few weeka since over 
the bursting of the pipe line of the Standard 
Union Oil Company. The oil haa spread over 

Ax Elkvator Cosbion.— Many devices have 
been tried to preveuc serious conaetjuences 
from the breaking of elevator ropes ; but 
nothing has yet appeared to be in any special 
degree satisfactory. A properly constructed 
air cushion would seem to be the thing to be 
deaired. Such a device was projected a few 
years aince in Boston, we believe ; but as a 
serious accident occurred the first time it was 
tested, the thing was abandoned. It was evi- 
denlly faulty in conatruction, for it is not pos- 
sible for such a device to fail if properly con- 
structed. It would seem from tlie following, 
which we clip from an exchange, that socceas 
in this direction has been fiually accomplished : 
A successful test of the Elltthorpe air cushion 
for elevators waa made recently in a New 
York dry-goods house. Oae of the largest 
Otis elevators, weighing 2li00 pounds, equipped 
with plate glass mirrors and fragile electric 
light globes, and loaded with baskets of eggs 
and with glassware filled with water, was cut 
loose from the top floor and allowed to fall to 
the bottom of the shaft. It shot down eighty 
feet in about two seconds. The " cushion," 
which stands seventeen and one-half feet high 
from the bottom of the abaft, and is constructed 
of wood and glass so as to be air-tight, received 
the elevator with ao little shock that not even 
an egg was broken nor a drop of water spilled. 
The test was considered a complete success. 
The force of the compressed air of the *' cush- 
ion '* gently pushed the elevator up again 
about four inches, when it descended again to 
its place without jar. The force of the descent 
waa estimated at the top of the *' cushion " as 
indicating GO, 000 pounds. 

Metallic Cement for Stone. — The restor- 
ation of some of the most important stone 
structures in Paris, such as the colonnade of the 
Louvre, of the Pont Neuf, and of the Conser- 
vatoire des Arts et Metiers, has been mainly 
accomplished by means of a metallic cement 
invented by Prof. Brune. It consists of a pow- 
der and liquid, the first composed of two parts 
by weight of oxide of zinc, two of crushed 
limestone, and one of crushed grit, the whole 
intimately mixed and ground, ocher in suitable 
proportions being added as a coloring matter ; 
the liquid employed consists of a saturated so- 
lution of zinc in'commercial hydrochloric acid, 
to which is added, a part by weight, of hydro- 
chlorate of ammonia, equal to one-sixth that of 
the dissolved zinc, and this liquid ia diluted 
with two-thirds of its bulk of water. One 
pound of powder is mixed with 2^ pints of 

Don't Use Shot foe Wasuing Bottles. — 
Small white globules of porcelain are made in 
Munich. They are made to take the pUce of 
ordinary lead shot used for cleaning wine and 
medicine bottles, as porcelain is entirely free 
from the objection of producing lead contam- 
ination, which is often the result when ordi- 
nary shot is uaed. Tneir hardness and rough 
surface producing, when shaken, greater fric- 
tion, adapt the porcelain shot well for quickly 
cleaning dirty and greasy bottles, and as 
they are not acted upon by acids or alka- 
lies, almost any liquid can be used. If 
nothing better is at hand, use tacks ; but don't 
use ehot. 

To Make a Good Polish. — Take one ounce 
oil vitriol, one half gill sweet oil, one gill pow- 
dered rotten stone, 1^ pints rain water ; mix 
and shake well before using ; add to the mixt- 
ure one half ounce nitro-myrbane to make it 
smell good, stick on a French or German labal 
that nobody can read, boom it in the papers as 
a newly discovered polish just imported, and 
you can do a good buainess. At any rate you'll 
have a No. 1 polish, and if your customers 
don't read the papers too closely, you may get 
rich Belling it. Put on with cotton waste and 
polish with woolen or chamois. 

Varnish from Sugar. — The Scientific Amer- 
ican advises the use of a varnish ot sugar. 
This is made as follows : Dissolve equal parts 
of white and brown sugar in water to a thin 
syrup, add alcohol, and apply to hot glass 
plates. The film dries very readily, and fur- 
nishes a surface on which it is perfectly easy 
to write with pen or pencil. The be^t ink to 
use ia India ink, with sugar added. Tbe draw- 
ing can be made permanent by varnishing with 
a lac or mastic varnish. 

To make a flange joint that won't leak or 
burn out on steam pipes, mix two parts white 
lead to one part red lead to a stiff putty; spread 
on the flange evenly, and cut a liner of ganze 
wire — like mosquito net wire — and lay on the 
putty, of course cutting out the proper holes ; 
then bring the flanges "fair," put in the bolts 
and turn the nuta on evenly, For a perma- 
nent joint this is A I. 

The Elko Mica Mine. 

The Salt Like 7*n7>Mjiesay8: " The wonders 
of thia western country are juat beginning to be 
opened up. The lateat report of discoveries 
comes from Elko county, Nevada, where what 
is claimed to be the most valuable mica mine 
in the world haa just been purchased by G. D. 
Schell of thia city, for himself and John J. 
Buckout of St. Paul, Minn., at the moderate 
price of §00,000. The mine, however, ia not a 
uew find; it haa been located, and assessment 
work has been done for several years, but it haa 
remained for Mr. Schell, an experienced miner, 
to catch on to the mine's true value, and now 
the property could not be bought for $100,000. 
The mine ia up in the Ruby mountains, 10,000 
feet above the sea level, and it is 4000 feet up 
from Ruby Valley to the mine. 

Mr. Schell went over there last week to ex- 
amine it, and now he ia in possession of mica de- 
posits superior even to those of North Carolina. 
Mica ia found in Wyoming, New Mexico and 
Hampden county, Massachusetts; but the up- 
heavals seem to have shattered the plates, aud 
contact with iron had discolored them, ao that 
the demand for good stock has far exceeded the 
supply. The Ruby range vein is 12 feet thick 
and crops out here and there ou the surface for 
1000 feet. Shafts have been sunk which show 
that the further down you go the faster the 
mica improves. At a depth of 50 feet platea 
two feet square prevail just aa clear when held 
up in the light as the average window glass. 
The platea are firm, and free from the crackle 
characteristic of surface mica, so that at a 
depth of 75 or 100 feet stock might be found aa 
free from dtfect as crown plate. Work haa be- 
gun under Mr. Schell's superintendency , One.ton 
daily will be extracted from the mine and ship- 
ping in 100-pound boxea will begin aa aoon aa 
possible. The two fept square platea of mica 
are not of a commercial siiie, aa the largest used 
in store windows are 4x6 inches; so they are cut 
UP into assorted sizes to fill orders. The 2iK 
2^ inch plates are worth 70 cRnts per pound, 
wnolesale; the 4x4 inch size, §9 per pound, and 
the 4x6'8 §12; eo that prices per ton range from 
SUOO to S24,000 ! Mr. Schell will put a full 
line of his mica mine stock in the Daseret Ag- 
ricultural Fair, and hopes similar veins may be 
found in Utah, He haa brought back to the 
Continental hotel a full line of samples from the 
mine, and is showing them to hie friends with 
justified pride." 

A Lucky Miner. 

The lease under which Dart, Oliver and 
Johnson worked the Bonanza mine the past 
two years expiree in a few days. When they 
cleaned up the last pocket a few days ago, 
without assuming more expenae for the short 
time left for the lease, they notified J. G. 
DivoU that the mine was at hia disposal. Mr, 
DivoH came to Sonora, Wednesday, and pro- 
poses to work it himaelf, having unbounded 
faith in its great richness. Wonderful luck, if 
it is luck, has attended DivoU in all his mining 
operations. Coming here in 1862, he was en- 
gaged at different times in various pursuita, 
which he often left to try hia fortune in mining, 
which always proved profitable to him. Work- 
ing pockets in different minea on Saratoga Hil', 
at short periods he made strikes that always 
kept him supplied with money. A few years 
ago he acquired an interest in the Bonanza 
mine. It waa worked several months without 
result. Not until DivoU's direction waa followed 
did the mine yield, and then it gave up several 
hundred thousand dollars, making each owner 
rich. After the big yield the entire mine came 
into DivoU's possession, and a few days after 
he pointed out where more gold was situated, 
and $60,000 more were added to his pile. 
Thinking he had a bank to draw upon at will, 
with plenty of money for hia usee, he left the 
property lie idle for a time. Two years ago he 
leased it to Dirt and Oliver. They worked for 
a while, but not until DivoU pointed out where 
the pockets would be found did they meet suc- 
cess. During the terms of the lease nearly, if 
not quite, ^150,000 was taken out. Now that 
DivoU himself intends working the mine, there 
will be no surprise here to learn that another 
fabulous amount has been added to the circu- 
lating medium of the country. Every time he 
gets to mining it seems that what he touches 
turns to gold, and those who were connected 
with him have enjoyed the benefit of his luck. 
Whether he bs a good miner or not he has thus 
far been successful, and that is the best test to 
be had. He seems to have an intuitive knowl- 
edge cf the way lodes and leads run, and can 
tell by a fissure or seam what will be found by 
following it. He ia confident that larger sums 
remain than has yet been extracted. With his 
knowledge and luck there will be no surprise 
at any amount of gold he may yet take out of 
the Bonanza, — Tuolumne Democrat. 

Mart J. Shields, Martha J. Trebilcox and 
John H. Paul have brought suit in the Supreme 
Court against the Empire Mining Co. of Grass 
Valley tor damages aggregating $37,000. At 
the explosion at the Empire mine a few months 
since Paul was badly injured, Mrs. Shields' 
husband was kUled and Mrs. Trebilcox'a son 
lost his life. The complainants allege criminal 
carelessnees^ ' ' . 

The ChoUar mine yielded $24,551 last month; 
average value of ore, |21.73, 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 7, 1888 


DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St. , S. F. 
tm" Take the Elevator, Ho. IS Front Sf.'St 

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Saturday Morning, June 7, 1888. 


EDITORIALS.— Growth of the Mining Industry; 
Portable Smelting Furnace; Number of Paying Quartz 
Mines; The Key Monument, 1. Passing Events; Low 
Price of Silver "and Its Effects; Two Shafts; Mining in 
Bolivia, 8- Going for the Secondary Deposits; Chute 
Landing; The Cipher in the Shakespeare Plays; Busi- 
ness Depressions, 9. Hu sia in Asia; British invesb- 
ment in America; Improvements in Warfare, 10. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.-Portable Smelting Furnace 
with Williams' Improvement, 1. Vessels at a Chute 
Landing on the California Coast, 9. 

CORRBSPONDBNCB.-Keruville Notes; Los Bur- 
ros Mines, 2- 

MISGBIiLANEOUS. — The Astronomer's Beam; 
Laziness and Luck, 2. The Close Fist Company; Cost 
o( Mining; The Prospector: A Historic California 
Town, 3. The Eko Mica Mine; A Lucky Mmer, 7. 
Industrial Notes, 13. 

MBOHANIOAL PROGRESS.— Progress of Amer- 
ican Iron Industries; Manganese Steel vs. Iron; Draw- 
ing Canal Boats with a Locomotive; Russia Iron; Su- 
perseding Steam; Bull's Metal; Fine Wire Drawing; 
Piopeller Blades, 6. 

SOIBNTIFIC PROGRESS.— The Action of Water 
Upon Lead Pipes; Man in His Relation to Coal; Dust 
Particles in the Air; Utilizins Sun Heat; Electrical 
Progress in 1887; Conversion of He,\t into Electricity; 
A Remarkable Telephone; Where Phosphorous and 
Manganese are in Basic Pig Iron; Edison and FlyioL' 
Machines; The Curves of Fish; The Earth Crust under 
the Sea, Q. 

GOOD aBALTH.— State Board of Health; Preven- 
tion of Scarlet Fever; Crematories, 7. 

Life-Saving Ropes; A New Source of Trouble from Oil 
Pipe Lines; An Elevator Cuopion; Metallic Cement for 
Stone; Don't Use Shot for Washing Bottles; To Make 
a Good Polish; Varnish from Sugar, 7. 

MINING SUMJiaARY- From Che various counties 
of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Mon- 
tana. New Mexico, Oreson, Utah, Wyoming, 4-5. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco Stock Board, Notices of Meetings, Assess- 
ments, Dividends, and Bullion Shipments, 12- 
■ SHOP NOTES.- Forty Years Ag-; Orderly Shops 
and Good Tools; Do Tools Grow Tired; Pulley and Belt, 

STEAM BOILER NOTES.- ''often Tour Hard 
Water; Exhausting Back into the Boiler; Copper vs 
Iron or Steel Pipes; The Test Preeaures of Marine 
Steel Boilers; Steam vs. Water Power; The Corliss vs. 
Slide Valves; To Prevent Foaming; To Avoid Tearing 
ihe Manhole Gasket; Repairing Steam Pipe Breaks- 
Caitor Oil in Boilers, 11 

COTTON AND WOOL -Evolution of Cotton 
Seed; Reclamation of Waste Products in Wonl Scour- 
ing; Cotton ( ultivation n Russia; Our American An- 
goras; The Quality of Cotton; Gotten Mill Building- 
Sheep Shearing; Evolution, 12. ' 

PLOUB MILL NOTES.-A Flour Mill Run by 
Electricity; Briti-h and Ameiican Wheat Growinp- 
Flour Millers' Convention, 12. 

Passing Events. 

The observance of the National holiday has, 
as uaaal, caused a cessation of buaineas during 
the week. In addition to the usual festivities 
of the day in this city, the monument to Francis 
Scott Key, author of the "Sbar Spangled Ban- 
ner," was unveiled in Golden Gate Park. 

The Idaho gold mine, Grass Valley, Nevada 
county, this State, paid its 225th consecutive 
dividend this week. The ore now coming out 
of this famous mine is about as;rich as any they 
have had. Few mines can show such a record 
as this. 

The strikes among the iron-workers in promi- 
nent Eastern foundries have assumed large pro- 
proportions. Most mill-men believe the sus- 
pension will not continue longer than two or 
three weeks. A shut-down is always necessary 
at this time of the year for repair and stock- 
taking. The manufacturers, they claim, have 
used the same arrangements for years, and al- 

ways opposed the Amalgamated Aaauciation 

Vigorously as at present. Since the strike of | is the fact that it isbrgdy "dae to extrinsic and 

18S2 the scale ha^ been signed in conference 
with but one exception, and that was in 1885, 
when a strike was declared. One by one the 
firms signed the scale that year, and the strike 
was over and the mills were all in operation 
within a month. On the other hand, the manu- 
facturers aseert that their mills are in good re- 
pair and that they could run all summer, but 
they will not pay more than $5 per ton for pad- 

Low Price of Silver and Its Effects. 

Silver has not long since been selling at 87 
cents per ounce, the lowest figure touched dur- 
ing the century. Recently the price has some- 
what improved, but even the present condi- 
tion of the market is having a very depressing 
effect on the production of that metal, and 
unless an early advance in the price occurs, 
both this and many other industries are bound 
to suffer severely. That such advance will 
take place there is good reason to believe. 

Now that one of the leading political parties 
of the country has declared in favor of both 
gold and silver as money and against the efforts 
being made to demonetize the latter, the 
chances of procuring legislation more friendly to 
the white metal seem somewhat improved. 

It is pretty well understood that Senator 
Stewart has not abandoned hia plan for having 
silver bullion deposited in the mints and certifi- 
cates issued therefore to circulate as money. 
The Senator yielded hia preference for his own 
and supported the Beck bill on the ground that 
the latter seemed at the time to have the bet- 
ter chance of becoming a law. Since its failure 
the Senator from Nevada has evinced a purpose 
to reintroduce and urge the passage of his origi- 
nal bill, slightly altered perhaps in some of its 
features. Should he do so, there is a strong 
probability that .his effort will be crowned with 
success, as his own party might be expected to 
lend it their support. 

That this measure or even the unrestricted 
coinage of silver should meet with so much op- 
position in this silver-producing country is some- 
thing strange, seeing none of the evils predict- 
ed as likely to attend the increased coinage of 
this metal have here been experienced, nor has 
any inconvenience attended a like policy in 
other countries where its coinage, compared 
with its currency value, contains mnch less 
metal than our silver dollar. Among the na- 
tiona of Europe the coinage rate varies from 
14.9 to 15 5, the average being 15 ounces of 
silver to one of gold, wbereas our standard sil- 
ver dollar is 16 to 1. 

Why such a peraistent warfare ahould be kept 
up on this coin or on a more general use of 
silver in a country where this metal forms a 
staple is something inexplicable. The impres- 
sion that obtains in certain quarters that silver 
is being produced at a dangerously rapid rate, 
or that it is so accumulating in the U, S. treas- 
ury that it is with difficulty tbe Government 
can get rid of it in payment of its creditors, is 
wholly without warrant. The world's annual 
product of this metal amounts at present to only 
about $108,000,000. Of this the United States 
produces §53,000,000, Mexico ^26,000,000, 
South America $15,000,000, and all other coun- 
tries $14,000,000. When it is conaidered how 
much of this total is absorbed in the arts and 
otherwise disposed of, the coinage of the re- 
mainder instead of causing a glut can hardly 
meet the growing wants of this actively com- 
mercial age. As regards the accumulation of 
silver in the National treasury, there Js reported 
to have occurred there during the year ending 
October Slat a decrease of more than $20,000,000, 
and that the department has for the past few 
months paid out more silver than has meantime 
been coined. For some time past, in fact, it is 
gold that haa been increasing in tbe treasury 
while the amount of silver has declined. 

It is time this warfare on the white metal 
should cease, as its cheapness is beginning to tell 
with fatal effect on that branch of mining. Only 
under specially fivorable conditions can it be 
made to pay any longer. Some companies en- 
gaged in this business have in consequence sus- 
pended operations and others are threatening to 
do so, Unleas the market for this metal meets 
with early improvement, wide-spread disaster is 
to be apprehended. Nor is it the miners alone 
who suffer from this cause; all the debtor and 
producing classea are more or less affected by it. 
What makes the situation the more intolerable 

gratuitous causes. But for the efforts made to 
disparage silver in the interest of the creditor 
classes it would have been worth 20 per cent 
more than it is to-day. 

There has been no over-production of this 
metal. On the contrary, it has not kept pace 
with the industrial and commercial expansion 
of the times, nor has it been relatively very 
much greater than that of gold. During the 
past 10 or 12 years the coinage of the various 
mints of the world has been larger than the 
product of silver made meantime, disclosing the 
general popularity of thia metal and the im- 
policy of seeking to restrict its free coinage in 
this country. 

Two Shafts. 

As soon as a mine has commenced to attain 
any advanced depth, and give employment to a 
nmmber of miners, facilities should be provided 
by which the men underground could escape in 
case of tire in the main shaft. The recent fire 
in the mine near Ophir, Placer county, offers a 
case in point. There, when the works at the 
shaft got on fire, three men below were asphyx- 
iated. There was no way for them to escape. 
The men above were powerless until the fire 
was out. 

In some countries there are lavrs compelling 
the companies to have two shafts, bat if we 
had such a law here it is not probable it could 
be enforced. In some instances it would work 
a hardship as entailing additional expense to 
poor owners, aud owners of rich mines would 
not spend the money in that way unless it was 
necessary for the proper working of the mine. 
With the mere object of providing safety for 
the men alone, few such shafta would be sunk 
unless it was compulsory. 

There are many mines where the men literal- 
ly take their lives in their hands when they 
leave the surface. A fire at the hoisting works 
would be fatal to them below. If men would 
refuse to work in such places a remedy would 
be found. The difficulty is to get concert of 
action among miners generally. At all events 
it wouli be posible to have s^me arrangement 
for furnishing air below, which could not be 
destroyed or put out of order in case of a tire 
at the mouth of the shaft. Mines having no 
more than one means of escape are never per- 
fectly safe. 

Academy OF Sciences, — At the meeting of 
the Academy of Sciences on Monday evening 
tbe following donations to the museum were re- 
ceived: A collection of shells and echinoderms 
by Mrs. Van Gnrden of San Simeon; fosail 
shells by C. W. Kaow of Parissima Creek; an 
obsidian arrowhead, found in Golden Gate 
Park by B. P. Secor, a visitor from Connecti- 
cut. The present to the Academy of a full set 
of Trouvelet aatronomical drawings, valued at 
$100, by a member of the Academy, who did 
not wish to be known, was announced by the 
librarian, who also reported the receipt of 48 
books from correspondenta and 13 books by 
donation. Dr. H. H. Behr read an interesting 
paper on the sudden appearances and disappear- 
ances of the Vanessa Californica, a beautiful 
butteifly that appears in myriads at times in 
California, and then is not seen again for per- 
haps 15 years. • 

Leaching, — We shall commence next week 
the publication of a series of articles describing 
the Russell process of treating ores. The 
articles will be illustrated and will be of inter- 
est to the mining commanity, as all details will 
be given. 

St. Louis realizes about $400,000 a month from 
the investments of citizens in gold and silver 
mines. The St. Louis people are investing 
largely in mining property. 

TheU. S. Treasury now contains the sum of 
$629,854,087. Of the public debt, $14,429,503 
was paid off in June. The total public debt is 
now $1,717,784,791. 

There is a hitch in the building of the Cuy- 
amaca railroad, and the projectors are stopping 
to raise $70,000 before they proceed. 

The redaction of duty on pig iron proposed 
by the Mills bill is from the present rate of 
$6.72 to $6 per ton. 

The stage from Hildreth to Maderia was 
robbed on Monday and, bullion valued at $10,- 
000 was stolen. 

Mining In Bolivia. 

[Written for the Passs by Santiago Black, of Oniro, 

Having taken much pleasure in the perusal 
of your valuable and justly popular paper, and 
thinking that some of your readers might take 
an interest in mining matters from a region of 
which I believe that there is as little known as 
of any civilized country existing, I therefore 
send you the following remarks on the mining 
advantages and disadvantages of Bolivia. 

Of the mineral wealth of Bolivia, it may 
truthfully be aaid, the " half was never told," 
And of the antiquity of all methods now in 
use for treating that mineral, and of the almost 
complete ignorance of all the most modern 
methods of, and machinery for treating ores 
cheaply or economically, it may with equal trath 
be said that the half woald never be believed, 
even if it were told. 

A densely ignorant people, instructed by 
those who were scarcely more enlightened than 
themselves, they have ever been and still are 
in the condition of the blind being led by the 
blind. And the only reason they do not all fall 
into the ditch, maybe found in the fact that they 
are already at the very bottom. And as 
the laws of gravitation are not conducive to 
falling up hill, they will probably remain in 
their present condition until the advancing 
wave of progression shall move them aside, or 
the light of a better education dispels the dark- 
ness in which they were born, and in which 
they have been contented to live. 

Some of the mining advantages are as follows: 
Pirat: That there are large quantities of discarded 
ore on the dumps of different mines, which, 
with proper appliances, would give a good 
profit for working. That there are not only 
mines, but groups of mines unworked, which, 
with proper machinery and a thorongb knowl* 
edge of mining and milling, might be made to 
pay moat handsomely. Free gold exists in cer- 
tain localities, in more or less large quantities, 
but in all parts which I have visited, it requires 
a considerable outlay of capital to accomplish 
anything worth speaking of. 

This is a country almost destitute of fuel, but 
water-power can be obtained in abundance, 
which does away with the absolute necessity of 
running the machinery by steam. 

Especial opportunities are offered in the 
working of tin. That metal, which is steadily 
increasing in value, and for which the world is 
constantly finding new uses, abounds in certain 
districts of thia country. 

An enterprise which could scarcely fail to 
pay well here would be an ore crusher, with 
good concentrators, either treating ore for so 
much per ton or buying the ore and treating on 
one's own account. When one considers that 
the tin mines, worked in a very unsystematic 
manner, and the ore washed in the most primi- 
tive way have formerly paid dividends, and also 
that the bulk of the ore is still untouched in 
those mines, it will be seen how well the above- 
mentioned enterpriae would pay. 

There is a dearth of practical men in Bolivia. 
Most of the foreigners who visit Bolivia, if not 
of a dissolute sort, are at least of a sort who 
have no peculiar choice of the manner in which 
they shuffle through this life ao long as it costs 
them no great exertion, and who, after a life of 
debauchery, are apt to blame the country for 
the misfortunes they have brought upon them- 

Bolivia was first mined for gold and silver by 
the Indians, who also put a price on the precious 
metals, though for what reaaon cannot at the 
present day be eatiafactorily explained. And 
when the Indiana were reduced by the Spaniards 
to almost abject slavery, they were not only 
compelled to labor for a mere pittance, but 
were forced to impart to the harsh laahmaaters 
all the knowledge they had of the country. So 
that I believe there is not one square mile of 
Bolivian country accessible to the white man 
which was not thoroughly prospected long be- 
fore the present generation came into existence. 
Consequently, to the poor prospector Bolivia of- 
fers few inducements; and to the working man 
(unless he be a good mechanic), it offers much 
less. But for the man having sufficient capital 
to work upon and bringing the necessary machin- 
ery there awaits a fortune both certain and 

The Idaho mine at Grass Valley on Mon- 
day declared its 225th dividend. The ore now 
coming out ia very rich. 

July 7, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

GolDg for the Secondary Deposits. 

la a late namber of the Pkl.-ss Bomethtng 
waa said about thit clans of our auriferous 
gravel formations koowD as tailiog deposits, two 
of which, the od9 resting in the bed of Slate creek 
and the other in Shirt Tail canyon, being there 
spoken of aa constituting the m^st important of 
these secondary deposits. We have, since the 
publication of that article, been informed that 
active measnres are in progress for opening the 
last named deposit, which it is calculated will 
be in operation within the next few months. 

The quintity of stuff to b3 handled here is 
enormous, amounting to something like 10,C00,- 
000 cubic yards, all of which is more or less 
auriferous. How much gold it carries caunot 
well be determined, though the experts count, 
we believe, on >=1 per cubic yard, at least. lo 
prospecting the bidrock as much as a dollar to 
the pan is sometimes obtained, the most of the 
gold here being coarse. That distributed 
through the great mass of the material is, how- 
ever, rather tine, being such as in former wash- 
ings escaped from the hydraulic sluices. With 
the improved gold-saving apparatus now in use, 
even the emalUst particles of the precious metal 
contained in those tailings can be arrested and \ 
saved, nor will the cost of rehandling them be 
very large. This will, 
in fact, be the simplest 
and least expensive kind 
of mining extant, neither 
complicated machinery, 
science nor costly meth- 
cds being required for 
carrying it on. 

At the start an opeQ 
cut of sntBcient dimen- 
sions will have to be 
blasted through the 
rocky ledge that crosses 
the channel below tbe 
deposits and prevents 
their being carried out 
by the winter floode. 
This done, and the bot- 
tom of the cut paved 
with wooden blocks or 
bowlders, it will only 
remain to get the ma- 
terial into the outletting 
race, a service that is 
to be performed by a 
machine recently in- 
vented for moving this 
class of deposits, aided 
by the water that runs 
down the canyon. 

The above will be the 
only preliminary work 
required to be done, as 

also the style of plant and the mode of pro- 
cedure here called for. Simple and cheap 
enoQgh considering the big results that miy 
here reasonably be expected. 

Gbate Landings. 

The immense lumber trade of tbe California 
coast is carried on as far as shipping fa- 
cilities are concerned under disadvantages 
which few realize. There are viry few good 
harbors anywhere on the coast line, and from 
those places where the lumber is shipped, there 
may be siid to be none at all. The result is 
that a system has been devised for placing the 
lumber on the vessels, which is different from 
that in vogue anywhere else in tbe world. 

Wherever there are lumber mills in email 
settlements, a " chute landing " i^ built, and at 
thete chutes all the freight by sea is handled. I 
A9 there is as yet no railroad running any- 
where near the coast in Sonoma, Mendocino 
and Humboldt counties, about all the lumber 
and freight tratU; is done by schooners, and for 
them the chute landings are necassary. 

A? a general thing these chutes are built on 
the south side of the points, so as to be pro- 
tected from the prevaiTng northwest winds of 
the summer months. Many of them are very 
expensive structures to build and maintain. At 
some places it is expected that the chute will be 
carried away by the storms of winter, so that 
new ones are built each season. There are 
other places, however, where the chutes have , 

with chutes, since wharves cannot be main- 
i tained. 

Tbe Cipher in the Shakespeare Plays. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Mo33, we have 
been allowed free access to tbe original folios 
of 1623 and 1632; these folios are in the well 
known library of Mr. Adolph Sutro. The his 
toiijal plays in the folios 163*2 have every 
bracketand hyphen faithfully preserved. The 
pages of Jlenry V are slightly different — 
two pages arc incorrect, 94 is 49, and 
95 is 59, We have not space to give 
the remarkable results arrived at since writ- 
ing our review of Mr. Djnnelly's book. As, 
however, much fivorable comment has been 
passed upon it, we give tbe following fir the 
benefit of aaoh of our readers as may feel in- 

The number S36 is obtained by multiplying 
76 by II; (the number cf bracket words on col- 
umn 1 , p. 74). Oa subtracting 284, the number of 
words on column 1, page 74, from 836 we ob- 
tained 552. This number is greater than 523 by 
29 (bhe modifier at end of column 2, page 74); 
one of Mr. Donnelly's root numbers derived 
from the jyrimary root number is 523, 

Ofl taking 29 from 836, that is, on *' modify- 


Utilizing Furnace Slag.— In one of the ad- 1 
dresses delivered at the meeting of the British I 
Association, held at Abardeen some two years | 
ago, it was remarked that the iron smelters had ' 
not b3en particulirly active in their efforts to! 
discover methods cf utilizing the blast furnace ! 
slag. There would be no room now for any j 
complaint on that score. The attention of the ! 
iron and steel trades are largely concentrated ; 
on this point, and much progress has been made I 
of late. The Skinningrove Iron Company, at ■ 
Loftus, are putting down a crushing plant to I 
reduce the slag for cement. In most of tbe at- 
tempts yet made to util'ze cement, the outlets 
considered likely have been for cement, road- 
making and paving fiig-stones. More atten- 
tion is being given to this mitter in Eng- 
land than in this country. It should not be so. 
The utilization of waste materials in every de- 
partment of industry should claim the earnest 
attention of all persons engaged in industrial 
employments. We expect to see in the near 
future a much wider and more far-reaching de- 
velopment in this direction than has heretofore 
prevailed both in our own country and abroad. 


According to news from Berlin, Krupp has 
lately made an arrangement with the Japanese 
Government to establish a branch of hia can- 
non-making business in Jipan, and ia to manu- 
facture all the heavy artillery the Government 
may require. 

stood for years. At moat of the landings there 
is only one chute, but in several ioetances there 
are two or three, where the trade warrants it. 
Tbe illustration on this page shows the chutes 
at Coffey's Cove, in Mendocino county, and the 
little coast steamer Yaquina loadin£[ at one 
chute, and a lumber schooner at the other. 

From the cut the general appearance of the 
chute is shown, and some idea of its construc- 
tion is also given. The shears or legs are firm- 
ly secured to rocks, and the apparently frail 
structure is secured to them, held in position 
and braced by strong iron cables. The old 
cables of the cable railways are now utilized 
for chute building. The lumber is slid down 
the chute to the vessel, and by means of a brake 
at the extreme end its speed is checked before 
it goes to the deck, In lowering freight and 
baggage to steamers a sled is used, and horses 
draw this sled up with whatever is to come 
ashore from the steamer. 

The outer end of the chute is so arranged 
that it may be raised or lowered to suit the tide 
or bight of vessel. Many of these chutes are 
very long and quite expensive. Certain speci- 
fied charges are made, these rates being fixed 
by law. The large mills of course have their 
own private chutes. The vessels are securely 
moored, so a? to remain as nearly in one posi> 
tion as possible, but many are lost every year 
owing to the poor harbor facilities. Nearly all 
these chute landings are exposed in the winter 
months when the touthwest or southeast gales 
blow. Nearly the entire lumber trade of the 
northern coast is carried on by vessels which 
load at these chute landings. Of course, at 
such places as Humboldt bay there are wharves, 
but the majority of the lauding places are fitted 

ing" SSG by 29, we obtained SOT, and now by 
counting in the brackets and hyphens on col- 
umn 1, page 74 in addition to the 284 words on 
the same column, we obtained 284-t-18b&h; 
+ 10b; 4-7fi; + IS- bracket h- 302, 294, 291, 
301. On taking these numbers from 807 we ob- 
tained 505, 513, 516, 506 {and 523), 

These are Mr. Donnelly's root number?, and 
the primary root number i«, thertfore, 836. 

W. G. H. 

Lost Bonds and Notes. — The lost bonds of 
this city amounting to severalthousand dollars, 
about which so much has been said within a 
few days, calls to mind the fact that something 
like §59,000,000 of the paper money issued by 
the United States has been lost or destroyed, 
by which the government is so much the gainer. 
During the last fiscal year the government 
coined $33,266 831 silver doUirs from $24,563,- 
615 worth of silver bullion. Here also is a 
large gain. It is well known that a large pro- 
portion of the profits of banks which issue paper 
money ia derived from bills which are lost or 
destroyed, and, of course, never presented for 

Mint Coinage, — Daring the month of June 
$1,882,000 was coined in the mint in this city, as 
follows: Gold — Double eagles, $l,195,000j 
eigles, $370,000. S l^er— Standard dollars, 
$239,000; quarter dollars, $78,000. The total 
coinage at this mint for the fiscal year ending 
June 30bh was $25,701,284.80, divided as fel- 
lows: Gold — Double eagles, $12,555,000; 
eagles, $7,260,000; half-eagles, $2 995,000. Sil- 
ver—Standard dollars, $2 304,000; quarter dol- 
lars, $192,000; dime, $395,284 80. 

Business Depressions. 

More often than otherwise business depres- 
sions are merely the result of our imaginations; 
jast as people often imagine themselves sick, 
when, in truth, they have no ailing at all. It 
is quite common to bear the expression — 
"Trade is dull," with perhaps the addition, 
'* much more so than a year ago at this time." 
When any considerable number of people are 
impressed with such an idea, and are constant- 
ly giving voice to it, it will be so. Business 
will be dull because those who unconsciously 
work to that eud make it so. 

The disposition of the American people is to 
activity, to quick trading, to rapid progress in 
the developments of trade and industry. They 
would like a continuous boom. They are 
never satisfied with steady, legitimate trade. 
Money most be made rapidly; fortunes moBt 
be accumulated quickly. Some are thus iu a 
hurry to the end that a period of rest and re* 
pose may be secured; bat perhaps the majority 
continue the active pursuits of business for the 
mere love of excitement which it brings. The 
litter is more apt to be the case with the very 
wealthy — with the many millionaires. Our 
heavy millionaires do not continue in business 
merely for the love of money, or for what it 
will bring them so much 
as for the pleasure and 
excitement of getting it. 
But to return; if peo- 
ple instead of saying 
" trade is dull " should 
on all sides agree in the 
remark that bnainesB is 
good, as good or better 
than it was a year ago, 
so it will bj. 0! course 
there are some times 
causes for genuine de- 
pressions in businese; 
but as a general thing, 
such depressions are 
greatly intensified by 
the unconscious acts cf 
the masses who are con- 
stantly complaining and 
imagining conditions 
which do not exist, just 
as many make them- 
selves sick through the 
imagination. There is 
probably no part of the 
world where these 
things are more observ- 
able and real than in 

If a man is out of 
business and has a little 
spare cash, the question 
is gener jlly " What shall I do ? " In this state 
he is quite too often down to the stock ex- 
change, or allured by theseduction of corner 
lot speculations. Don't do either. If you 
have a little money and don't see just 
how you can get into any bstter bueinesB, 
get yourself a small piece of land that you 
know you can handle, set out fruit trees, sow a 
small patch of alfalfa to feed a cow or horse or 
both, if you can make a profitable use of them. 
Plant a few vegetables for yourself and family, 
Kiise a few chickens as broilers and for eggs. 
You can always sell the surplus over and above 
your own wants. In the meantime, while your 
fruit trees are growing, improve as best you can 
the ground between them. It will neither im- 
poverish the trees nor prevent their growing. 
By such a course you will soon place yourself 
beyond want, and you will be able to add from 
time to time to your possessions, until you are 
quite independent. Of people who will do this 
the country will never have enough. 

If all our people who are out of business 
would pursue this or some similar course of life 
and cease repining over the lack and dullness 
of work, we should have fewer " depressions of 
business, " less poverty and want, and a univer- 
sal and continuous reign of prosperity and hap- 

Industries Grow Apace. — In 1878 twenty 
tons of basic steel were made in Eogland. The 
yearly production now is nearly 5,000,000 tons. 
Other countries have within recent years, and 
contrary to former experience, increased their 
production of iron and steel in a far greater 
ratio than Great Britain, which was formerly 
the chief factor in the world's supply. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdly 7, 1888 

Russia in Asia. I 

The Grea'est Undertaking of the Century. 

Very few people realize the large amount of 
work and engineering skill involved in the im- 
menBe system of railroads which Rassiaia push- 
ing forward into Northern and Central Asia, or 
the vast influence, political and commercial, 
which it is destined to exert on Eiatern and 
Central Asia, the most densely populated sec - 
tion of the globe, and the source from which 
originally emanated the germ of almost every 
thing in religion, science, production and popu- 
lation, which the world now enjoys. 

The completion and opening of the first or 
Simarcaud section of the great trans Caspian 
road has just been announced. This section of 
the road is about 1000 miles in length and has 
been constructed in the short time of three 
years at the comparatively small cost of a little 
over §31,000,000. 

This is the pioneer of the great system of 
roads which Russia has laid out for Asia, work 
upon which has been commenced at several 
points. This system of railroads is the most 
stupendous one which has ever been entered 
upon in any quarter of the world, and greatly 
dwarfs our own transcontinental system. 

The main feature of the system, which is al- 
ready well under way, contempUtea first a road 
from the northern pirt of the Cispiau sea, fol- 
lowing close along the southern border of Russia 
in Asia to some point near the mouth of the 
Amoor river, which empties into, the Okhotsk 
sea, about midway of the same; or it may ba 
continued southerly down to the southern ex- 
tremity of the province of Amoor, to about the 
central portion of the west shore of the Sea of 
Japan. The entire distance will considerably ex- 
ceed 5000 milse. Most likely there will be an- 
other road — an extreme northern branch — leav- 
ing the main road at some point before it reaches 
the province of Amoor, running north of the 
Okhotsk sea and reaching the Pacific Ocean at 
the most available point at or south of Behrings 

We have next the trans-Oaspian system, 
which starts from the southeastern shore of the 
Caspian sea, and runs in an easterly direction 
just north of and parallel to the northern bound- 
ary of Persia. This road has already been com- 
pleted through Merv to Simarkand, a distance 
of 1000 miles. It will be continued still further 
in a northeasterly direction to Tashkend. 

At this point it will rest for the present, and 
be within easy distance — 100 miles — of the 
western frontier of the Chinese Eaipire. From 
this point it will be carried still farther east 
and connected with the system of roads which 
must eventually be opened up in China. 

Commercially speaking, this will be the 
most important of the entire system, as it fol- 
lows very nearly an ancient highway of trade, 
and passes through several large cities which 
have been for ages the center of the great car- 
avan trade of Central Asia. The country which 
it traverses is very level and highly productive 
— the most, probably, of any portion of the 
earth. Notwithstanding its commercial im- 
portance, it has been thus far constructed as a 
military road. Its object in that direction has 
been to consolidate and secure Russian control 
in Central Asia, and to prepare the way, when 
the proper time comes, for ready entrance into 
China or British India. It will eventually be- 
come the great central highway from Northern 
Europe to Pek:u. 

Still another road has also been initiated by 
the Russian Government, exclusively within 
the bounds of Persia, starting from the south- 
west corner of the Caspian sea, and running 
eastwardly direct to Teheran, the most im- 
portant city in the north of Persia. From that 
city the road will fork, one branch running 
eastward and noithward to connect with the 
road already described at or near Merv, 
Another branch will leave Teheran and run 
south to some point on the Persian Gulf. This 
road is being constructed under the authority 
of the Persian Government, bat by a Belgian 
syndicate, enjoying the warm support of the 
Russian Government. Material for the road is 
already arriving from Europe. 

By a careful study of the map of Asia in con- 
nection with these lines, it will be observed 
'that Russia is sending out two immense iron 
arms upon the north and south by which she 
will soon have Central Asia completely within 
a firm grasp. 

It is only about two years since the world 

was wildly excited over the prospect of a war 
between England and Riseia on account of 
Russian military advances into the neighbor- 
hood of Herat, which city it was thought the 
Russians intended to make the base of active 
operations against British India. 

It is now well known that the alirm was at least 
premature. Russia has made no farther direct 
approach, but her generals have quite effect- 
ually flinked it, and the matter of possession is 
assured whenever circumstances may demand 
it. So far as actual evidence goes, the oper- 
ations of Rassia in Central Asia are pure- 
ly commeicial and absolutely peaceful. No 
one can say that she has any other ob- 
ject in view than the opening of mar- 
kets in Western China, Ctntral Aeia and in 
Persia and Siberia. This is just what the Ea- 
glish are doing on the south. The commercial 
possibilities in this direction are immense 
for Russia and for the world at large. Russia 
has complete command of the Caspian sea, with 
the magnificent navigable waters of the Volga 
penetrating for a thousand miles to the very 
center of that vast country. Her Siberian road 
will cross a large number of magnificent rivers, 
which are already alive with steamers which 
can bring the products of all Northern Siberia 
direct to the rail. Most of the country through 
which these roads pass are level and extremely 
fertile and more or less filled with minerals, 
especially iron and coal. The roads can be 
built with the cheapest labor on earth, and the 
right of way will cost but little or nothing. 

Could the jealousies of the Eoglish and Rus- 
sian Governments be adjusted, all these roads 
could ba completed in a very short time and an 
immense commercial business built up which 
would greatly enrich the world and in no way 
injure British commerce. Such a thing, how- 
ever, can hardly ba looked for during the pres- 
ent century, although the work of road-building 
will go on continuously but with comparative 
slowness. Rufisia will use every possible effort 
to convert her Asiatic railroads into the actual 
development of Central Asiatic resources, but 
at the same time she will be always prepared to 
use them for military purposes whenever occi- 
sion may req aire . The possession of these 
roads, when completed, will be worth millions 
of men at arms and whole fleets of ships in any 
conflict which may be precipitated in Central 

In the meantime England will exert her every 
muscle to paralyze the execution of the prr ject 
and keep Russia confined within her hyper- 
borean bounds. Bat the effort will be futile. 
The march of progress cannot and shonld not be 
arrested. Who can tell the inestimable bless- 
ings which would be conferred upon Central 
Asia if peace and good-fellowship could be set 
up between these two great powers, and Russia 
and England jMned by a mutual connection of 
the trans Caspian and Anglo-Indian lines of 
railroad and commerce ? 

The Studious Mechanio. — No mechanic 
ever excels or becomes prominent in his line of 
industry without much thought and study. It 
is not enough that he should get tbrongh his 
day's work and do it well; he must spend his 
leisure evenings and days when he has them, 
in improving his mind, in acquiring general in- 
formation, as well as a knowledge of bis own 
particular calling. A cotemporary truly says: 
** The man who by thought and reading makes 
himself fit to bs a foreman will some day find 
himself in a foreman's position; but the man 
who never reads and never thinks, who spends 
his out-of-shop hours in a groggery, will never 
be able to take a leading position. Edison or 
Weatinghouse carousing in the beer shop would 
be Edison and Westinghouse unknown to the 
end of the chapter." 

There are 140,000 miners engaged in the an- 
thracite and bituminous coal mines in Pennsyl- 
vania. The Bureau of Labor report shows that 
the average daily wages is §2, and there were 
15S idle or lost days. In the bituminous re- 
gions the theoretical wages are S16.20 a week, 
but when the lost days are subtracted, the 
average is only §7. 10. The average miner's 
wages, by the report of 1S86, is $6 67 a week. 

MechaxicsToolsWaxteuin Mexico.— Vice- 
consul Charles Winslow, at Guerrero, Mexico, 
says carpenter's, blacksmith's and shoemaker's 
tools are in great demand, and sell rapidly and 
at good prices in that State. Tools of Amer- 
ican manufacture have a decided preference. 

British Investments in America. 

The frequent announcements in Eiglish and 
American journals of British companies organ- 
ized for carrying on the various industries in 
this country has become a topic of much 
thought and speculation. There are two classes 
of organizations of this character — the one 
merely furnishes the capital acd transfers all 
the profits thereof to England; the other is a 
bonafide investment cf both capital and profits 
in this country. The first is a leach upon our 
peopb, and should not be encouraged. True, 
it furnishes employment for labor and adds 
somewhat to our population, but the business 
is generally of that character which employs 
the Urgett amount of capital and the least 
amount of labor. 

The most noted of this class of investments, 
and the one most pernicious to our interests, is 
that of cattle-raising. A firm in Scotland has 
furnished statistics which show that the British 
capital invested in cattle companies in this 
country exceeds §20,000,000. The statistics re- 
ferred to enumerate eleven companies who own 
in the aggregate nearly 700,000 head of cattle 
and occupy 3,319,000 acres of land. The first 
organized of these companies, which was started 
in Edinburg, declared dividends for the first 
few years of about 20 per cent on its invest- 
ment. This sQCcesB quickly kd to the organi- 
zation of ten other companies, which are 
enumerated. The heavy profits that were 
realized at first led to such close competition 
that little or nothing has been made by these 
companies during the two years last passed. 
The London Financial ^ews speaks of the pres- 
ent condition of these companies as follows : 

The Eoglish investors in American ranch 
companies, who are at present quarreling with 
their directors or their managers in this coun- 
try [England], and are attributing their dimin- 
ished dividends to mismanagement, will do well 
to study the report of the International Range 
Association. This organization was the out- 
come cf the convention of cattle owners recently 
held in Denver. It declares that such a pro- 
clucera' combination as this is ominous of 
trouble ahead, even for a "ring " so immensely 
poweiful as that which owes its existence to 
the so-called '* butcher kings " of Chicago. All 
roads lead to Rome, and it is becoming exceed- 
ingly difficult for the Western producer, 
whether of cattle or corn, to clear his produce 
for the Eastern seaboard without leaving his 
entire profit in the hands of one section or an- 
other of the Chicago middlemen. It is notorious 
that these gentlemen have obtained such freight 
concessions from the trunk line railroads between 
Chicago and all Eastern points that they have 
secured the complete monopoly of the Western 
meat trade. In addition to this, the Western 
farmers and ranchmen in these depressed times 
have become largely indebted to Western banks, 
and these banks aie in turn controlled by the 
great wealth of the Chicago kings. But the 
countermine thrown oat by the Convention at 
Denver, which promises to combine and control 
all the local stock associations from the GuU of 
Mexico to Paget Soand, may well ccmmend 
the consideration of this, the greatest ring 
America has ever known. 

So it appears that the railroads are getting 
the chief portion of the profits of the British 
cattle companies. It also appears that these 
foreign investments have served the useful 
purpose of lessening the price of beef in this 
country, and such being the case no one here is 
disposed to find much fault. At the same 
time the occupancy of such an enormous area 
of lands by these capitalists is a constant source 
of irritation and adverse criticism on the part 
of our people; bat if they don't make any more 
money for the next year than they did last, 
they may be willing to sell out cheap, for there 
is such a thing in this country as a man or a 
company becoming " land poor." 

The kind of capital which is most beneficial 
to our people, however, is that which is seek- 
ing investment in the manufacturing and pro- 
ducing interests in the Eastern and Southern 
States. A large number of plants in the silk, 
wcol, cotton, and iron business have recently 
been either removed to this country from En- 
gland, or established here as new enterprises. 
As a general thing the owners of these enter- 
prises accompany them and bring large nuifibers 
of their own workmen to run them. Such in- 
vestments add to the permanent and material 
wealth and population of the country, and 
should be, in every proper way encouraged. 
Uncle Sam can, and is ready to take them all in 
and do for them as he would for his own native- 
born children. 

We notice among recent movements in this 
direction one in the Iron and Steel Trades 
Journal for May 19th, that the preliminaries 

have been settled and a company formed for 
producing metals from the rich mineral re- 
sources at Talladega, Alabama, under the au- 
spices of Mr. G. W. Chambers. About six 
months ago, Mr. Joshua Lancaster, managing 
partner of the Mostyn & Darwen Iron Company, 
paid a visit and made a careful inspection of the 
mineral lands in Alabama, and the result of the 
visit is highly favorable. A company has been 
formed with a capital of .f 100,000, and it is pro- 
posed to erect a blast furnace for smelting the 
rich minerals of that district which abound with 
valuable depoeits on the property of Mr. Cham- 
bers. The minerals comprise manganese, spec- 
ular ore, and brown hematite, and the company 
will undertake the making of chrome iron, man- 
ganese, speigel and hematite metals. 

Improvements in Warfare. 

One oE the most interesting features of mod- 
ern progress is the influence or modes of war- 
fare exercised by scientific and mechanical dis- 
coveries. The entire practice and paraphenalia 
of warfare has been revolutionized within the 
past 30 years. The armored ship, the heavy 
guns made possible by modern improvements in 
manipulating iron, the use of machine gans for 
service as small arms, improvements in explosive 
material, the much greater efficiency of shells 
due to improved explosives and especially the 
very latest improvements in employing these 
new explosives, by the use cf pneumatic gons, 
etc., are all marvels of progress in the way of 

The bicycle will be made to supercede the 
horse under certain circumstances in the next 
great German war, and dogs are also being 
trained by the French to harass and worry 
the enemy. As a finality of all these improve- 
ments, we now hear of. 

An Electric Sword. 
This latter is certainly a shocking if 
not a most efficient and deadly weapon, 
which strangely enough comes to us from 
China, where all things seem to have had their 
beginning. A soldier in using this weapon has 
an electric battery concealed in his waist, with 
insulated wires running to the aword. When 
the point of the weapon touches an adversary, 
the latter is paralyzed, and the wielder of the 
sword can be said to have made an electric 
charge. There is much that is curious and pos- 
sible in connection with this latest invention of 
our celestial neighbor. The victims are not hewn 
down in a slow and bloody death. They perish 
quickly. Of course, such scientific execution 
would take away much that is poetical about a 
battle field. "Rivers of blood" would no 
longer flow nor " gory pools " be seen. In the 
electric sword there is much that is scientific and 
practical. If warfare is really necessary to 
man's existence, let it be kept as near abreast 
of the times as poseible. Possibly the electric 
sword may prove an important advance in the 
construction and use of the great symbolic in- 
strament and ensignia of war. But perhaps 
some genius may yet outdo Frankl n by the in- 
vention of some form of lightening conductor 
which will shield an army from a charge of 
electric swords. Something similar has hereto- 
fore been the result of all the modern improve- 
ments in this direction. One inventor devises 
dome new mode of defense or attack and 
another inventor immediately brings out some 
other device to overcome or supercede the latest 
improvement. It is to be hoped that this mode 
of procedure will be continued until all modes 
of warfare become so inglorious or bo generally 
fatal that men will no longer engage in such 
an inhuman and unnecessary mode of settling 
international disputes. 

Little Industries of the South. — Small 
industries are springing up all over the South. 
Wagon works, furniture works and works for 
many other industries in wood and iron are 
being established to produce at home a large 
portion of the articles which have heretofore 
been imported from the Northern and Western 
States. These minor industries are prospering 
all over the South where they are properly con- 
ducted. The character of the work is improv- 
ing, and the improving demand for good wag- 
ons is leading to farther enlargements and 
additions. There is no good reason why South* 
em wagons should not sell in Northern and 
Western markets, and enterprise will yet solve 
that problem. 


July 7. 1888.1 

Mining and Scientific Pres^ 


Bhop X^otes. 

Do Tools Grow Tired? 

bar, " (or aiilliDg off hexagon nuts and bjlt 

heads. Tbeee nuts were ofteiier chipped and 

filed than any other way; but when a specially 

< nice job was rfcjaired, they were strung on a 

I mandrel and {.laned. 

1 Forty years ago the lathes in use were poor 

A correspondent of the Iron Induitry GirMU \ tnaohines compared to the present tools. The 
says: Tools, like men, grow "tired." I | *'slide lathe," asit was called, was oonfioed to 
have seen a first class chisel get "tired," and straight work and bjring; anything that re- 
act as though it was possesded of the King of quired exact workmanship wus done in hand- 
Sbeol. It would not keep its edge, and the lathes. 

more I sharpened it the sooner it would lope its j Forty yeara ago tradition ruled in machine 
edge. I work, and book lore had no rart or lot in de- 

IckUed the attention of a shopmite. a gr i^* 1 aigning or oonstructiog. Mon followed the 
zled old veteran, to the peculiar behavior of the , pUns of their fatRers, and any departure or in- 
obisel. He looked it over and handfd it bick | novation was but slowly adopted. There were 
tome, saying: *' The tool is all right only a | qq text-bookn or hand-bookfi, and technical 
little tired. Ii»y it away and let it rest. It i schools were unheard of 

^TE/rM ]BoibEF^ X^OTES. 

will come out all right again, just like a man 
who is tired." 

I did not believe the o*d fell)W, and I really 
thought he was crai^y to talk of a tool getting 
** tired," but as there was no help for it the 
tool was laid away. I do not remember how 
long it was left to " rest," but when it was 
sgam sharpened and used it appeared to hold 
ita keenest edge as well as it did before it got 
*' tired." lUrbers tell me their razors in con- 
stant use get "tired "in the same way, and 
woodchoppers say their axes sometimes seem to 
get " soft " all at once. 

PoBsibly constant and hard usage may oause 
changes in orystallization that would account 
satisfactorily for the peculiarity alluded to. 
Locomotive engineers often observe peculiar 
misbehavior iu their machines, which may pos* 
sibty be the result of continued heating, fric- 
tion, and pounding. When a tool gets "tired," 
or a machine " balky," give each a rest. 

Mechanics who are not well informed, in 
these days of cheap valuable books, have only 
themselves to blame. Generally the tool 
handler who " gets on " in the world is the one 
who has read what has been printed concerning 
his work. AVhen a foreman is incapacitated by 
sickness or accident, it is the intelligent subor- 
dinate who is called to till his place either tem- 
porarily or permanently. 

Orderly Shops and Good Tools. 

There are few mechanics who realize the im- 
portance of keeping their tools in perfect order; 
nevertheless the experience of every one having 
to work with a set of toch ought to prove that 
he should love his tools and regard them with 
pride. We scarcely recollect a single instance 
of a really good workman who did not possess 
this affdctionfor, and pride in, the implements 
which enabled him to torn out hia work well. 
If hammers are rusty and with faces covered 
with careless nicks, and fitted with ill-shaped 
and broken handles; if sharp-edged tools are 
badly ground and covered with rust; if cold 
chisels are made very much like old shanks 
taken at random from the scrap-pile, and litter, 
dirt, tools and fragments are clustered together 
in a close conglomeration, it will convey about 
the same idea to the observer that a beggar in 
tattered habilimenta wouH in the parlor of a 
prince. Every one would fetl a great desire to 
either eject the intruder from the apartment or 
at once leave the place himeelf. There are in- 
stances where this affection for and pride in im- 
plements have gone extremely far 'and become 
almost a monomania; so much so that the jour- 
neyman could scarcely bear to see you examin- 
ing his chisels, files, etc., and seemed to have a 
fear, whilst ycu were looking at them, of some 
outward effect like that which the Indians at- 
tribute to an evil eye, but which merely arose 
from a species of eelfiah affection for these chil- 
dren of his handicraft. 

Every tool should have a place and be kept 
there when not in use. The amount of time 
saved in a year by having everything in order 
is astonishing. It often happens that when a 
job is to be done in a hurry there is more time 
wasted looking for tools than would be required 
to do the job. This does not pay, and, besides, 
the customer goes away in an unpleasant condi- 
tion of mind, and will not be apt to take an* 
other job to that shop if he can help it; but he 
will be almost glad of the opportunity of visit- 
ing the shop where work is done promptly and 
pleasantly. The people soon find out the best 
shop to deal at, and the best shop gets the 
cream of the trade, while the old fogies growl 
and grumble while the dust is settling on 
them, which they are too lazy to shake off.— 

Forty Years Ago. 

Forty years ago, in the machine trade, plan- 
ing machines were the exception; the hammer 
and the chisel were the only reliance for obtain- 
ing plane surfaces. In those days men chipped 
and filed, and removed pounds of iron by hand, 
where machines now remove ounces only to ac- 
complish the same purpose. 

Forty years ago castings were made much 
heavier and rougher than they now are, and 
were not so sound. Pattern-makers^ were in- 
structed to allow more stock to finish, and 
blacksmiths compelled machinists to do work 
on the lathe and in the vise, which should have 
been done at the forge. Their forgings were 
rough and covered with scale, and they ran 
close to the size in places where it Was all 
straight work, and far away from it in others 
where it was hard work to get the stock off. 
Forgings, in most cases, were only an approx- 
imation to the thing required. 

Forty years ago the milling machine was un- 
known. The seed or germ of it was the *' slab- 

Forty years ago steam worked expansivtly 
was the exception; full stroke was the rule 
everywhere, and steam pushed the piston to 
the very end tf the stroke, the valve only clos* 
ing in time to open again. Piston speeds were 
slow, friction was an enormous percentage of 
the power, and boiler pressures of 50 to 60 
pounds were considered high. 

Forty years ago the condition of the machine 
and workingmen was far below what it now is. 
In 40 years the social status and appreciation 
of craftsmen generally have advanced. Legis- 
lation has had no part in this. Men cannot be 
voted into intelligence, and an ambition to learn 
the why and wherefore of their callings. Ex- 
ample and individual acbievments have raised 
the mass. Men have emulated the efforts of 
others who rose from poverty to aflluence by 
hard study. 

The improvements in machinery have also 
aided the multitude, and the trades stand high- 
er, are more intelligent, more economical, bet- 
ter citizeup, in short, than their fathers.— Afe- 
chanical Engineer. 

PcLLEY AND Belt. — There is a tendency 
among machine builders to use pulleys that are 
, too narrow for the belts to drive with, for the 
reason, perhaps, that a wide-face pulley will 
give the impression that a large amount of 
power ia required to make them operate; so 
narrow baits are prepared with the idea that 
they can be laced up till the machine is set in 
motion. It would take a great deal of the load 
from off the bearings if the wide belts could be 
used, that they may not ha strained all out 
of shape in transmitting power to the driving- 

Bearing Surfaces. — Too much bearing sur- 
face, if badly fitted and poorly lubricated, may 
be much worse than too little surface. A not- 
able case illustrating this is said to have oc* 
curred in the United States Navy some years 
ago. In order to provide plenty of bearing sur- 
face, the crank shaft was carried in brasses 
4 feet long, the shaft being about LS inches in 
diameter. All the resources of the engine- 
room could not keep these bearings cool, and 
they had ultimately to be reduced in length 

Soften Your Hard Water. 

The enormous waste of fuel, and damage to 
boilers, consequent on the use of " hard " water, 
canytng in solution a large percentage of Itme, 
should incite some one to devise some means to 
purify such water before it eaters the boiler, re- 
marks the Stationat}/ En(/ine>?r. The great ex- 
pense and loss of service imposed upon railroad 
companies by the use of lime water in locomo- 
tives, should have led to some plan by whiah 
the lime in feed-water could be eliminated. 
That it has not been done efi'^ctually before this 
is occasion for surprise, to say the least. True, 
we have a vast array of devices and compounds 
that propose to keep boilers clean, and plenty 
of testimonials are shown to prove that they do 
it, but these are remedies, or meana, for remov- 
ing the deposits left when the water is evap 

Practical men of experience with steam will 
admit that it ought to be easier to remove the 
lime from the water than to clean the scale 
from the shell and tub^, after the heat has 
caused it to deposit and adhere closely. In 
view of the general diffusion of chemical knowl- 
edge among all classes in this nation, it is sur- 
prising that the steam-users and engineers have 
not given the subject more attention. That car- 
bonate of lime can be removed from water by 
changing its condition or form, should have oc- 
curred to some one before this, and that it can 
be done easily and cheaply ought to have been 
demonstrated before this. 

The carbonate of lime which makes water 
hard, is kept in solution by the presence of ex- 
cess of carbonic acid; now if caustic lime-water 
be mixed with hard water, sufficient to neutral- 
ize the carbonic acid, the lime added and that 
in solution will be precipitated as lime carbon- 
ate, ita specific gravity being greater than water. 
The water being left to stand without agitation, 
until the lime has settled at the bottom as a 
white mud, the clear water can be drawn 

A part of the precipitated lime may be drawn 
off, if proper precautions and care are not pres- 
ent, to prevent this result. There is no reason 
why all steam plants and watering stations that 
are troubled with lime-water cannot adopt this 
simple and inexpensive plan for securing water 
that will bs cheaper, cleaner, and less damaging 
than hard lime-water. 

ebakenitr. though their ioflaenee was not yet 
dead, and by tlow degrees it had been resized 
that the ordinary rules of mechanics might be 
applied to steel boilers as safely and as surely 
as to any other structares. The " factor of 
safety" in the wot king steam pressures allowed 
to be carried with a given thickness of plates 
waste a great extent an allowance for want of 
knowledge. But the necRssity tor this no 
longer existed, since with the introduction of 
high steam pressure and steel plates much 
greater attention was now paid than formerly 
to materials and workmanship. 

C.\s A Steam Boiler or pip? bscome hot 
enough to ignite a match purt ly from heat, 
without the least possible friction? At what 
heat would it ignite, and what wouli be the 
highest number of degrees of steam heat that 
could be brought to bear upon the outeide cf a 
steam boiler underpressure ? Also, could steam 
pipes set fire to anything else? ^1. A phos- 
phorus match will ignite at 140 degrees Fah- 
renheit; steam at the boiling point is 21'2 de- 
grees; under high pressure of 240 pounds to the 
inch steam can be htated to 403 degrees, but 
this is not hot enough to set fire to wood, as dry 
pine wood ignites at SOD degrees, and charcoal 
at 580.— ■■^r. Paul Pioneer Png^. 

Nevertheless we have seen it ! A pine board 
laid on pipes through which fiup9r heated steam 
was passed from the boiler to an oil retort char- 
red black in a few hours. The woodwork on 
which heating pipes were hung 300 feet from 
the boiler became so charred that the screws 
let go and the pipes fell down. We cau cite 
actual occurrences by the dozsn. — In': urajice 
Monitor, N. Y. 

Good Mining Saperintendents. 

The greatest need of the Black Hills to-day is 
of men with experience to superintend and 
work the mines. The experience of the past in 
this country, unless it be entirely worthless, 
will justify this statement. If the money that 
has been nnprofitably and unwisely employed 
and wasted through incompetent management, 
and through impracticable undertakings could 
be estimated it would be found there would be 
enough, if placed in the hands of good practical 
miners, to develop the entire resources of the 
hills. A' 1 will agree to this upon a moment's 
reflection. We have but to think of the enter- 
prises undertaken and abandoned, the hard and 
costly labor performed and lost, most of which 
as regarded now was undertaken without due 
consideration and with but little chance of euc- 
cesB from the start, and the wonder then be- 
comes how it is possible that men could act so 
rashly and with 80 little judgment in matters 
involving so much labor, time and money. 

The explanation of this is not difficult, how- 
ever. This was done in times of great excite- 
ment, when fortunes were expected to be made 
in a single year and the lavish outlay of a few 
hundred thousand dollars in work in any part 
of this golden region was expected to develop in 
return a mine with several times the amount 
expended. Men did not stop to reason calmly 
or to weigh the chances of success or failure; 
they inverted almost entirely upon the theory, 
*' nothing risked, nothing gained," which is a 
true one properly interpreted. It was not 
meant, however, that the risk should bs taken 
without the slightest consideration of the 
chances of success. 

The superintendence of a mining company is 
a most important and responsible position, and 
the man chosen for such a position should be a 
man of long experience in practical mining. 
That a man who combines all the qualifications 
for a successful superintendent is difficult to 
find is very evident. There are not very many 
of them out of a job or waiting for an offer. 
They are picked up eagerly and paid large aal- 
ariea by companies that understand the value of 
having such persona at the head of their enter- 
prises. But men of this character can be had 
by paying them sufficient for their services. 
They are a restless class of men generally, ready 
to go to a new place upon a liberal offjr and 
eager to build up a reputation among a new 
people. — Deadioood Pioneer. 

Exhausting Back Into the Boiler,— A gen- 
tleman in New York has contracted to furnish 
about $10,000 for building an experimental en- 
gine of recent invention. The invention is 
nothing less than an engine which shall exhaust 
back into thebjiler, instead of into a condenser 
or the open air. That is," the steam which has 
pushed the piston through a full stroke is to be 
forced back into the boiler by the same piston. 
If the invention cau be made a practical one, it 
will be of great value, for if the steam can be 
exhausted into the boiler the loss from friction 
and radiation, will be so small that from 70 to 
80 per cent of the fuel used to drive an engine 
will b? saved. The engine consists of four sin- 
gle cylinderp, .two being placed horizontally, 
one above the other, on each side of the abaft 
to be turned by them. The pistons are con- 
nected with the shaft, so that the piston in the 
upper cylinder on one aide works in conjunction 
with the piston in the opposite lower cylinder. 
Steam being admitted to either pair of cylin- 
ders, the pistons are forced out to the end of 
their stroke and the shaft is turned half-way 
round. At this instant they are, by means of 
cogs, two cams and a link, uncoupled from the 
shaft and connected with each other, becoming 
aa one piston, with the steam pressing e'qually 
on each side. At this moment the other two 
pistons are coupled to the ahaft and forced by 
the steam to the end of their stroke, keeping 
the shaft turning, and pushing the other two 
pistons to the heads of their cylinders. The 
second pair of pistons are then uncoupled and 
treated in the same way. The theory is said 
to be correct, but the machine somewhat cum- 
bersome, and perhaps slow motioned. 

Steam vs. Water Power.— The cost c f steam 
power in small amounts is greater than in large 
amounts, bat for mills requiring oOO-horse 
power or more as economical results can bs ob- 
tained with steam as with water, in almost 
every case. To this add the advantage of a 
uniform steady power, independent of the rise 
and fill of a river and the saving which this 
may mean; also considar the better results at- 
tained by steam power and we can plainly see 
why thia statement is practically proved at 
Fall River and elsewhere, ahd there is no better 
proof than this that steam mills can success- 
fully compete with other mills driven by water 

The Corliss vs. Slide Valves.— The fact 
that a long-stroke Corliss engine is more eco- 
nomical than the best constructed slide-valve 
engine is sufficiently proven by the further fact 
that a good Corliss engine will, for a tdrm of 
one year, five years, or any number of years, 
save one-third the fuel required by the best 
slide-valve engine ever built to develop the 
same amount of power, running under the same 
conditions. There are numerous ioatances 
where the change from a slide valve to a Corliss 
engine has demonstrated this to be a fact; but 
no instance where any gain in economy has re- 
sulted from changing from a Corliss to a slide- 
valve engine. 

Copper vs. Lros or Steel Pipes. — The Lon- 
don ^7?^ineer. in discussing the subject of copper 
steam pip?8, brought up by the explosion on the 
British steamer Elbe, recently remarked : The 
question deserves consideration. Why use cop- 
per piping at all? It is difficult to see what 
precise advantage it posaesaes over good lap- 
welded steel or iron tubes. It appears, moreover, 
that a very good pipe might be made of thin 
ateel riveted. Such a pipe could not be 
caulked steam tight, but might be brazed steam 
tight, its strength depending mainly on the 
rivets, while the brazing would be a aubati- 
tute for caulking. Now that a doubt baa been 
cast on the merits of copper for high-pressure 
work, it ia poaaible that some ingenious indi- 
vidual will produce aomething as new and as 
suitable for its intended purpose as the cor- 
rugated flues which render high pressure poaai- 
ble at sea. 

The Test Pressures of Marine Steel 
Boilers.— At the sessional meeting of the In- 
stitution of Naval Architects, recently held in 
London, Mr. R. Sennett (chief engineer of the 
admiralty) read an important paper upon 

I " Working and Test Pressures for Marine Steel 
Boilers." He explained that the old bad tra- 

' ditione in regard to testing boilers had besn 

To Prevent Foaming.— The ev'l effects of 
foaming may be in a measure remedied, and 
much drier steam delivered to the engine by 
using flaring connections on the boilers with 
wide mouth for the entering steam. The action 
of ateam flowing from the comparative quiet of 
the boiler to the high velocity in the pipe pro- 
duces something in the nature of a violent auc- 
tion at their connection. In the opening where 
this suction is small the intensity is concentrat- 
ed so that water is likely to be drawn over in 
the form of spray, while if the opening ia large 
the steam starts gradually, leaving more time 
for the water to separate and fall back. 

To Avoid Tearing the Maxhole Gasket. 
— On opening a boiler much trouble is often ex- 
perienced from the tearing of the manhole gas- 
kets; this may be avoided by putting a little 
white lead on the face of the gasket that rests 
on the manhole plate, and by chalking heavily 
the other face of the gasket, as also the part of 
the manhole frame with which it comes into 
contact. On subsequently opening the boiler 
the gasket will generally be found to adhere 
firmly to the plate and to separate from the 
frame without tearing. 

Repairing Steabi Pipe Breaks. — An in- 
genious means of repairing a break in a steam 
pipe consists in binding the break with wood 
strips, laid close together, and well served 
around with stout cord or rope, endwise sep- 
aration being prevented by more rope crossing 
the break diagonally, and tied so as to draw 
the broken parts together; on the wood and the 
cord getting wet with steam, the joints become 
even tighter than before, as the wood swells 
and the cords shorten. 

Castor Oil if^- Boilers.— A writer in the 
American Machinist recommends the use of 
castor oil in boilers where alkaline water is 
used. He says that from two ounces to a pint 
of oil will prevent foaming all day. The oil 
ia put in after the engine shall have started 
if foaming shall begin. 

Waste Silk has been shown to be the moat 
effective non-conductive covering for steam 
pipes. The price is high, but the demand is 
very great. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdly 7, 1888 

C[oTTOJM AJ^ia (JlX.OOh. 

Evolution of Cotton Saed. 

Wa3 ever there a history, this side of Cinder- 
ell I, of the uprising ol humility, like that of 
cotton seed ? Sae ! 

For 70 years, despised as a nuisance and 
bjrned or dumped as garbage; then discovered 
to be t'ne very food f )r which the soil was hau- 
gering, and reluctantly admitted to the rank of 
ugly utilities. 

Shortly afterwards found to be nutritious 
food for bsasts as well as soil, and thereupon 
treats d with something like respect. 

Oace admitted to the circle of farm hus- 
bandries, it was found to hold 35 gallona of 
pure oil to the ton, worth, in the crude state, 
§U to the ton, or 840,000,000 for the whole 
crop of seed. 

But then a system was devised for rehniog 
this oil up to a value of $1 a gallon, and the 
frugal Italianj placed a cisk of it at the root of 
every olive tree and then defied the Birean 
breath of the Alps. 

And then experience showed thlt the ton of 
cotton seed was a better fertilizir,and a better 
stock when robbed of its 35 gallons of oil than 
before, and that the hulls of the seed made the 
best fuel for feeding the oil mill engine. It was 
next discovered that the ashes of the hulls 
scooped from the engine's drift had the highest 
commercial value as potash, and that the " ref- 
use" of the whole made the b3st and purest 
soip stock to carry to tha toilet the perfumes 
cf Lubin or Colgate ! 

About this time people b )gan to spell cotton 
seed with capital letters. 

Next it traveled abroad in its various dresses. 
As meal cakes it whitened the meadows of Ei- 
gland with woolly fiseoes and fattened the Brit- 
ish cattle under the oiks; it sputtered on the 
stoves of the Dutch in lieu of lard; it glistened 
in the cafes of Paris as olive oils under seals 
and signatures it couldn't even pronounce to 
save its life, and from under the dikes of Hol- 
land it went forth to parade in all the bravery 
of butter and butterine. 

In our own country it removed the wasting 
strength of Southern fields and clid them with 
whiteness that would shame the fleeces of En- 
gland, or yellow that would pale the fleeces of 
Argonauts. It knocked the Western hog into 
spots and poured the Western lard out of the 
fryingpan into the fire. It furnished the Ar- 
mours and Fairbankaes with a pnre subjtitute 
for the rancid fat they had been shipping us, 
and suggested the possibility of a clean and 
cheap lard. 

And abjut this time Congress jumped onto 
cotton seed with both feat, and proposed to 
cheek its further career by a prohibitory tax. 

And now comes a gentleman with a process 
by which he extracts 30 gallons of fine oil from 
every ton of cotton seed meal after the oil mills 
have done with it. In the "tailings" of the oil 
mills he fiuds this unexpected and ample store, 
which he deftly extracts with naphtha, Uaving 
the meal more nutritious as food for beast or 
field than before he took SIO per ton from it. 
This invention will add 40 per cent to the quan- 
tity of oil taken by the old process from a 
given quantity of seed. 

More than this, it suggests the splendid pos- 
sibilities yet undeveloped for this rural Cinder- 
ella that has risen all so swiftly from the ashes 
of the waste heap. — Atlanta OonstitiUion. 

which remiins in solution. From this vesse 
the water runs into amther cootiming milk of 
lime, with which it is mixed until thera is a de- 
cided disengagement ol ammonia. The solid 
matters then fall to the b )ttom. Toe two other 
layers, now mingled by the withdrawal of the 
middle one, are thrown upon another fil:er of 
the same kiod which retain the f itty acids. 

The development of this in^lu itry is due princi- 
pally to Miumne and Eigelet, whose process 
in operation at most of the great seats of wool 
manuf loturing is very simple. They evaporate 
the waste liquors to dryness and pi ice the resi- 
due in retort and distill it in very much the 
same minner as coal is distilled at gasworks. 
The rciuU is that while much gas is evolved, 
which is used to light the factories, and much 
ammmia is expelled, which is collected and 
used in many ways, there remiins a product 
consisting cf cirbonite, sulphate and chloride 
of potassium, These salts are separated by the 
usual method and pass into commsrce. 

It has b;en shown by Chevrene thit the 
wool yolk forms at least one-third of the weight 
of raw merino wool, and that this wool yolk is 
a peculiar potash compound which the sheep 
draw from the land on which they graz), and 
which is eventually excreted from the skin 
along with the sweat. According to Maumne, 
a fleece weighing four kilogrammes contains 600 
grammes of grease, in which is 193 grs. of pure 
carbonate of potash; and according to data 
published since, 1000 kilogrammes of wool yield 
140 to ISO kilos, of dry salt or 70 to 03 kilos, of 
potash. At the wool-washing works of Djhren, 
near Hinover, they get 152 kilos, of raw potash 
out of five tons of wool, and it contains 80 per 
cent of carbonate. In 1867 Miumne andRi- 
gelet produced at their works at Rheims and 
E bee if 150 tons of pare potash from grease, and 
there are similar works at Riuoaix, Antwerp, 
Vorviers, L-ega, Bruges, Hanover, Djhren and 

These are facts that cannot be denied, and as 
this industry is in successful operatic i in France, 
why cannot it be done in this country and in 
this Siate as well, and these valuable products 
thit are at present going to waste and polluting 
our rivers and streams, be reclaimed and 
utilized ? 

Cotton Coltivation in Russia. — Russia, it 
appears from the statement of the Novosti, im- 
ports annually 360,000,000 pounds weight of 
cotton, chiefly from America and Ejypt. The 
recent acquisitions to Central Asia of the Czir 
are said to have given him territory well suited 
to the cultivation of this articls, and the Rus- 
sian papers are asking why the country should 
continue to pay 100,000,000 gold roubles to the 
foreigners when they can grow it at home. S jme 
Asiatic cotton from Khiva and Bjkhara has 
already been Boi J on the Russian market, but 
the prospect from the new pUntations on the 
Murghab is still more promising and abundant. 
The Czir'a domain on that river, where General 
Puoked and the expert M. Poklevsky Koz;ll 
have been making experiments, ia considered 
specially well suited to this particular cultiva- 
vation. M. Poklsvsky believes that after the 
restoration of the Sultan Bsy dyke this tract 
alone will be sufHsieut to supply the whole de- 
fioieny of the Russian Empire. The prelimi- 
nary essential to these operations is the com- 
pletion of the irrigation works, and as these 
will occupy the next two years, it ia uncertain 
till they are achieved whether cotton or some 
other crop will be the most remunerative.— 
Cotton Fa'Aory Times. 



thread factory ia to be built near Birnett 
S'loals, Gi. A Merchantville, N. J , proj ictor 
will put up a Urge amount of knitting machin 
ery at Monbi, N. C. Spartansburg, N. 
to have a §100,000 mill.— JV. 
ocrat, ^^ 

Sheep Shearing is actively pregressing in 
Eiatern 0;egon, and wool is alrealy being 
hauled to points on the railroad. The clip be- 
ing hauled to Arlington and the DiUes is in fair 
condition. The staple is better than last year, 
except from localities where the ranges are 
crowded. Umatilla and Snake river wools are 
average in appearance. Union and Biker 
counties show a heavier clijf, owing to the in- 
troduction of bitter blO)d. (Jrant county 
wools are light, and on the whole the clip of 
Oregon may bs considered five per cant heavier 
in shrinkage than last year, but wools classed 
as railroad wools by the trade are as much as 
10 per cent heavier.- PortZnii Chronicle. 

Evolution. — The cotton seed bjoome cotton, 
the cotton becomes thread, the thread becomes 
a fabric, the fab. ic becomes a print, the print 
b;comea a wrappsr, and the wrapper becomes a 
boantifal woman. — N. Y. San. 

]E{bOUR ff^ILL XiOTE^S- 

which now runs about 120 feet of three-inch 
shafting, containing many heavy pulleys. This 
shafo d(i/es four spike machines, two bolt 
headers, two nut presses and a large quantity 
of thrsading and tapping machitery, including 
some emery heads. It tikes less than 20-horBe 
power to drive this shaft, and it delivers a uni- 
form speed to all machines. Previous to plac- 
ing this motor, the power was transmitted near- 
ly 300 feet by belts and shafting, and probably 
required nearly 50h9rse power to do the same 
work now done with less than 20. 
How the Motors Increase the Working Ca- 
pac'.ty of itxe Men. 
Careful observation has shown that the roll- 
ing-mill men are doing much more work now 
than by the oil-belt system, owing to the fact 
that during much of the time spsed was EO 
slow, caused by low steam, that some of the 
machines had to be abut down. 

A Flour Trnst, 

Reclamation of Waste Proiucts in 
Wool Scouring. 

Too little attention is paid in this country to 
the reclamation of waste products in most of 
our manufacturing operations, and none, prob- 
ably more than in the waahing and manu- 
facture of wool. Oar French and G.-rman 
competitors are far ahead of us in taking ad- 
vantage of any new discovery in connection 
with the industrial arts; in fact, almost all new 
discoveries and their application to the in- 
dustrial arts are the product of E iropean brains, 
and with all our hoaated go-lheadness as a na- 
tion, we are behind the times in a great many 
reapscts. These are facts which cannot be de- 

Wade's Fibre and Fabric refers in this di- 
rection to a patent which has recently been 
issued in France to M. Marx for a new process 
of utilizing the residue from wool scouring, by 
which the waste iquor is passed through a 
coarse cloth stretched on a wooden frame form- 
ed like a baker's trough, by which all the wool 
and coarse matter in suspension are removed. 
The waste is then allowed to overflow into a 
gutter of masonry wnich is partially barred at 
intervals by backs ts arrest the solid matter in 
the forni of mud, whic'i is then sold as a most 
valuabls manure. The water ia then received 
into a large cistern, where it rests for several 
hours, and deposits the rest of the matter ia 
solution. It is then drawn off by a pump into 
a wooden vat, and is mixed with suffiaient 
hydrochl )ric acid to saturate the free alkalies 
and that which forms part of the soap, decom- 
position takes place, and deposition in three 
layers. The middle layer, which has a milky 
- .appearance, contains various animal matters; 
the upper and lower layers contain fatty, acids 
and also a matter the same aa the middle layer. 
The middle layer is conveyed into a cylindrical 
vessel charged with large pieces of limestone 
which disengages the hydrochloric acid from its 
first combination, forming chloride of lime. 

Odr American Anooras — The foundation 
of the American Angori flocks was imported 
from Asia. Richard Peters cf Georgia, we 
believe, was the one who brought the first into 
this country.' Fabulous prices were paid for 
these animals. The stock waa introduced into 
C ililornia and Texaa, the now principal Angora 
districta of America. For years these breeders 
have found a larger demand for their mohair 
than they could supply, high prices were real- 
izid, and the maj )rity of those engaged in this 
industry have become wealthy. Oi late, how- 
ever, the prices for hair have declined so that 
many have abindoned the biainesa. We do 
not think that any goats have been imported 
for some years past. Do not see why it cannot 
be made profitable; they require much less 
care, and will subsist on food that sheep will 
not touch. They are much hardier than the 
hardiest of sheep. Hair sells all the way from 
35 to 50 cents per pound. We cannot see why 
they could not be raised with success in the 
Southern and Southwestern States and Terri- 
tories.— SAeep breeder and Wool-growsr. 

The Quality of Cotton. — The cotton brok- 
ers declare that the cotton now in use in Fall 
River is the best that was ever landed there. 
If this ia so, and there ia little reason to doubt 
the brokers, the spinners have lost one of their 
causes of grievance. Some of the members of 
the Spinners' Union had made plana to aak the 
manufacturers for batter cotton during the 
summer months, but this will not now be neces- 
sary. The manufacturers have come to the 
conclusion that the best is the cheapest in the 
long run. The mills are prosperous and there 
is a strong probability that business will be 
good and the factories running fnll time. — F£. 

Cotton-Mill Building in the South is be- 
ing pushed with almost blind zeal. Within two 
months announcements have been made of 60 
new mills. One at Athens is to double its 
capacity from 5000 to 10,000 spindles. A 

A Flonr-MiU Run by Electricity. 

Some Very Remarkable Results Obtilned 
b 7 this Power. 
Toe Ekc'rical JForid gives an illustrated de- 
soription of the Laramie Wyoming M 1 ing and 
Elevator Company's flour-mill, operated entirely 
by electric-power. 

The mill is a fine specimen of design and 
workmanship throughout. Its capacity is 100 
barrels of flour per day, and it turns out work 
in this proportion regularly, without crowding. 
The mill is equippei with steam heat, the 
Elison electric light and Sprague electric 
motors. These motors are used exclusively for 
the power to drive the mill. All parties inter- 
ested are entirely satisfied with the power now 
in nae; It is not probable a change will ever be 
made in this respect. The mill machinery con- 
sists of seven double sets of rolls 7x18 inohea 
each, with purifying machinery of a capacity 
equal to the rolls. 

The power ia divided in units of 25 horse- 
power each. Oae motor in the corner of the 
builling drivea all purifying machinery on the 
floora above, also the wheat (cleaning) machine, 
and all elivatora and conveyors, which, if they 
were all stretched out in ons line, would measure 
over a mile in length. The other motor runs 
the seven double sets of rolls and the flour- 

From the experience gained, Mr. Jones, the 
manager, would advise mill-builders who uae 
electric motors to subdivide their power into 
three units, by taking all wheat-oleaoing and 
scouring machines, and all elevators and con- 
veyors running directly in their interest, from 
the purifier line, and to apply a motor of proper 
capacity directly to them by means of a coun- 
tershaft. This he would suggest owing to the 
intermittent use of these maohlnea, especially 
where the wheat-dampening process is used. 

He maintains that he has a lower percentage 
of loss of power than he would obtain from an 
engine placed in a building prepared for it 
alongside the mill, counting the necsssary loss 
by friction in running long shafting and belts, 
as ia invariably done. The arrangement just 
suggested, a subdivision of power into tnree 
units, would reduce the friction and be prefer- 
able, aa cleaning machines could remain idle 
much of the time; and, beaides, the preaent 
quantity of shafting and belts would necessarily 
be reduced. 

Remarkable Results Noted, 
The motors in the Laramie mill run at con- 
stant speed. Mr. Jones states they are more 
constant as to any sudden change than the 
best-regulated automatic engines in the market. 
The only change they are subj !ct to is a grad- 
ual, but slight, increase in speed from the time 
of starting until the day's run is complete. 
This increase appears to be due to an increase 
in the temperature of the armature, and has 
been found to be in these proportions : Thus 
at starting the roller line shaft makes 219 revo- 
lutions per minute, which is the right speed, 
at night the speed has increased to 224 revolu- 
tions, and at intervals during the day the speed 
varies in almost true proportion, which result 
is more uniform than engines will give. 

The meters are wound lor 220 volts, but are 
run at 226 volts, and it requires in current an 
average of 150 amperes to drive the mill to its 
full capacity. A variation of pressure on these 
machines will vary the speed in about the same 
proportion as steam pressure will vary the speed 
of the heat engines. So far as observed, a vari- 
ation of one volt electrical preaaure will pro- 
duce about the same effect on the motors as one 
pound of steam pressure would vary a good 
automatic engine. However, it is easy to con- 
trol electrical pressure to within one or two 
volts, while it is difficult to control ste.^m pres- 
sure within the limit of a few pounds, which 
showa that the motor is superior as to variable 
changes in speed. 

Electricity in an Iron ■Rolling Mill. 

Mr. Jones has been so well pleased with the 

work of the electric motors in the flour-mill 

that he has recently placed a 20 horse power 

Sprague motor in the Laramie rolling milla. 

A convention of the flour millers cf the 
United States met at Buffalo, N. Y., during 
the past month. It appears from the prooeed- 
ings, so far as we have received them, that the 
millers have also fallen into the general desire 
to form a "trust." The proposition is to en- 
roll all the leading millers of the country into 
the organization. When that is done the or 
ganization will be in a position to dictate the 
price of wheat and flonr for home consumption, 
and another price, it deemed advisable, tor ex- 
port. The plan also involves the abrogation of 
the present 20 per cent tariff on foreign wheat. 
Ibis is simply a new movement to place the con- 
trol of the bread stuff of the country in the hands 
of a few speculators; a movement much more 
easily effected and involving far less capital than 
the *' corners " in wheat heretofore attempted, 
that is, provided the proposed organization can 
be accomplished. 

The Call of this city comments upon the mat- 
ter as follows: "They," the millers, " want 
the duty on wheat removed. It is not necee- 
sary to travel far a-field to discover what the 
object of the last proposition is. The millers 
in convention aak no less than that the Amer- 
ican farmer shall be delivered over to them 
bound hand and foot. This is what the woolen 
manufacturers were encouraged to do with re- 
gard to the wool-growers — the fruit-canners in 
the matter of tin plate to the fruit-growers. 
The 20 cents per bushel now charged as duty on 
Canadian wheat saves our farmers from the 
clutches of the millers just to that extent. If 
the duty were removed they would have to 
come down to Canadian prices, when transpor- 
tation charges were equal. Our farmers would 
lose wh<at may he called the border trade in 
wheat altogether. Canadian wheat can be laid 
down more cheaply in Buffalo than whsat from 
the interior of the State of New York. 

But the special point to be noted is that the 
millers do not think that they can succeed in 
setting up their " trust " unless the duty on 
wheat is repealed. They want to use foreign 
wheat as A club to baat down the prices of our 
own farmers. But President Cleveland gave 
expression to the opinion in his last meseage 
that it is the tariff which has made "trusts" 
possible. Some of his defenders have asserted 
that it was the 75 cents per ton levied on coal 
which haa sent the price in this city from S7 to 
$17 per ton. O.her wholly wonderful results 
have been noted in other parts of the field. But 
the millers in 'convention have knocked the 
bottom out of the absurd notion. The "trusts " 
which are strongest in this country are those 
which are least protected. 

British and American Wheat-Growing. 

The English economists are puzzled by the 
problem presented by wheat cultivation in 
India. To that they ascribe many of their woes 
and many of the uncertainties cf the future. 
The first export of wheat from India was in 
1868, and the quantity was 559,000 bushels. 
There was a slow increase for a few years until 
1876, when the amount was 4,687,000 buEhels. 
In 1881 the amount was 13,896,167 bushels. 
For the six years, 1882-87, the average ex- 
port has been 35.530,000 bushels. In the earlier 
years most of this wheat went to Great Britain, 
at least four-fifths of it; but latterly, say 1882 
to 1887, the proportion has been less than one- 
half. 'The price of India wheat at the place of 
export has been a few cents less than that of 
our wheat, but the ocean freights have been 
about as much in favor of the American product 
and on arrival the latter is found to be cleaner 
and better, and ia not prejudiced for best uses 
by the India grain. Much haa been aaid and 
written concerning the poasible rivalry between 
the wheat product of India and that of the 
United States, and the posaible expulsion of 
the Utter from the markets of Europe. This 
possibility may be regarded aa very remote for 
various reasons; such as the imperfect methods 
of culture and harvesting in India, the cost of 
interior transportation, the inferior quality of 
grain, the neceasity of irrigation, etc. 

India raises one bushel to a head of the popu- 
lation, the United States, seven, India haa one 
mile of railroad to 20,000 people, the United 
States one to 435. The people of India require 
by far the largest proportion of their wheat 
production for food and seed (and their home 
appetite increases every year) while the people 
of the United States, after appropriating five 
bushels per capita, have a surplus for export 
equal to one-half the entire crop of the British 
Emuire in the Ewt.— American Agriculturist. 

JutY 7, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Coast IndQstrlal Notes. 

Tbe TaonerB, Curriers and FtoiBhers' Union 
of this city now numbers some 200 members and 
is making rapid progress. 

TuK cDltivation of bamboo for fencing mate- 
rial has been begun in California. It is said 
that an aore will produce pickets enough each 
year to make six miles of fence. 

Onk side of the Paoitio Lumber Cn.'a mill at 
Sootia, says the Humboldt Standard, has been 
shut down to remain until there shall be an in- 
creased demand for lumber. We are told that 
some 1 to men are thrown out of employment by 
these suspensions. 

The Paget Sound Loggers' Association has 
unanimously agreed to oartail one-third the out- 
put of logs for the balance of the year, com- 
mencing July Ist. It was generally agreed that 
too many logs were being put on the water to 
keep prices at living rates. This assooiation 
represents three-fifths of the logging interest on 
Puget sound, and the action taken will make a 
difference of 80,000,000 feet in the output for 
the rest of the year. 

A Letter from Sutter Creek, Amador county, 
says: "Operations have commenced at the new 
sawmill of Tarr Bros. They say it works 
charmingly, and is good for 15 years. In fact 
there are not many better to be found in the 
State, The supply of first class lumber being 
abundant, this milt ought to do a rushing busi- 
ness, notwithstanding that it is further off than 
the other mills. An excellent road all the way 
obviates to a great extent the extra distance." 

Forty- Five Thousand shingles manufactured 
at the Frazter mill, says the Visalia Times, were 
brought to this city on Tuesday last and sold to 
the San Joaqnin Lumber Co. This is the largest 
lot of home-manufactured shingles ever brought 
to this city at one time. Heretofore the s&inglee 
on sale, in this county have been manufactured 
on the coast or in Washington Territory, but 
now that our own people have engaged in their 
maoafacture the money to be expended for them 
will be retained at home. 

The California Sash, Door and Blind Manu- 
factory, located in West Oakland, whioh has 
the largest capacity of any in the State, has 
been closed. How long it will remain inoper- 
ative is not known. The mill is owned by a 
syndica'e of capitalists of San Franeiaco, B. and 
J. S. Doe being prominently interested. The 
factory was formerly operated at San Qaentin 
by convicts, but after San Q dentin authorities 
refnsed to take th's work longer, the company 
built the West Oakland milh. 

May was the banner month of exports from 
Puget sound, surpassing all others, 38,302,816 
feet of lumber being exported from the nine 
porta of the Sound. Tacoma was in the lead, 
shipping 9,985,215 feet. The coal shipments 
were 57,842 tons, Seattle leading with 36 520 
tons, and Tacoma shipping 21,340 tons. Tne 
total exports from Tacoma for the month of 
May, including lumber, coal, wheat, flour and 
merchandise, are vilued at §434 540, and from 
all the porta, 31,215,270. The tonnage was 88,- 

The San Bernardino Index says : The San 
Bsrnardino, Arrowhead & Waterman motor 
road has been completed as far as Harlem, and 
henceforth regular trains wiU be run to that 
popular resort. The timber industry alone 
would justify the building of tbe road, to say 
nothing of the local trafi&j. It will enable the 
timbsr-growers and millmen in the mountains 
to place their timber in this market several 
dollars per thousand cheaper than at present, 
the only transportation now being by means of 
freighting teams. 

The new steel steamer Pomona, just com- 
pleted by the Union Iron Works of this city, 
will be pat on the San Francisco and San Pedro 
line, in place of the Lis Angeles, which latter 
steamer goes in the northern coast trade. This 
new steamer is 240 feet in length, 33 feet 
breadth of beam, IS feet deph of hold with a 
registered capacity of li:,45 tons. She will con- 
tain 45 staterooms, 35 of whioh will be on the 
deck and 10 in the saloon, and will have a speed 
of 15 knots per hour, and will be equipped with 
electric lights and electric bells. In finish, im- 
provement, and for comfort and convenience 
she will not have a superior on the Pacific 

The Tuolumne Independent says that the 
steam traction engine destined for logging at 
the Empire mill arrived all right. The tests were 
Bucoessful. Considering that the engine was 
only guaranteed to haul 14 to 16 tons on a dead 
level, this test of hauling 18 tons up a grade of 
18:J inches to the rod, and the second test of 
hauling 12 tons up a 25inch grade — which 
usually requires eight stout horses to do — vi&s 
more than satisfactory. More than this, no 
such heavy grade exists where the engine is to 
work, and no more than eight tons at a load 
will be required. The load was font times the 
weight of the engine. 

On Pine ridge, Fresno county, Musick'a mill 
is running and so is the old Donahoo now -ken- 
don's, and the Bannett mill also. John Hum- 
phreys is putting in a new mill of large capac- 
ity about two miles beyond the Muaick mill in a 
body of splendid timber, on what is knpwn as 
the Reynolds' place. One feature of the lum- 
ber business this aeaaon, while entirely satis- 
factory to the millmen, is going to create a bad 
feeling among those who have been expecting to 
bay lumber at the mills and haul it direct to 
where they wish to use it, and that is, that 
nearly the entire oat of tbe presert reason is 

sold in advance, and the sawing will all be to 
order of the parchaaers. 

Etna, Siskiyou Co., formerly called Rough 
and Ready, is situated at the base of Mount 
Etna, a mountain of 9000 feet elevation, and a 
peak in the great Salmon rang'^, about midway 
and on the west side of Scott Valley, Siskiyou 
Co., Cil. Nestled beneath the shadow of this 
great monntain range, with the beautiful, rich 
fertile valley stretching out to the south, east 
and north, makes its site grand and picturesque. 
The town is noted for its water-power and mill- 
ing facilities, there being formerly three grist 
mills and two sawmills besides other smalt fao 
tories. It is the base of supplies for the ex- 
tensive Sdmon River mining! district, all the 
supplies being packed on mules from Etna into 
this mining region. 

The report of the Board of Survey on the 
Mooongahela, now at the Mare Island Navy 
Yard, says : The general condition of the 
Monongahela is fair. She is very suitable for a 
store ship. An extension of the berth deck, as 
recommended, would add to her efficiency as 
well as strength. The board estimates the cost 
of labor and material to refit her for her present 
duty to be about $45,150, or a little over 13 
per cent of the estimated coat of a new ship of 
the same aize and like material. The Bureau 
of Construction recommends that she be refitted 
in accordance, with the recommendation of the 
board, and requests authority to proceed with 
the work at an early day, as any delay will in- 
crease the cost. 

In speaking of the Willow Brook shtnglemill 

the Humboldt Standard says: " The plant and 
buildings are all new, commodioas and conve- 
nient. A 35 horse power engine moves the ma- 
chinery. The shingle machine is the Perkins' 
patent; 60,000 shingles are made each day. 
The shingle saw makes 1900 revolutions per 
minute and the bolt saw 1000, The mill was 
erected by John McAfee, who ia now the en- 
gineer. Ohas. Armstrong is general manager; 
Willard Wilson ruus the bolt saw; C. Perrott is 
jointer; packers, H. Mooney and L. Winsted. 
The last named will pack from 40,000 to 45,000 
shiogles per day and do it in aplendid style. He 
ia one of the most efiScient men in thia line in 
thia State. Seven men are employed about the 
mill and five in the woods." 

CoL. Waring has completed his plana for a 
system of sewage for San Louis Obispo, has 
placed his reports, maps, estimates, etc., in the 
hands of the city board of trustees, and now 
awaita the further action of the community. 
It can hardly be doubted that no error is poesi- 
ble in the plan ao far as relates to the gathering 
of the sewerage in the city. It is comprehen- 
sive, taking in the whole town site, from Palm 
to Islay streets, and from above the Ramona to 
the depot. It can be extended as necessity de- 
mands to sewer every dwelling in the city limits, 
lb is not too extensive in its scope for present 
needs; but it involvea no conetruction which 
will not be valuable and essential should the 
city grow to five times its present dimensions. 
Every part of the city is alike sewered, and is 
interested in having the entire system con- 

The San Diego iron and nail manufactory is 
located at Roseville, and the immense buildings 
to be occupied are nearing completion. These 
buildings will cover four acres of ground, and 
will be very substantial in character. Four 
hundred thousand feet of lumber was used in 
their construction, and it took 20 tone of 
corrugated iron for roofing. When in working 
order the factory will use 25 tons of iron and 
turn out 500 kegs of nails daily. One hundred 
men will be employed. The company has a 
capital of $250,000. The officers are, president, 
N. H. Conkiio; vice president and secretary. 
Col. W. J. Farrow; treasurer, Bryant Howard; 
general manager and superintendent, G. P. 
Clapp. Dlrectora, E. W. Bashyhead, P. W. 
Putnam, E. W. Hendricks, J. A. Allison. 

A Large force of laborers ia now kept at 
work by the Contra Costa Water Company 
laying new pipes and maina in the many grow- 
ing districta on the outskirts of Oakland, Dur- 
ing the past week between 3000 and 4000 feet 
of twc-inch pipe has been laid in the northern 
part of the city, in a district that but two years 
ago was only marked by an occasional houae. 
Now, however, with the subdiviaion of the 
large tracts of land formerly held by individual 
owners — such tracts as Paradise Park, the 
Watt's tract, Harmon's and othera — the in- 
crease in house building has been truly won- 
derful. Until recently these districta were 
without city water, the company not deeming 
it a profitable investment to lay pipea. So the 
newcomers were obliged to sink wells, many of 
them at considerable expense. There are in- 
stances where the wells, pumps, windmilla, 
tanks and frames have cost individual property 
owners as high as $1000. 

Mr. J. B. PuGSLEY of St. Paul, who is now 
interested at North Vakima, says that in addi- 
tion to the Griggs Lumber Co. and others re- 
ported in the Takoma papers, who will erect 
large mills on the sound, nearly all of the large 
lumbering firms along the upper Misaissippi 
river anticipate putting up mills in Western 
Washington. The reason of thia westward 
movement on tbe part of lumbermen are many, 
among whioh he names the fact that the lumber 
has been cut out of woods which are readily ac- 
c^ssible in the Northwestern Sbatea, and that 
the timber there yields only about 20,000 to 40,- 
000 feet to 40 acres, while in Western Washing- 
ton the product ia from 100,000 to 300,000 feet 

to 40 acres, and that the price of logs on the 
stump in the East is from ^l to $3 per thousand, 
while out here it is from 50 cents to Si per thou- 
sand feet. The intention io to ship large quan- 
tities of lumber from Western Washington 
Territory to tbe markets of the Eiat. 

SuMK of the numerous men from the East 
who have come to buy timber-land, feel a little 
nervous when they see the size of the Oregon 
trees. They have had no experience in hand- 
ling such logs or in cutting them. They re- 
alize at a gUnce the vast difference between 
sawing up a log of tough fir five feet and a soft 
pine log two feet in diameter, and know that 
different modes of transportation and different 
machinery must be used here from what they 
have been accustomed to. They however, rea- 
lize the value of our timber and the lirge 
amount of it on an acre. In regard to the lum- 
ber bfing brought to Denver from New Mexico 
and Texas, which has shut out our lumbermen 
from that market, one of these men says that 
millmen take portable saw-milts into the woods 
there and hire colored men for SO centi per day, 
and the trees being comparatively smal) but tall 
and straight, make a good quality of lumber 
very cheaply. Before our lumbermen can com 
pete with them they must have a very consider- 
able reduction of freight rates. 

There has b3en more than usual aotivity in 
the basalt block interests of Sonoma the past 
year. New quarries have been opened in order 
to meet the demand for basalt blocks to pave 
the streets of San Francisco, Stockton, and 
other large cities on the coast. Owing to the 
fine quality of the rock and tbe comparative light 
coat of shipment, and owing to the accessibil- 
ity of Sonoma quarries to S in Francisco, there 
ia a constant and growing demand for blooks. 
This industry gives remunerative employment 
to a large number of men the year round, and is 
by no means a small source of revenue to the 
Sjnoma Valley railroad, which carries the 
blocks to D 'nahue Landing from whence they 
are shipped by schooner to San Franoisco. 
From Jan. 1, 1887, to Jan. 1, 1888, there were 
shipped over the above railroad 22,458,180 
pounds of paving blocks. Eaoh block weighs 
between 20 and 27 pounds and the number of 
blocks shipped in 1887 amounted nearly to 
1,150,000. The shipments from last January 
to date have aggregated 6,529,600 pounds. The 
magnitude of thia business may be better un- 
derstood when it ia stated that the value of the 
blocks ahipped in 1887 amounted in roand fig- 
ures to about $84,000, and it took 1490 flit cars 
to transport the blocks to Sonoma Landing. 

The foundry and machine-shops of George G. 
Allan, Nevada city, Nevada county, has been in 
existence since 1855. The business of the 
foundry consists principally in the manufacture 
of steam-engines, hoisting and milling works, 
castings for quartz-mills, amalgamating pans, 
water-wheels, and other mine supplies. The 
worka are capable of turning out the heavieat 
kinds of quartz-mills and machinery used around 
mines. The buildings are extensive and all the 
appliances are complete. The macinC'Shop 
proper ia 80x40 feet in dimensions. In this de- 
partment is a complete outfit of lathes, planes, 
drill-presses, bolt-cuttera, etc., capable of doing 
the heaviest as well as the lightest kinds of 
work. At the present time there are bat 12 
men employed, but whsn the works are running 
to their full capacity, 35 find employment. At 
thi) present time the force is engaged in caatiog 
mortars for quartz batteries, after the D Ihi 
style known as the Collins pattern, which are 
said by experts to be the finest yet made. A 
pump and boiler for Blnomfield are ready for 
ahipping. A hundred 12 inch car-wheels for 
the Derbec mine at Bloomfield are now finished. 
Four iron cars for the Manzinita are also ready 
to be shipped. Castings for the Rooky Glen, 
Cilifornia, Washington, Blue Bell, Yuba and 
Delhi are being made. The foundry haa fre- 
quent orders from the North Star and Empire 
mines of Grass valley. Work has been slack of 
late, but orders are now beginning to come in 
and things will aoon be in full blast. 

The display of California goods at Mel- 
bourne will be better than was expected. The 
following is a complete Hat of exhibits to be 
sent, with the names of the exhibitors, from the 
Pacific Coast: From the San Franeiaco Prod- 
uce Exchange, an elegant oaken cabinet con- 
taining samples of all cereals dealt in bv the Ex- 
change. Mining machinery from the following 
firms will be an important feature of the ex- 
hibi*-: P^rk & Lacy, H. P. Gregory & Co., F. 
A. Huntington & Oj., Pac fie and Risdon Iron 
Works, Joshua Hendy Machine Company, E. 
G. Dennison, and San Francisco Novelty and 
Pliting Company. Flour mill machinery from 
Joseph Wagner & Co., and the California Screen 
Company, together with agricultural imple- 
ments from Biker, Hamilton & Co., will com 
plete the mechanical display. The other exhi- 
bitions will be of mixed paint from tbe Califor- 
nia Paint Company; patent shades from E. H. 
Marwedel; leather goods from S. Bliom & Co. 
and A. M. Kron & Co; glovea from the Leak 
manufactory; upholatery from C. M. P»um; 
wines from Alf. Greenbaum & Co. and Arpad 
Haratz'hy & Co.; tule life preaerverH from C. 
J. Hendry; salted fish from Lynde & Hough; 
honey from Schact &, Lerake; earth oils from 
Woodbury O.l Company; candies from Ehren- 
pfort & Rothschild; doors from Sierra Lumber 
Company; wine casks from R. Armstrong; silk 
thread from Carlson, Currier »fc Co.; rope and 
cordage from Tubbs & Co.; cotton flour aacks 
from Neville & Co.; borax from the Pacific 
Borax and Salt Soda Company; laundry starch 

from J. Everding v^, Co.; sewer pipe and brick 
from CLirke A, Son; consolidated soupa from 
Consolidated Food Company; pianos from T. 
M. Antisell k Co.; oompresBiog machinery from 
W. S. Duncombe & Co.; butchers' supplies from 
O^lifornia Casings Company; saddlery from 
Hart & Brandenstein ; canned eatmon from 
Dilafield, Morgan, Kissel & Co., and G. W. 
Hume & Co. Geo. W. Meade & Co. will make 
a large oisplay of dried fruits, and there will 
also be an extensive display of raisins from A. 
B. Butler of Fresno, and olive oil from Ellwood 
Cooper of Santa Barbara. California hops from 
Lilienthal & Co.; germea from Sperry & Co,; 
mustard from the Hudson Manufacturing Com- 
pany; leather belting from A. D. Cook; canned 
meats from A. Mau & Co.; and a large display 
of perfumery by the Western Perfumery Com- 
pany, will complete this splandid array of Cali- 
fornia's products. 

Stockton is'shortly to have a new manufac- 
turing industry, and one which will give em- 
ployment to a large number of mf^n. The 
Stockton Combined Harvester Works, of 
which corporation Mayor Shippee is at the 
head, is going into tbe busioeas of manufac- 
turing railway cars. Mayor Shippee was in- 
terviewed upon the subj-ict, and said it was 
true that the corporation had decided to en- 
gage in that busiioess, in cor junction with the 
manufacture of agricultural machinery. In 
fact, they were at work now making the neces- 
sary additions and modifications in thtir al- 
ready large establishment. He went on to say 
that the association had every facility for the 
business. With few exceptions the machinery 
necessary for the construction of railway cars 
was the same aa that used in the manufacture 
of harvesting machinery. The only thing they 
would have to get was a large power press. 
Mr. Shippee said the company had on hand a 
large quantity of lumber which had been sea- 
soned for two years, and which was juat the 
material for cars. He thought that everything 
would be in readiness to commence operations 
by the5.h of next moith. Mr. Shippee said 
that it was the intention to manufacture all 
kinds of railway oars, both passenger and, 
freight, also street cars and cars for motor 
roada. He predicted that before a year had 
elapsed the new industry would be tbe means 
of giving employment to three hundred men. 
They already have a contract with the South- 
ern Pacific Co. to build 100 oars. 

Good brick clay is found in this vicinity, 
mainly on the bay shore in Marin county, be- 
tween Point Tiburon and San Rafael, and in 
Contra Coata county batween Point Isabel and 
Point Pedro. The deposits on the Marin 
county shore are abDut worked out, but on the 
Contra Cl>^ta side there are several in opera- 
tiou. New deposits of brick clay have been 
found in the hills back of Fruitvale, Alameda 
county, and a successful industry is promised 
there. Brick can be made on the ground and 
shipped to Oakland by the new Alameda 
County Railway, and thence by schooner to 
thia city at a very low freight rate. The de- 
posit is a large one and it is said to contain 
some of the tineat clay yet discovered in thia 
State. In view of the fact that our contraotora 
and builders have been load in their complaints 
of the poor quality of brick supplied to them re> 
cently, it will be a source of satisfaction to he 
able to get good brick from a readily accessible 
point. "The discovery of the deposit was made by 
the working force on the Alameda County Rail- 
way. J, H. Woodard, who is president of the 
company, says that ateps will at once be taken 
to develop the deposit and start a brickyard 
on tbe ground. He thinks that the discovery 
ia a valuable one, and that the industry will 
prove very prcfibable. The deposit is on the 
Laundry Farm in the vicinity of the Mills 
Semioacy, If the demand for good brick con- 
tinues at the present rate the owners of the de- 
posit will feel justified in erecting works from 
which they can turn out from six to ten oar- 
loads a day. 

The result of the experiment of illuminating 

the Crown Mills at Stockton, San Joaquin Co,, 
with natural gas has proved entirely satisfactory 
to the manager, Mr. Welsh, The interior of 
the building is illuminated by means of 36 
powerful incandescent lamps of the latest im- 
proved pattern, aituated in different depart- 
menta of the mill. The flame is much brighter 
and steadier than that produced by manufact- 
ured gas. The lights burn without the slight- 
est flickering. The grinding department, con- 
taining 40 double sets of rollers and seven run 
of stone, which requires plenty of light, is sup- 
plied with six lights. The packing, bolting 
and purifying departments, on the third, fourth 
and fifth floora, are each tupplied with three 
lampa, which furnish all the light necessary to 
carry on the work of each department. The 
well from whiclj the supply of gas is obtained 
ia located on the north side of tbe mill close tQ 
the building. The work of boring it was com- 
menced last August, and at a depth of 1000 
feet below the surface the present aupply of 
gas was struck. The depth of the well is now 
1330 feet and the cost of its construction about 
$2500. Tbe total cost of introducing the 
natural gas to the mill and utilizing it for illu- 
minating purposes will not exceed $3000. Mr. 
Welsh explained that the gas that was Itftover 
after illuminating the building was run under 
the boilera and used as fuel. The company, at 
the lowest calculation, makes a saving of $150 
a mouth in fuel, in addition to $100 a month 
that has heretofore been expended for manu- 
factured gas for illuminating purposes, 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 7, 1888 


This Mill as a Crusher and Pul- 
verizer is without rival, 
la in operation in ead- 
ing amelting woris 
and QiillB. 
3KND Foa Cataloqub akd Tbstimonialb. 

HnntingtOD Gentrifngai 











POMPS. ^^ 






Fulton and Union Streets, Ohlcaeo, 111. 


43, No. 2 Wall Street. 


No. 248 Eighteenth Street, Denver, Colorado. 

No. 11 Calle de Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. 



Mining Turbine Water Wheel. 

Tlieae Wheelfl are designed for all purpoaoa where limited quantities of water and 
hi^h beads are utilized, and are giiaraDteed to give more power witb less water than 
any other wheel made. Being placed on horizontal shaft, tho power is transmitted 
direct to shafting by belts, dispensing with gearing. 

Estimates furnished on application for wheels specially built and adapted ic 
capacity to suit any particular case. 

Further information can be obtained of this form of construction, as well as the 
ordinary Vertical Turbines for Wooden Penstocks and in Iron Globe Cases, free of cost, 
by applying to the manufacturers. 

Spring^eld, Ohio, 


or 110 Liberty St., Kew York. 

FRASER & CHALMERS, General Agents, 

Chicago, 111., and Denver, Col. 

PARKE St LACY, General Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 


TIie princii-le of pulverization consists in the employment of two 


Of dry juper-lieated steain, so arranged that they continuously charge themselves with crushed or granulated material, and by 
the Ljrtat force and velocity of the steam curreats the minerals are dashed Eigainet each other with such power of concUB- 
nioii as to cause the hardest ores to be pulverized to any degree of fineness desired. The hi^h temperature of the aaper- 
lieated steam currents empioyed, through which every miiinte particle of ore mu<-t pass, causes them to become very 
hot' and dry, which produces a beneficial efl'ect upon Sulphurets and ores containing rusty Gold. The light weight 
and simplicity of conetruction of the -Puherizi-r, tie extremely Hinnll and inexpensive wearing parts, are tho WONDER 
aiid tiURPKISE of all who witness its operation. The Company is prepared to furnish complete plants for pulverizing 

10 TO 200 TONS PER DAY, 

Including a Sectional Steam Boiler supplying all the power required. 



View of Pulverizer. 

L. F. HOLMAN, Pres't. 


2 and 4 Stone Street. NEW YORK. 

\A/r±to for X'«*,i"tlc5-u.Xa.rfii- 

issued Marcb and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. "We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
styles and quantities, Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIBE, which will be sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 


111-114 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



First Premium Awarded at Mechanics' Fair, 1884. 

Sole Licensed Manufacturers of the 

Medart Patent "Wrought Rim Pnlley 

For the States of California, Oregon and Nevada, and the Territories of Idaho, WashingtOD 

Montana, Wyoming, Utah and Arizona. Lightest, Strongest, Cheap'^it and 

Best Balanced Pulley in the World. Also Manufacturers of 



No3. 129 & 131 Fremont Street, - - . . san Francisco. Cal. 

PAT. GOT. 26, 1881. 

44 Third Street, 

San Francisco, Cal, 

This Fire-proof Brick Building le centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand ana Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and i^ilroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Pamiliee 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 





524 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Ores Received on Oonsignment, Sampled, Assayed, and Disposed 
of in the Open Market to the Highest Bidder. 

tfletalllifgy apd Oreg. 



416 Uontgomery St., San Francisco. 

And Assay Office. 

Highest Prices Paid for Gold, Silver and 
Lead Ores and Snlphnrets. 





SHOT, Etc., Etc. 


Standard Shot-Gun Cartridges, 

Under Chamberlin Patent. 





63 & 65 First St., cor. Mission, San Francisco. 

We would call the attention of Assayers, Chemists 
Mining Companies, Milling Companies, Prosflectors, eto. 
to our full stock of Balances, Furnaces, Muffles, Cruc 
bles, Scorifiers, etc., including, also, a full stock o 

Having been engaged in furnishing these supplies sfnoc 
the Qrst discovery of mines on the PaciQc Coast, we fee 
confident from our experience we can well duit the de 
mand for these goods, both as to quality and price. Oui 
New Illustrated Catalogue, witb prices, will be sent oc 

i^"0»ir Gold and Silver Tables, showing the value pei 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for computation of assays in grains and grammei. 
will be sent free upon application. Agents for the Patent 
Plumbagfo Crucible Co., London, England. Also for E. 
G. Drnnihton's Silver Plated Amalgam Plates. The 
plates of this well-known manufacturer are thoroughly 
reliable, and full weight of Silver guaranteed. Orders 
taken at his lowest prices. 


Nevada Metallurgical Works. 


Near First and Market Streets, S. F. 

C. A. Ldokhardt, Manager. Estabubbbd 1800 

Ores worked by any Prooesa. 
Ores Sampled, 

Assaying in all its Branches. 
Analyses of Ores, Minerals, Waters, eto. 
Working Testa (practical) Made. 
Plans and Specifications furnished for tbe 
most suitable Process for Working Ores. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Mines; Plana- and Reports furnished. 

(Formerly Huhn &, Luckhardt, 
Mlnlnfic Engineers and MetallurfflatB. 




318 Ptne St. (Basement., 

Corner of Leldesdorff Street, 


Ores Sampled and Assayed, and Teats made by my 
Asaayiug and Analysis of Ores, Minerals and Waters. 
Mines Examined and Reported on. 
Practical Instruction given Treating Ores by m- 
proved proceases. 

Ulntnsr Engineers and MetallurtristB. 


American Exchange HoteL 

The above Hotel Is situated in the midst of the Bank- 
ing and Commercial Houses of the city, and is by fai the 
most home-like and desirable Hotel to stop at. 


C. A, STETEFEIDT, President. 

Room 708. 

July 7, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 





and othen interested in 

Engineers' Tables of Progress 




Section 16x16 feet; Length 36 miles. 



For Catalogues, ^timatcB, Etc. addrotw: 




8 California St., and 21 Fremont St., 




Beflt and Cheapest lu America. 

No Imitation, no deception, no planished or rotten 
Iron used. Only tfenulne Kuesia iron in (Quartz Screens. 
Planialicd iron 8<reon9 at nearly half my former rates. 

I lia\e a lar^'e »uuply of Battery Screens on hand 
suitable for the Huiuiii(,'ton and all Stamp Mills, which 1 
will 8«ll at 20 per I'ent. .li-^.-.^unt. 


For Fliiiir and Uii;e Millf, Gr;iin Separators, Revnlvint,' 
and Sh'-t Screens, Stamp Batteries and all khids of Min 
lilt' and MillinjT Machinery, iron, Steel, Cupper, Brass, 
Zinc and other melalu punched for all uaes. 
Inventor and Manufacturer o( the celebrated 31ot~Cut 
burred and Slot Punched screens. 
Mining Screens a specialty, from No. 1 to 15 (finej. 
Orders promptly attended to. 

San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works, 

Zi & 2S3 First St., Saia VraDcisco, Cat. 

JOHN W, QUICK, Proprietor. 


Gives the hichest efficiency of any Wheel in the world' 
and is everywhere recognized as "the standard tor high 
pressure service. 


From 12 to 20 per cent better renults guaranteed than 

can be produced from any other Wheel in the country. 

It 1ft not only most economical of water, but the most 

mple and reliable power for Quartz Mills, Hoisting, 

Pumping, or any other purpose where water power can 



Power from these Wheels can be transmitted by elec- 
tricity several miles with Praall loss, and n ade available 
for running: Mills. Pumping and Hoisting Works, Tr^m 
cars, etc. Address 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co., 



A specia'ty. Round, slot 
Or burred slot holes. Gen- 
uine Russia Iron, Homo- 
geneous Steel, Cast Steel or ' 
American planished Jron. 
Zinc, Copper or Brass Screens for all purposes. Cali- 
fornia Perforatinff Screen Co.. 145 & 147 Beale St . S. F. 


L. petersonTmodel maker, 

. 58 Market St,N. E. eor. Front (upstairs), San Francisco 
. E^erlmentai machinery uid all kinds of metal, tic, 
topper and broaa. 



!l Ml 'i^ StBBl MW 

UP TO 20,000 LBS. WEIGHT. 

True to pattern and euperlor In etrenfftb, touerbneas and durability to Oaet or Wrought 
Iron In any position or for any service. 

CHINERY CASTINGS of Every Detcription. 





ALSO Steel Rods, from } to 3 inch diameter and Flats from 1 to 8 inch. Angles, Tees, Channels and other shape 
Steel Wagon, Buggy, and IVuck Tires, Plow Steel; Machinery and Special Shape Steel to aizo and lengths 
STEEL KAILS from 12 to 45 pounds per yard. ALSO, Railroad and Merchant Iron, Rolled 
Beams, Angle, Channel, and T I'"". Bridge and Machine Bolta, Lag Screws. Nuts, Washers, Ship and Boat 
Spikes; Steamboat Shafts, Cranks, Pistons, Connecting Rods, etc. Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, 
and Iron Forylnga of all kinds, Iron and Steel Bridge and Roof Work a Specialty. 


iS" Orders will have prompt attention. Send for Catalogues. Address 

FAaPIC ROLLIKQ MILL CO., 202 Uarket St., San Francisco. 




HAYES, Proprietors. 

IN 1855.] 




Propeller Engines, either High Pressure or Compound, 
Stern or Side-wheel Engines. 

MINING MACHINERY.— Hoisting Engines and 
Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore Cars, Pumping Emciues 
and Pumps, Water Buckets, Pump Colunms, Air Com- 
pressors, Air Receivers, Air Pipes. 

MILL. MACHINERY.-Batteries for Drj- or Wet 
Crushing, Amalgamating Pans, Settl' rs, Furnaces, Re- 
torts, Concentrators, Ore Fpeders, Rock Breakers, Fur- 
naces for Reducing Ores, Water Jackets, etc. 

Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, Dredging 
Machinery, Powder Mill Machinery, Water Wheels, 

Tustin's Pulverizer 



Either for uee on Steamboats or for use on Land- 
Water Pipe, Pnmp or Air Colnmns, Fish 
Tanks for Salmon Canneries 


Boiler Repairs Promptly attended to and at vtry moderate ratfie. 


X>eetzie Stea.zxi. OPxiaacL-p. ^ 


CorllsB Engines and Tugtin Ore Pnlverlzers. DBANB STEAM PUMP. 

Agents and Manufacturers of the Llewellyn Peed Water Purifier and Heater. 



Are now so situated with their new works as to offer to the miners of the Pacific Coast small Air Compressing 
Plants at such prices that almost any email mine can afford to put in power drills if they have none in use. 

By their new and patented systems (by which the duty or pertormancra of drills is not reduced with use) it is 
no longer necessary to buy a Compressor of double capacity than the drills are expected to require, in order to 
keep up the supply of air necessary on account of the wear of drills and comp:es3or. 

Besides having the newest and lightest desirned small drill plants, the Rand Drill Company, as is well known, 
has built, and is now building, the largeit Compressor plants in this country, and has patterns for all sizes up to 
40-inch diameter of cylinder. 

In respect to capacity in speed of drilling, perhaps it is in order to say that in evcy authoritative contest for 
speed jet initiated, the Rand Drills have, without exception, been victorious. This fact, coupled with another im- 
portant one, that the drills use much les-* air and cause less repairs, has won for them nearly all of the Eastern 
mining trade, which has kept their works always busy. 

Since the reasons which formerly restrained them from the California market no longer exist, they are now 
in the field for the business. 

^^SPKCIAL ATTENTION is called to the latest designed sectional Compressor just built for the Batopilaa 
mine in Mexico, and to the Compound Engine Compressor now being built tor the Anaconda mine in Montana. 


Manufaoture Tliree Kinds of Powder, which are acknowledged by all the Great Chemists of the World ae 

The Safest and Strongest High Explosives in the Market. 

Of Different StrenerthB as Required. 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE," which contains 94 per cent of Nltro-Glycerlne, and 

GELATINE-DYNAMITE, Stronger than Dynamite and evca Safer in Handling. 


FOR RAILROADS AND LAND CLEARING. Is from three to four times stronger than ordinary Blast- 
ing Powder, and is used by all the Railroads and Gravel Claims, as it breaks more ground, pulverizes better and 
saves time and money. It is aa dry as the ordinary Blasting Powder and runs is freely. 


Iron apd f^achipe hh 

Atlas Iron Works 

J. B. JARDINE, Proprietor, 

- MVSt',A.TI'KKR Of — 


— AND — 


213 & 215 Mission St., bet. Main & Beale, 


Eatimatos given for any k:nd of iron work. Punching 
and sliraTing machinery a Hpetlalty. 


WM. H. BIRCH & CO., 


No. 119 Beale St., - - San Francisco 


Steam Enerlnes, Flour Mill, 

Mining:, Saw Mill and 

Dredsrlng Machines 
Brodle Rock Cruehere, 

Steam Power. Hydraulic, 

Side Walk and Hand-Power 
Manufacturers of B. E. Heurickson's Patent Automatic 
Safety Catches (or Elevators. All kinds of machioory 
made and repaired. tS'Ou.OHns Soi^icithd. 




manuvacturbrb of 

Steam Engines, Boilers, 



Flouring Mills, Sa«v Mills and Quartz Mills Machinery 
const ructed, Qtted up and repaired. 

Front St.. hot N & o .sts., Sacramento. Gal. 

Golden State & Miners Iron Works. 

lacaractnre Iron Castings ana Machinery 
of all Kinds at Oreatly Eedaced Batea 


Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

'Irsi at. between Howard A Folaom. S. P 

OAFS and FUSE for Sale. 






129 and 181 Beale St., between Mission and Howard, S.F, 


'\^rilll£LXkxs cfi3 Oartoatx, 

Works, No. 315 Mission St., San Francisco. 
Special attention given to Woodwork ii.;; Machinery, 
Steam and Gag Engines. Correspondence solicited. 


Manufacturers of 

Inserted Tooth 






Jf all kinds made to order. Send for Descriptive Cata 
lOffue. 17 and 19 Fremont St.. San Francisco. 

C. H. EVANS & CO., 

(Succescors to THOMSON 4 EVANS), 

110 & 112 Beale Street, S. F. 

11 Steam Pumps Steam Engines 

and all kinds of MACHINERY. 

San Francisco Cordage Factory, 

Established 1856. 
Constantly on hand a full assortment of Manila Rope, 
Siea Rope, Tarred lUanila Rope, Hay Rope, Whale 
Une, etc., etc. 
Bxtta sizes and lengths made to order on short notice 
Oil and SIS Front St., San Francisco. 


Mining and Scientific Press, 

[July 7, 1888 

List of D. S, Patents for Paoiflo Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co.. Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

Ffom the ofiBclal report of U. S. Patents In Dbwsy 4 
Co.'a Patent Office Library, 2S0 Market St., 3. V. 

for week. ending june 26, 1888. 

385,045. ~ Shoe Tongue Fastening--C. F. 
Crowell, Portland, Ogn. 

385.101.— Car Coupling~W. M. Cutter, Marys- 
ville, Cal. 

384,973.— Can-Ox'EN£R, etc— E. Hawes, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

385,314. — Station Indicator— Benj. W. Lyon, 
S. F. 

384,996.— Time Ball— Cha5. Muller, S. F. 

385,133.— Rivet Burr Remover— E. H. Per- 
kins, Visalia, Cal. 

Three Trade Marks— H. S. Crocker & Co. 
S. F. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. 3. and Foreign patents furnlahed 
by Dewey & Co., in the ehortest time poaaible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent buainess f or PaciOo Coa jt 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press U, S. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention: 

Station Indicator. — Bbdj W. Lyon, S. F. 
No. 385,314. Dated June 26, 1SS8. This is 
one of that clasa of station indicators in which 
a ribbon bearing the names of the streets or 
atationa is caused to travel periodically by 
means of power derived from contact of suitable 
mechanism with lugs or obstructions in the 
road-bed; and the invention consists in a novel 
automatically operating pneumatic mechanism 
by which the power is tranmitted to the indi- 
cator, and in a novel arrangement of the ribbon- 
driving mechanism within the box or casing. 
The object of the invention is to provide a sim- 
ple and effective station indicator and advertis- 
ing medium to be used upon steam and street 
cars and in other suitable places. 

Rivet-Burr Remover. — Elijih'H. Perkins, 
Viaalia. No. 385,133. D^ted June 26, I8SS. 
The object of thia implement is to remove the 
burrs of rivets so the rivets may ba taken out. 
The invention consists in a bit having on its 
lower end cutters, said bit being mounted and 
adapted to rotate within a casing or stock, the 
lower end of which is provided with teeth for 
holding the stock stationary around the rivet 
burr while the cutter withiu operates upon the 
burr and outs off the swaged portion of .the rivet. 

Car CoDPLiNO. — Wm. M. Cutter, Marysville. 
No. 385,101. Dated June 20, 1888. This de- 
vice for automatically coupling cars consists in 
the combination with the car-bumper and draw- 
bead of a pin-holder and means for releasiog the 
s^^me at the instant when the cara come to- 
gether, ao as to al'ow the pin to drop into its 
proper position through the link of the car- 

Miuing Sliare Market. 

Owing to the national holiday coming on 
Wednesday this year, the Stock Exchange ad- 
journed from Sicurday, June 30th to July 5^h. 
Therefore no bilsinesa of any moment has been 
done in mining stocks. Up on the Comstock 
the mines are yteldiog bullion in larger quanti- 
ties than they have for years. The water is 
rather low in the Carson river. How it will 
hold out is a question. From all reports there 
is still much snow in the Sierras. 

Bullion Shipments. 

We quote shipments since our last, and shall 
be oleased to receive further reports: 

Mnulton, June 27, S14,000; Mt. Diablo, 30, 
$8269: Cons. California and Virginia, 30. $104,- 
601; Confidence, 30, $17 897; Swase, 30, $26,- 
3o0; Hale and NorcrosB. 30 S140,000; Hunauer, 
26. $1900; Germania. 27. $1479; Hinauer, 27, 
$1380; Germania, 28. $1360; Hanauer, 28. 
$4500; G„-rmania, 29, $1488; Hanauer, 29, 

Ck)niplimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, aQd making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Mf. J. S. Ewen, 123 Cilifornia street, is the 
Pacific Coast agent of the American Railway 
Publishing Co., of New York and Chicago, and 
has famished us with copies of the Street Bail- 
way Journal. He will be glad to receive any 
items of interest conoerning railway matters, 
such as matter relating to novel appliances, ex- 
teusions, new roads, etc. In connection with 
the papers he represents, Mr. Ewen has opened 
a purchasing agency for the convenience of ,in- 
terior patrons. 

Mining Bureau Statistics. 

H?cent contributions to the museum of the 
California State Mining Bureau are as follows : 

Silver ore, with native silver, Rialito Chi- 
huahua, Mexico, from E. E. Cunningham. 

Steatite, five polished specimens of various 
colors, Opoaura, Sanora, Mexico, J. H. Cross- 

Gold on garnet and on epidote, Oneida mine, 
Idaho, J. C. Nealon. 

Building atone, handsome carved column of 
seepe '* brownatone," from the Loa Angeles 
Granite and Brownstone Co. 

Gold quartz, rich in free gold and telluride 
of golH, Coos county, Or , A. H. Moore. 

Gold in iron Jasper, Tuolumne Co., T. F. Mc- 

Petzite (telluride of gold), Sonora, Tuolumne 
Co., J. Z. Davis. 

Gold quarlz from the Calumet group of mines 
(six), Shista Co., Alraarin B. Paul. 

Gold crystals on rhyacolite, Summitville, 
Colorado, J. B. Farish. 

Trtlluride of gold, Boulder Co., Colorado, J. 
B. Farish. 

Graphite in six-sided cry stab, Colfax Co., 
>iew Mexico, J. B. Farish. 

Gold on slickensides. Keystone mine, Amador 
Co., Cal., from the company. 

Gold quartz, Arrow-weed District, San Ber- 
nardino Cj., Cal., E, WoUeb. 

Silver ores from the Waterloo mine, Calico, 

Section of iron water-pipe, completely filled 
with crystallized cinnabir, from the Sulphur 
Bank quicksilver mine, Like Co., Cal., Melville 

Eighteen specimens of minerals from the 
Eastern States. 

Gold and Silver ore, Mexico, E. WoUeb. 

Aragonite (onyx marbL), Siskjyou Co. C. J. 

Granite from new quarry at Mb. Riymond, 
Fresno Co. (laid to be the best eo far found in 
California), McLellan & Co., and many others. 

San Franoisoo Metal Market. 


Thursday. July 5. 18* 

Antimony — French Star y '(» 

BoRAK-RefiDci — @ 

Powdered 7 (* 

Concentrated 61@ 

Co t PER— 

Bolt 26 ^ 

Sheatluug 20 @ 

Ingot — @ 

Fire Box Sheets — @ 

[RON— Glen gar aock ton — @28 

Eglliiton, ton — ®27 

American Soft, No, 1, ton — @31 

Oregon Pig.ton 21 (d2J 

Clay Lane White - @23 

Shotta, No.l — (S29 

Bar I-ou (base price) \^\h 2i@ - 

Leau— Fig 5 Ou ,s 5 

Bar 5 25 @ 5 

Sheet S ® 

Pipe 1 Vl' 

Shot, diduoimt 10%, on 500 bag Drop, V ha«. 1 80 iffl 

Buck, i^ bag 2 00 

OhiUed, do 

Steel— English, tb. , 16 

Black Diamond tool 30 

Pick and Hummer 

Machinei'y _ 

Toe Calk 4i » 

TipiPLATE— Coke 5 75 @ G 

Oharcnal 6 75 tff 7 

QUIOKHILVER— By the flask 37 50 @33 

Flaska, new 1 05 ® 

Flasks, old 85 @ 

New York Metal Market. 

Telpgrapliic advices dated July 5th give the following 
New York prices: 

BAa SiLVBK— per oz. 

Borax— 9c. 

Coppbr-Larb— glC@S16.65. 

Iron— No. 1. S22 OU. 

Lead— Si.02i@— 

Tin— Sm 60((P . 

The following is the latest by mail from the "New 
York Metal Exchange Market Report": 

Copper— Steady, snot cloding at S16 50@17.00. Traoa- 
ferable Notices (Lake) issued at S16.50{d) . 

Leau Firm, at $3.92(n'3.92j spot. Transferable Notices 
issued at §4.00. 

Tin— l^iuiet at S16.9''@17.00. 

Prices nenerally ruliui; tor metals not regularly dealt 
in on call at, the N. Y. Exchange, coverin!; extremes of 
buyers' and sellers' views. AH prompt delivery. Aus- 
tralian Tin, (tf : Billiton Tin, — '-m — ; 

Banca Tin, @ Baltimore Copper, SU.75@1G.OO; 

Orford Copper, Sl5.60@l7 75; P. S. C. Copper, (S 

; Foreifjn Lead, S4.51@ — ; Foreign Spelter, 

$6.00@6.10. Antimony, S10.0U@1S.30. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assistins 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lendlD{; their in- 
fluence and enoouraginEt favors. We intend to send nonf 
but worthy men. 

JounIG. H. LA-MPADina- Ventura Co. 

G. W. IngaxjLS— Arizona Territory.- 

A. F. Jewktt— Tulare Co. 

C. E. WiLLiAMS-Yuba RUd Sutter Co.'s. 

B. 0. Huston — Montana Territory. 

Wm. Wilkinson- Butte and Tehama Co.'s. 
W. w. TuBOBALDS- Sonoma, Napa, and Yolo Co.'s. 
F, B Logan— Placer Co and Nevada State, 
S .1. LiTiti-KiELD— Santi B-irbaia, Los Angeles and 
San Biego Co.'d. 

Don't TaU to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any snhscriber who 
Joes not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not tail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue It, or some irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand paymentfor the time it is sent. Look garb fdll^ 


J- A. Johnson, 307 Montgomtry sfeet (the Ne- 
vada Bank building) is the general agent of the Stiles 
quartz machinery, and offers easy terms for iniro- 




Location. No, Am't. Leyied. Delinq'nt. Sale. 

Seoketaby. Place of Business 

AltaM Co Nevada.. 37.. 

Best & BelcLier M Co Nevada , 40. . 

Bodie Tunnel M. Co California.. 15.. 

Baltimore M Co Nevada.. 2.. 

Challenge Con M Co Nevada.. 4.. 

Champion M Co.. Cah ornia.,3U.. 

California Slate Oo ...Oa'ifornia., 1,. 

Diana Gfi: S M Co Nevdda.. 7.. 

Eldred M Co ..Ua iforuia.. 2. . 

Gould & Curry S M Co Nevuda..59.. 

Live Oak Drift G la Co California.. 9.. 

Nye M to Nevada.. 1.. 

Occidental Con M Co Nev da.. 2.. 

Itusaell Keductiou & M Co. .California.. 2.. 

Silver King MCo Arizona.. 1.. 

Summit M Co Calif rma..l0.. 

Seg Belcher & Mides Con M Co... .Nev.. 1.. 
Southern (';il Coal & Clay Co Cal.. 

50..May 12..Junel8....July 9..W H Watson 302 Montgomery St 

25.. June 5.. July 10 July 31.. L Oaboru 309 Montgomery St 

25., June 5.. July 9....July 31. C C Harvey 303 Calirorma St 

25 . . June 30 . . Aug 1 . . . . Aug 22 . . W W Tenney 402 Montgomery St 

50. .May 28.. June 29 luly 18..C L McC>.y 3i9 Pine St 

10..May ll..JimelS....July 10.. TW 'z 1 322 Mou^gamery St 

10.. Apr 18.. May 24... .June 25.. J O Hanacow 10 Cahftruia St 

10.. June 5.. July 10.. ..July 31..J WPew 310 Pine St 

0l..Muy28..Juue 18 .. July 30 .N A Eldred 1!):<3 California St 

50..June22..Jnly 2i) Aug 10.. A K Durbrow 309 Mnutgomery St 

(5..Junel3..Jidy ]7....Aug ti J Morizio 328 Moutgomery St 

05. May 2>1,. July 5....July 24..WJDorlon 90> Cahfornia St 

2.. 20.. May 29.. July 2..,. July 25.. A K Durbrow 309 M- ntgomcry St 

2.. 10.. June 6.. July 9 July 3l..JMorizio 328 Montgomery St 

1.. 50.. June 22.. July 30. ...Aug 23. .J Nash 328 Montgomery St 

0.. 10.. June 8.. July 11... .July 31.. G W Session 309 Montgomery St 

1.. 25.. June 5.. July 9.... July 30 E B Holmes 3G9 Montgomery St 

„ _ 1. .10.00. .May 26 June 26....Juiy 2G..W G Mugau 10 California St 

Scorpion M Co ,Nevad*.,25.. 10.. May 15.. June 22.... July IG, .G R Spinney 310 Phie St 

Western Mineral Co Califoruia.. 2.. 1.00.. June 21.. July 30.... Aug 20..A Chemerant 328 Montgomery St 

Name or Company. Location. Sbcretary. Office in S. F. Mbetino 

Bullion Eeck& <^ alifornia M Co A Badlam 322 Montgomery St Annual.. July 13 

Benson Con M Co Ciiliforuia..V R Allen 330 Pine Sfc Annual July 27 

Great Western Q M Co California.. A Halsey 328 Moutgomery St Annual July H> 

North Ee'le Jsle M Oo Nevada. J WPew 310 Pine St Annual July 27 

Overman M Co Nevada.. G D lidwdrds 414 Califoruia St Annual July 12 

Spring Valley G M Co California.. H Pichoir 320 Sau some St Annual July 7 

Savage M Co Nevatla..E E Holmes 309 Montgomery St Annual July 19 

Uniou Con MCo Nevada.. J M Buffiugton 3U3 Califoruia St Annual July 10 

Name of Oompant. Location. Secretajiy. Office in S. F. Amoitnt. Payable 

Con California & Va M Oo Nevada.. A W Havens 309 Moutgomery St '. 50 Juue 11 

Confldei ce S M Co Nevada. . A S Groth 2 .00 June 12 

Eureka Con MCo Nevada..HRP Button 306 Pine St 2fi July 9 

North Belle Isle M Co Nevada. .J W Pew 310 Pine St 50 May 7 

Halei, Norcross 3 M Co Nevada.. J F LigUtner 309 Mo ■ tgmery St 50 May 7 

Oregon Coal & Navigation Co Oregon.. RB Williums 211 Sai^aome St 1.50 Mar 2 

Pacific Borax. Salt & Soda Co.. California.. A H Olough 230 Montgomery St l.CO Juie U 

Standard Con M Co California. .J W Pew 3J0 Pine St (5 June 12 

Table of Lowest and Highest Sales Is 
S. F. Stook Exchange. 

Name of 

June H. 

June 21. 

Juue 28. 

July 6. 




3! 15 







2 25 







1 20 












3 40 










1.65 1.80 
1.55 1.70 
1.25 1.4. 


i.50 6i 

1:66 4'.50 
1.25 1 6 
.85 .90 

2!30 2!4j 

'.85 ".% 
10 11} 
4.50 4.8e 

3.85 i'io 
20 21 
.45 .55 
.45 .50 

4!65 4'.96 
1.05 1.10 

L20 1 3C 

y.m 4;6s 

7J 7.7. 

.85 ".io 
.45 .6(1 
1.05 1.10 
.... 2.7' 
,45 .60 

1.45 i!60 
t.l5 4.40 
.... 3.60 

.'.'.'. i!60 

3 10 3.26 

'.'.'.'. 4.66 
iis i!45 

73 S.25 
1.76 2.C0 
3.45 3.80 
2.25 2.40 

.70 .80 

425 4'75 

2.86 3.20 
3.90 4.25 

.60 .65 

".a '.'75 

396 4!46 
1.65 1.80 
4.80 5i 








3 35 







3 36 


2 76 

3 60 



1 35 

4 05 












4 10 







4! 66 
1 55 

1.55 1.70 
l.tO 1.65 


.10 .15 
4.10 4 55 

Bust a. Belcher.... 








2 75 






3 00 



1 95 



2 SO 




3.65 3 95 
1.15 1.25 


.75 .80 

Bodie Con 


Bodie Tunnel 

2.25 2.40 
"so "85 

Con. Va. &Cal 





Con. Imperial 

93 M 

l.uO 51 

3'65 3.95 
194 20 
.45 .55 
.35 .40 

Con. Pacific 

Grown Point 

4!20 i!95 
.90 1 00 

EaatB. &B 



Grand Prize 

Goulds Curry.... 
Hale & Norcross.. 



6 51 7.00 
1 |5 1.25 
2.25 2.45 
3.05 3.25 
7.25 7.50 




1.00 1.05 
2 00 2.70 

Ladj Wash 

Martin White 

.35 .50 
i'.45 i!50 

3.60 3.90 

Mt. Diablo 

Northern BeUe.... 

i!86 2'.i5 

North Belle isle.... 


Nev. Queen 

North G.& C 




3.85 4.60 
4'.76 i'.SS 

i'.ii) i'.35 

6J 7.25 
1 75 1.90 
3 30 3.60 

1.80 2 115 

Ptj, r 

.65 .70 

P. Sheridan 

Silver Star 


S.B. &M 

Siena Nwvada..... 
Silver BUU 

3'96 i'lO 

2 70 2.95 

3 45 3.75 
.55 .60 

Silver King 



Onion Con 

".65 "76 

S'SO 3'70 
1 .40 I 51 

VeUow Jacket 

4.25 5.00 

Sales at San J 

Thursday. July 



Q01800 Stock 

>8. 1 50 Gould & C 
.I5c' 50 Grand Pri 
1.75 120 HaleSHo 
.!5cl 120 Iowa .... 
4.45 150 Mexican.. 





r 7J 



90 B. a Belcher... 

3.90' 200 Monc 

I fin 

llel« 3.95 

2 601 100 Nev. Que 
.85c| 191 Ophir.. 
.5.2.'il 100 Occidenta 

en 4.90 

17il Challeuee 

Con i.25 



300 Savage... 
150 S. B. & M 
100 Sierra No 
250 Utah . . . 
2>.0 YeUowJat 






200 Con. Imperial. 

»ada 3.75 



ket 4.95 

A New Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's paient 
elastic binder, for penodi- 
cals, musicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, and 
verj' cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind- 
ers. Newspapers ai e qiiick- 
1\ placed in it {as received) 
and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is 
durable, and so simple a 
child can use it. Price (size 
of this paper. Harper's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
fice. Send for illustrated 
circular. Agents wanted. 


A half intf rest in a gold bearing quartz mine, situated 
at Mokolumoe Hill, Calaveras Countj'. Two shafts sunk 
60 and 110 feet, rcpectively; also a level run at the bot- 
tom of the 110 foot shaft about 100 feet The ore body 
averaged three feet stirong, and varied from $10 to ?20 
per ton. A tunnel wis sinDe run 300 feet, and a ledge 
has been struck which is four feet in width. This ore 
will jield $5 to S6 per ton. It is only s'xty feet from the 
surface. Tne object of selling the above-named intertat 
is to obtain some responsiijlc jiarty, with means, to sink 
a shaft 300 feet, and run several Ui-irts along the ledge. 
The present owners ceased ojjerations for want of work- 
ing capital. None but principals need apply. The party 
purchasing must commence operations within thirty 
days from date of signing contiact and work continu- 
ously and systematically till the shaft is completed. It 
is patented property. Address, 


No. 506 Battery St., San FranclBco, Cal. 

American Railway Publishing Co. 



"The Street Railway J-mrnal," "The j%inerl- 

can Journal «kf Kail way i%ppllaaces," 

" Power— iSteam." 

Rrprksbntkd by JOHN S. EWEN, 

123 California St. (room 35), San Pranclsco. 

^ff'The h-ist advertisin:? medium in their Hoe in the 
world. Rates ou application. 


LefTel's Construction of Slill Dams and 

Bookwalter's Millwright and 



This practical work of 2SS pages gives with full illus- 
trations and complete detail how to build or repair all 
kinds of mill dams. Pains have been taken to thor- 
oughly illustrate dam construction and rudimentary hy- 
draulics. It contains fine cuts of all the well-known 
dams now in use, with a complete description as to their 
mode of cofistruction. Mill owners will find this a valu- 
able work of reference. Besides complete directions for 
building and repairing all kinds of dams, it contains much 
other valuable information rega'^ding hydraulics, in all 
its branches. No engineer can afford to be without this 
handy pocket assistant. 

Price 50 cents, po t-paid. For sale by DEWEY & CO. 
220 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Practical Treatise on Hydraulic Mining. 

By AUG. J. BOWIE, Jr. 

This new and important book is on the use and con- 
struction of Ditches, Flumes, Dams, Pipes, Flowof Wnter 
on Heavy Grades, methods of mining sliallow and deep 
placers, liistory and development of n\ines, records of 
gold washing, mechanical appliances, such as nozzles, 
hurdy-gurdys, rockers, undercurrents, etc.; also describes 
methods of blasting; tunnels and sluices; tailings and 
dump; duty of miners' inch, etc. A very practical work 
for gold miners and users of water. Price, §5, post-paid. 
For sale by Dbwet & Co., Publishers, 262 Market St., San 


No Vacations. Day and Evbninq Shssions. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A.. President. 

This paper Is printed wltn Inb: Manufac- 
tured by Oharles Eneu Johnson Ss Go., 60O 
South 10th St, Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 BoBe St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Ohlcaeo. Affent for the Paclflo Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety. 599 Oommerolal 81^, S. F- 

July 7. 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Presj 
Patent Agency. 

Mining Engineers. 

OtTR U. S. AND Foreign Patent AouNa 
pftistiuts many and important advantages as i 
Home Agency over ali others, by reason of lonj 
fiatablifihment, great experience, thorough ays 
tem, intimate acfjuaiutance witli the subjects a 
inventions in our own commuuity, and ou) 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
taining otHcial American and foreign reports 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
8tc, All worthy inventions patented througt 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illuetra 
tion of a description in the MiMvri anu Scien 
riFio Press. We transact every branch 0) 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coub 
tries which grant protection to Inventors Tht 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patentt 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the bfBt and most rclhthh advice as to thf 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any flrst-claas agencies in the 
lilutern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

t)EWEY & Co., Patent Agetita, 
No. 2-20 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 

S. F. Telephone No. 658. 


Flour Mill 


Capacity, 3 barrels per hour; size, 40x50 feet; three 
Btories, basement ftnd attic; well equipped with machine- 
ry; mill race, with abuodanco of water; 40 acres of good 
land; two-fltory celled dwelling, barn, warehouse and 
iem-es; pood businees. healthy location. Price, $6600. 
Will sell 400 or 500 acres more with this property \t de- 
sired. Cause for selling ia advanced age of owner. 

Cottonwood, Shasta County, California 


Ores, Mining, and Commission, 

4flO MontgoroBry St., S- F. 


UNION COPPER MINE. Calaveras Co.. 

CorrcBpondnnt as Agent for Smelters in London, Liver- 
pool, New York, Bostoti and Baltimore. 

Twenty years ejcperieoce, in California, purchasing Ores 
and deahng in Mines. 

Special attention given to management and sales of 
mined and purchase and shipment of copper produce 


Society, 526 California St.— For the half-year ending 
June 30, 1888, a dividend has been declaied at the rate 
of four and one-half (4}) per cent per annum on lerm 
depo its. and three and three quarters l3J) per cent per 
annum on ordinary Uepoiita. Pavable on and after 
Monday, July 2, 18SS. 

WM. HERRMANN, Secretary. 


Invi-ntor and Manufacturer of 


Contractor for the Constrnction of Elkctkic RAiLWAys 


Plants for the Transmission and Oistri- 

bu;ion of Power by Means 

of Electricity. 

i^Send for CirrulurH Ki^'inu i>articiilars. 
Office, 40 Nevada Bloct, ban Francisco. Cal. 
Factory, 1 1 <<» 23 Stevenson St 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer 


Mines, Miniiig^ Machinery & Supplies. 

Mlntia t'xamiDcd, Reports and FHtiiiiatcs Furnishod. 
Contracts made, tU\ 

OfBce, 387 First St.. San Francisco, Oal. 


Practical, Civil, Mechanical and 
Mining Engineering, 

SmeylDg, Arcliitectflre, DnwlDg ui kumi 

733 Marfcet Street, 

The History Building. San Francisco. 

A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 

AseaylDjr of Orep. ?25: Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 

^l^\; Blowpipe Asaay, 5:10 fcuU course o( assaying, §50. 

Send tor circular. 


Civil and Mining Enginee r, 


Business Box A," office of this paper, San 



Mining- and Hydraulic Engineer, 

No. 307 Saxsomb St., San Francisco. 




17 and 19 F*remont St., S. F. 

Price, complete, with PacificSaw Manu- 1 rfil tCi "dnnji 
facturiiig Uo.'s extra quality blade. lipl.OU LlClblli 


On Hand and Made to Order. 


2 Triumph Concentrators. 

1 New 1 2-inoh, 35 H. P. Engine. 


130 Sansome S(^. room 12. 


WORKS : First and Stevenson Sts., 






MACHINE TOOLS, and full line of 

MACHINE SHOP APPLIANCES carried in stock. 

£LEVATOK.S for freight and passenger use, both worm gear and patent double capacity 

WATER METERS of the Worthington pattern. 
ELECTRIC APPARATUS for the generation and distribution of electricity tor LIGHT 

ana POWER. Keith Sy.stem. 
FIOUR HILL ROLLS ground and corrugated. Gear Cutting a SPECiALTr. 
IS" Pkices on application. Send foe Catalogue. "ss 


Elevator .Tinned, ic Goppbr Rop&, Sash 6oi?ds. J 




' '^D Wires of iron & copper. pEi^ot wihe, 



Incandescent & Arc Electric Lig-hts. 

Electric Motors, Dynamog, Tramcarfl, Elevators, Sisals and all klnda of Electrical Systems lof liKhtbg aud 
tiansDiisBion of power, either direct or with Btorage Batteries, 

For Mines, Hoisting Works, Mills, Reduction Works, 

Indoor and, Outdoor Illumination of every kind. Gaa, Oil and Candles supersede! by the 


The only complete and satisfactory imrandoBccnt system. Lights require no attentioii and are under complete con- 
trol. Over 500.000 lights in use in the United States SEl^F-REGUL ATING ARC LIGHTS turn night 
into day and afford a means of working f^e whole 24 hours; invaluable to contractors and others to whom 
time Is an object. Eutiniatea and designs on application. 

Offices and Showrooms, 323 PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

X'ox-'tlA.xid, Oi7. 

SycJixey-, 3M. S. "V^. 


21 and 23 Frement Street, 










Wesllnghouse "Standard" and "Junior" Engines, Rocl< Drills and Air Compress- 
ors. Saw and Planing Mill Machinery, Machine Tools, Governors, 
Injectors, Oil Cups, and Lubricators. 


We are prepared to give estimatea for Hoiating Works and Pumping Plants, Stamp Mills, 
Smelters and ConcfntratorB. 

Sierra lumber co., 


Doors, Windows, Blinds, 


Cor. Fourth and Channel Sts., San Francisco. 

Books on Working Ores. 

By Guido Kustel, M. E. 

Roasting of Go;,d and Silver Or, ks (Second Edition) an 

the Extraction of their Respective Metals without 

Quicksilver. By Guido Kustbl, M. E. 1S80. 

This rare book on the treatment of gold and silver ore 

without quicksilver is liberally ilhiatrated and crammed 

fullcf facti. It gives short and conci-te descriptions of 

various processes and apparatus employed in this country 

and in Europe, and the why and wherefore. It contains 156 

pagC3, eiiihracing illustrations of furnacrs, supplements 

and ^^orkin«r apparatus. It is a work of great i.ierit, by 

an author whose re piitation is unsurprvssed in his specialty 

Pricf, S3, coLi, postage free. Sold by Dkwbv & Co , Fub- 

Ushers, 252 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

By C. H. Aaron. 

Aaron's LBAcniSG Gor-o and Silver OitEfl, the most 
coniplpto hand-book on the subject extant; 164 pages 
octavo. Illustrated by 12 lithographic engravings and 
four wood cuts. Bully indexed. Plainly written for 
practical men. In cloth, S3. Sold by Dewey & Co., S. F. 

Bound Volumes.— Back lilcs of this paper bound in 
oubstantial cloth binding with leather back, cotahaing 
six months' numbers in each, indexed, can b? had at this 
sffice at $4 per volume. 

A. L. OTT. 

MaMfactiiriDi Jeweler & Diamond Setter, 

Above Montgomery, bet. Bush and Sutter, San Francisco. 

Designs and Estimates furnished on application. 


Advertiser wishes to bond good mines for the foreign 
market. Those in active production preferred. Time 
required. Address, 

" C," Box 255 (B) 

San Francisco, Cal. 

IMUCMTnRQ on the Pacific Coast should seeurff 
inVull lUnO their Patents through Dewey&Co. 'a 
Mining and Scientific Prbbs Patent _^""':^-/, Wo. 220 
Market St., a F. ^ i"-" 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdl7 7, 1888 

MINING machinery. 


1 27 First St., San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 

New York Office, 145 Broadway. 


embracins machinerv of LATEST UF-IGN and 
MOST IlVleROviED construction. We offer our 
customers the BEST BEMJLTS OF 38 YKAKS' 
work, and arc PREPARED to furnisll the MOST 
APPROVKD cliaracter of MINING AND RE- 
DUCTION MACHINERY, adapted to all (rradea of 
ores and SUPERIOR to that of any other malte, at 

We are aljn prepared to CONSTKUCT and DE- 
in any locality,' MILLS, CONCENTRATION 

The Hazelton Boiler | 

Is acknowledged by the most eminent Engineers in the 

country to he the greatest improvement that has 

ever been made in a Steam Generator. 


A Saving in Fuel of at Least 20 per cent Guaranteed 
over any other form of Boiler. 



Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coast, 



RIX & FIRTH, 225 and 227 First St., San Francisco. 


6a Sold on the Pacific Coast. 



Over 300 in use. All eHtimateH guar- 
anteed. Send for Circular. 


All wrought iron. No gears, nobreakage. NATIONAL KOCK DRILL. 

One horsf; will easily handle rock or water to a depth 200 Sold on this Coast. Has 

'S 50 feet, giving entire sntiBfaction to the prospector. lesH repairs than any other 

Price, complete, $200. 160 sold on this Coast. Drill. 



Silver-Plated Amalgamating Plates 


At reduced rates. Get our prices. Three thousand orders filled. Fifteen medals awarded. Our plates have proved the best, 
and far superior to others in weit^ht of silver and durab lity. Old mining plates replated. Thest) plates can also be 
purchased of JOHN TA\I.OR & CO., cor. First and Missiou tits, 


B. «3. DENNISTON, Proprietor. 65S & 655 Mission St., Sau Francisco, Cal. 

NOTICE. — Our yilved Plated Plates have always proved as represented. We have been manufacturinjr them tnr 20 years, 
and use only the best Lake Superior Copper and Refined Silver. Comparing our pbtes with those of other manufucturers, 
after repeated tests, we can safely guarantee much better plates for the same money. Our plates are used hv all the promin- 
ent mining men on the Pacific Coast, hENO K OR CIRCULAR. 



lULDA BBOS., Proprietors, 

SO to 40 Spear St., San Francisco. 

I^Snip, Mining, and Water Tanks a Specialty.*^! 



For Working 
Rock Drills, Coal Cutters, 
Hoisting Engines and Water 
Pumps in Mines and Tunnels, 
Sinking Caissons, Elevating 
Acids, Transmitting Natural 
Gas, Atomizing Petroleiim, &c 
For Catalogues, Etc., address, 

Clayton Air Compressor Works, 


Back Filks of the .Mining and Scirntific PRF«a) un- 
houm\)-csii: be had for $3 per vohinio of six months. Per 
year (two volumes) $5. Inserted in Dewey's patent bind- 
er, 50 CQuts additional';.- volume. 




and BOILERS, 300 Sizes 


^ San Francisco 


Liberty St. 

New York. 



— AND— 

Chrouie Cast Steel for 
Kock I>rills, Etc. 


220 Fremont St., San Francisco, 


Special attention given to purchase of 


AHAMANTINE shoes and die's Guar- 
anteed to prove belter and cheaper than any otheis. 
Orders solicited, subject to above conditions. 


New Almaden Quicksilver. 

Room 22, 320SansomeSt., 

Saxx X'l-anclsoo. 


_ Revolving:, Jettiujr. Hydraulic, Dia- 
■mond. Prospectiiifr Well Tools, wind 
■Engines and Deep Well Pumps. Trea- 
•■"' on Natural Gas, or our Encyclo- 
jlpedia, mailed for 
|l2oc. The American 
jjWell Works. 

Aurora, |U 




THE H. H. H. Horse Lmiment pnta 
^ new lite into taeAntiqnated Horee I 
|or the last 14 veara the H. H. H. Horee 
l^jumont has been the leading remedj 
tmong farmers and Stockmen for tha 
care of Bpraine, Bmises, Stiff Jointo, 
Spavjns, Wmagalls, Sore Shcmlders, etc. 
Mid for iamUy Use ie withont an eqnal 
tor Khemnatasra, Neoralgia, Aches, Pains 
Brniees, Tnte .and Sprains Of all oharactera 
Jhe H. H. H. Liniment has many iraita 
Sons, and we caption the Public to sea 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." ie cr- 
9very nntUe before purchasing. For eaie 
syerywhers for BO oento andf J1.0C per 

For Sale by all Druetelsts. 



24 POST ST.. S. P. 

FOR svventy-five dollars this 
Collepe instructs in Shorrhand, Type Writinjr, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Driwing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything- pertaining to bui-inehs, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State, 
jtS"SBND POR Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 
C. S. HALEY, Secretary. 

JcTLT 7, 1888. 

Mining and Scientific Press* 


,000 OSZ^A^XjXiiBIsrGI-IE] I 




(9S75.00) r*. O. 33. 

OVEn 1400 ARE NOW IN USE, Conmntntlons «ro cloan rrom the flret working. Tbe wiur >nd 
tc»r aru merely nominal. A machine can be Been in worJiing order anil ready to make testa at 200 Fremont 
Street, 6ao Frmooiaco. 

Tim MONTAKA CouPAKT (Limited), LoinwN, October 8, ISS.'i. 
DiAB Sjks:— Having tested three of your Fnic Vanoers in a oompotltive trial with othir similar niachioei 
(Triumph), we have satlsfled ournelves of the superiority of your VannurR, as la evidenced by the fact uf our havinir 
ordered twenty more of your nioohines (or immediate dcli\ery. Yours truly, 

N. B.— Since the above was written the 20 Vanners having been started gave such satisfaction that 44 add 
tional Frues and more stamps liave been purchased, ADAMS & CAKTEK. 

Protected by patents May 4, 18(i9; December 22, 1874; September 2, 1870; April 27, 1880; March 22, 1881- Febr 
ary ao, 18S3; Bepteinber 18, 1883. Patents applied for. 

ADAMS & CARTER, Agents Frue Vanning Machine Co., 

Room 7. No. 109 California Street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




The present improved form of the celebrated *' Triumph " Ore Concentrator posaesseB many advantages over any 
other Btyle of Vanners, Vanning Machines, or Concentrators, yet introduced to the notice of mining men. These ad- 
vantages consist in the superior features which enter into their construction, and facilitate their operation. 

They are constructed in the beat manner; their frames being of iron, insures their solidity, durability, and perfect 
steadiness of motion when operated. They are built as compactly as their requisite strength will permit, weigh less, re. 
quire less freight space in boxes, by which their cost of transportation is reduced, and occupy less mill room when set up- 

An important improvement has recently been introduced into their construction, which consists of a Riffle Table- 
placed in front of and which takes the discharge from the feed and amalgam bowl. The improvement is in the recipro, 
cal motion which is imparted to this table by the longitudinal motion of the shaking frame to which the table is at- 
tached. We have at hand many testimonials, from well-known Superintendents of mines in different mining districts 
of the United States, bearing evidence of the eflScienoy and superiority of this form of Concentrator, and we shall be 
pleased to send Circulars covering such letters of testimony, and, as well, directions for setting up and operating these 
machines, and are ready to quote special prices for any considerable order. 



INTos. 39 -to 5X X'z-ezta.ozi't St., 



WM. H. TAYIiOR, President. 

R. S. MOORE, Superintendent. 

L. R. MEAD, Secretary. 


Location of Works, S. E. Cor. Beale and Howard Sts., San Francisco. 

Manufacturers and Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast for 



Has the Following Advantages: 

60,000 Hone Power now in ase. 

Boilers can be seen working in San Francieco at Palace Hotel, Spring Valley Water Works 
Hueter Bros. & Co., California jute Mills, and other places. . 

Oaarauteed More Efficient than any other Boiler made. 

QUARTZ MILLS— Gold and Silver, Copper and Lead Smelting Works, Roasting Furnaces jf alt kinds. 

AIR COMFRESOORS— Rope Power TranamiBaion. 

HYDRAULIC PUMPING and Hoiatint; Machinery. 

WKOUGHT-IROX WATER PIPE a Specialty. Notr.— Have Just completed order for 35 miles of 44-incb 

pipe of i-inch Irun for Spring Valley Water Works Company, San Francisco, 
SAW-MILL MACHINERY of all kinds. 

STJflAM ENGINKS— CorlisB, Slide-Valve, Poppet Valve Automatic, Single, and Compound. 
SOLE MANUFACTURERS (or Pacific Coast ot the Celebrated "Heine" Patent Safety Boiler (Water Tube); 

60,000 horse power now in use. 
MACBETH PATENT STEEL-RIM PULLEYS— Fifty per oeot lighter and 25 per cent cheaper than tuat- 

iron pulleys; will not break in transportation. 

:]bttzxjX3:e:x^^ of« 

REFRIGERATING MACHINERY (or Steamships, Breweries, and Cellars. 


STEAM BOILERS of all descriptions. 

SUGAR MACHINERY— Sugar Mills, Vacuum Pans, Clarifiers, Double EfTects, etc. 

STEAMSHIPS — Steam Yachts, Marine Engines and Boilers, Screw Propellors, Centrifugal Pumps, Steamship 

Pumps, Steam Capstans, Cargo Winches, etc. 
i^'Builders of 120-stEbmp Qold Mill for the Alaska Mill and Mining Company; 80-stamp Mill for Quartz Mountain 

Mining Company. 

Senrl for Clrcnlar anrl Price LlRtH. 


NOTICE. — All our plates are guaranteed to have 
the full weight of silver agreed upon, and are tested be 
fore leaving our works, thereby avoiding the complaints 
about light weight, made so often before we started 
in this branch of industry. 

F"or f&JSJ\7-IJSrC3r C3lrOIL.I>: 


521 & 523 Market St., San Francisco, 






Assayers' and MiDing Material. 



Agent for HOSKINS' 



CentrUagal Roller Quartz Mill. 

Centrifugal Roller Quartz Mills, 


Mining Machinery of Every Description, 





Mining and Scientific Press: 

[Jdlt 7, 1888 


Cor. Fremont and Mission Sts., - - San Francisco, Cal. 

































This Mill, with a weight of less than 90OO pounds, 

has a capacity equal to 30 stamps, reducing 

two and a half to three tons per hour 

of hard quartz to 40 mesh. 


And renewals will not cost over one-half as moch as for stampa. The attention of parties hav- 
ing Cement Gravel is called to this Mill, as it will run 100 tons per day to No. 8 mesh. 

OUR DRY MILLS are the most economical ever built, and are extensively used with 
record of several years. No srinding in pans. Mill finishes to any fineness desired. 


GIDEON FRISBEE, Manager, ... 461 Howard St., San Francisco 
HOOKER & LAWRENCE, Gen'l Ag'ts, 145 Broadway. New York. 



We have here the Stamp Mill in a cheap and simple form. The high drop of the old stamp 
is more than compensated for by the great weight (1200 lbs. each) of our stamps, and the ra- 
pidity (300 strokes each per minute) with which they run. There are 4 shoes in each stamp, ao 
that there are 4800 strokes of the shoes on the dies per minute. Less power is required than in 
any other mill to do the same amount of work. 

The Mortar has screens at both ends, giving ample discharge. There are no cams or tap- 
pets to wear or be adjusted. The stamps adjust themselves as the shoes wear. 


Goes with each Mill. We also have a suitable 

Several Mills are now in the mines doing excellent work. The "Eoonomin" is not only a 
mill for small mines, but we believe it is destined to scfebsede the old stamp in mills of the 



Manufacturers of Mining and Sawmill Machinery, Engines, Boilers, Etc. 




N. W. Corner Main and Howard Sts., San Francisco, 


Stationary and Compound Engines, Flour, Sugar. Saw 
and Quartz Mill Machinery. 





O.A.JE'.A.OI'nr, Xa Tons ±n. 34= 3E3Cc»-u.ns. 3 H. JE*. 

MARSHUTZ & CANTRELL, Sole Manufacturers. 

The Patentee and MaDufacturera 
cordially invite miners to critically 
examine and pass judgment upon 
this improved system of milling 
and amalgamating ores in the fol- 
lowing particulars: 

1. The cost is legs than one-half of 
etampn of same capacity- 

2. The freight to mine is less than 
one-half of stamps. 

3. The cost of erecting is less than 
one-fourth of stamps, 

4. The power todriveitis leas than 
"j:^, one-half nf stamps. 
\~y_^ 5. The wear is less than one-quar- 
ter of stamps. 

6. There is no wear except on 

shoes and dies. . 

s 7. In point of araa'gamation it Is 

superior to any other machine 

in use. 

8. In it-j simplicity of construction. 

^ We challenge competition with 

Stamps, Ball Pulverizers or and 
other ore crushing machines now 
before the public. 
di^Send for Circulars and Price List. MARSHUTZ & CANTRELL. 


Are you going to make any change in machinery? Are vou freighting hy team or packing on 
mules? Do you want Pulleys on Shafting already up? If so, don't fail to look into the 
merits of 



They are the liightest. Strongest, Best Balanced and Most 
Convenient Pulleys Made in the "World, 
Entirely new and original. Adapted to aov power required. Time, troubleand moueysaved by usiogthese pulleys, 
Also Agent for the DODGE SYSTEM OF ROPE TRANSMISSION. Estimates furnished, 
^r Price List and Catalogues mailed free. 

JOHN SIMONDS, Pacific Coast Agent» SOO-51 3 Mission St.» S. F* 



Number 2. 

Deep-Greek and River-Bed Mining. 

There are in this State and eUewhere many 
depoaitfl of aariferoas gravel in deep creeks and 
river-beds. Tbougb known to be ricb, tbey 
were too deep and wet to be worked in the 
early days of California mining, and in many 
instances tbey are now covered ap deeper by 
the galohes, ravines and creeks having been 
worked out and the debris dumped in and on 
the beds of the large streams. The miners 
often knew them to be richer than many small 
streams which they were working, but the ex- 
tra labor of deep *' stripping" by hand-work 

was against them and 

there was more profit 

in working shallower 

though poorer diggings, 

less capital also being , 


Some years since J. 
P. Lambing, a man who 
bad conducted mining 
operations for the past 
36 years in almost every 
way that gold is mined, 
turned his attention to 
this sabject. Knowing 
of the existence of ex- 
tensive and rich but 
deep depoeibs of gravel 
in creek and river-beds, 
be started in to devise 
suitable steam machin- 
ery to enable him to 
handle the earth or 
**strippiDgs " overlying 
the pay gravel more 
economically and expe- 
ditiously than by the 
old method in practice 
in ordinary placer min- 
ing. It was also neces- 
sary to handle the large 
flow of seepage water 
nsnally met with in deep 
river-beds. After ex- 
pending a large amount 
of labor and money ex- 
perimenting for some 

five years, he has now at work the most com- 
pletepl ant to be found in the country. 

The mine is called the A.rroyo Seco, and ia 
in Amador county, in this State. The machin- 
ery was made by Knight & Co. of Sutter 
Creek. It may be stated, by the way, that the 
system may be applied in some places where 
hydraulic mining is not allowed, enabling the 
miner to hoist his debris away from the tail of 
the flume, swing it away 220 feet, and pila it 
up, allowing the water only to pass down the 

Mr. Lambing uses two large steam derricks 
for stripping 09" the deep deposit of barren sur- 
face sand, gravel and loam. These derricks are 
shown in the engraving. The derrick car is 
56 feet long, 16 feet wide and 18 feet high. It 
is strongly built, covered with corrugated iron 
and weighs about 75 tons with the enginea.boilers 
and machinery. The mast at the front end is 
56 feet high, and boom 110 feet long, the outer 
end elevated 56 feet above the ground. 

There ia a self filling bucket or dredger at- 
tached to a steel-wire rope (as will be seen "by 
cut) at one end, the other passing up over a 
shear in the end of the boom and thence down 
on the topside of the boom to the machinery in 

the derrick oar. One man stands in the lever- 
house, near the top of the mast, 50 feet above 
ground, where he has a full view of everything 
around, and by the use of levers, with suitable 
attachments to the machinery below, he has 
perfect control, &nd handles all the machinery 
with ease and accuracy. The cut shows one 
bucket on each derrick, one open and the other 
shut. The buckets are opened and closed by 
steam or compressed air. The power exerted 
inclosing is 31. 000 pounds, if necessary, in hard 
ground. When the bucket is opened and on 
the ground, the man in the lever-bouse, near 
the top of the mast, turns on steam or air to 

and each auooeeding pit ia ao dumped. The 
sluices are usually two to four strings, being 
set on the pay gravel in the pit, on the proper 
grade, and the necessary water brought from 
the surface to do the washing. After passing 
through the sluices, it passes with the seepage 
water through culverts underground to the 
pumpbouse, 200 to 400 yards distant, where it 
is raised to the surface 36 feet high by power- 
ful centrifugal pumps, built especially for hand- 
ling very muddy water and even sand and 
gravel. The water, or so much of it as may be 
required, is then returned to the sluices, where 
it ia again used for washing. This, however, is 


close it, and hoists it up. He then swings it 
around to any pi ice within a circle of 220 feet, 
drops the load of from I^ to 2 cubic yards, 
swings the bucket back, lets it down on the 
ground open, all in from one to two minutes, 
according to distance to be moved. The der- 
ricks are capable of hoisting a load of 10 tons 
50 feet high. They are placed on a solidly 
built railway track, which ia taken up in front 
and moved to the rear as the excavating pro- 

Three men are required to operate one 
derrick — one leverman, one fireman and one 
track-layer. After excavating to the depth of 
27 to 30 feet at the Arroyo Seco mine, they 
reach the pay gravel. It is from four to nine 
feet deep, the surface of it paying a few cents 
per pan, and getting richer as they go toward 
bedrock, where it often pays as many dollars 
per pan. When they first open the mine in 
the spring, if the pits or excavations have been 
filled up by the winter floods, they strip off a 
pit say 60 to SO feet square, and hoist the pay 
gravel out on the surface, where they wash it in 
sluices while the stripping goes on. The next 
pit BO uncovered is washed in the pit and 
dumped where the first pit was worked out, 

only done when water ia scarce, which hap- 
pened last fall. But a small stream of water is 
necessary when handled in this way, the heavy 
sediment settling, while passing to the pump- 
house and returning to the sluices again. Mr. 
J. P. Lambing, the superintendent of the Ar- 
royo Seco Mining Co., who furnishes us the 
above information concerning the process de- 
scribed, has had miny inquiries about the sys- 
tem of working adopted, and this description 
will interest many miners who have ground of 
a similar character. 

A Suit has been bsgun against the North 
Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company, asking 
that defendant be enjoined from dumping deb- 
ris into the Yuba river, and also from selling 
water for mining purposes. The action was in- 
stituted by the United States, represented by 
Attorney General Hart. This is the first time 
a suit has been brought in this way. 

The Oregon Iron and Steel Co. at Oawego 
has 300 men at work. The new furnaces 
will be ready for use by August, New bonkers 
for ore are being built. The company will work 
on a larger scale than ever before. 

What is a Mine? 

Aa defined by the lexicographer and the 
scientist, a mine is a subterraneous work or 
excavation which has for its object the discov- 
ery and extraction of metallic ores or other 
mineral substance. But in addition to the 
underground works which constitute the mine 
proper, the term in its general acceptation in- 
cludes also the ground itself, together with the 
plant, whatever the kind, such as hoisting, 
pumping, and reduction works; buildings for 
the accommodation of workmen, coal-bunkers, 
etc. According to this defioition a simple 
mineral claim or loca- 
tion on which no deep 
or underground work 
has been done would 
not constitute a mine, 
notwithstanding the 
custom that obtains to 
the contrary. Through- 
out our mineral regions 
every such claim, even 
though no work has 
been done upon it, is 
called a mine. 

Even in common usage 
it seems to us that the 
distinction above taken 
ought to be observed, 
since to designate a 
wholly undeveloped 
mineral lode or other 
deposit a mine is to 
misrepresent and mis- 
lead. Such claim ia 
wanting in the first and 
moat essential feature 
of a mine, the under- 
ground work prosecuted 
for the discovery and 
extraction of ore or 
other mineral product. 
We might with as much 
propriety call a pre- 
emption or a homestead 
claim a farm as to call 
such a mineral claim a 
mine. It was shown in 
theee colnmns not long since that as many 
as 30,000 mining claims had, first and last, 
been taken up and recorded in the State of 
Nevada, with presumably six or eight times 
as many in the other Pacific States and 
Territories— say 250,000 all told. Under the 
usage that prevails, all of these claims, or at 
least as many of them as have been kept good, 
are spoken of as mines, which not even five per 
cent of them really are. 

This loose sort of phraseology came into 
vogue during the earlier stages of mining in 
California, when digging up the auriferous 
gravel with a pick and washing it in a rocker 
was termed mining, though hardly more like 
the real business than digging and housing 
potatoes. Gradually, as deep pits were opened 
on the river bars, and shafts were put down 
and tunnels run for reaching the drift or open- 
ing up the vein deposits, the business began to 
take on t'le proportions and otherwise assume 
the characteristics of substantial mining. 

Now that this industry has so changed, we 
should begin to speak of it with a little more 
discrimination as well as show better judgment 
in our classification of what belongs to it than 
we have been accustomed to do. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdlt 14, 1888 


We admit, uniudoraed, opinions of correspondents. -Eds. 

Dutch Flat and Vicinity, 

Editors Press: — Perhaps it is safe to con- 
clude that not one person out of a thouaand of 
the present population of California has ever 
heard of the circumstance from which Dutch 
Flat took its name. Since my arrival a few 
days ago I have been regaled with numerous 
stories relating to the matter. They have varied 
so muoh that I am certain that all of them can- 
not be quite correct, so I am left to decide for 
myself which ie most entitled to credence, 
stripping the subject of all the romance with 
which it has been connected, I find that in the 
early fifties, an adventurous Dutchman, in 
search ' of gold, after wandering among the 
rugged canyons, spied a little flat, now the 
site of the town, and, Dutchman-like, squatted 
upon it and began to mine near by. The miners 
of other campa in the neighborhood at first re- 
ferred to the digging as the flat where the 
Batchman lived. In those busy times the min- 
ers were not long in hitting upon an apt abbre- 
viation of titles, and, accordingly, the camp 
which BO suddenly sprang up, was soon known 
as Dutch Flat. 

The population of the town, once numbering 
thousands of busy, prosperous miners, has been 
reduced within the last few years to between 
700 and SCO all told. The disastrous termina- 
tion of the debris question, which a few years 
ago caused the operation of hydraulic mining to 
cease, has worked a great hardahip upon the 
poor miner. Very many, whose fortunes 
seemed assured, if not already within their 
grasp, found themselves, on the enforcement of 
the Anti-Dabris Act not only " broke," but 
tbonaands of dollars worse than nothing. They 
had invested their all, and more, in the machin- 
ery and appliances necessary for the prosecu- 
tion of their legitimate enterprises, which 
finally they were not allowed to continue. All 
they now possess is the empty satisfaction of 
knowing that within the soil they possess, 
granted them for mining pnrposes, there are 
thousands, and perhaps millions of dollars, 
which they dare not use profitable means to 
make avaiUble. Tell me, is it not a little hard 
to say that such a state of affairs is even-handed 
justice? While a full measure of sympathy is 
claimed for the hard-working and honest granger, 
it would aeeni highly fitting that at least a mite 
should be loaned to the poor but equally honest 

The country for miles and miles aroand 
Dutch Flat is strewn with the piping, once used 
in hydraulicing, which is being gathered at the 
railroad depot to be shipped to the mining re- 
gions of Oregon, where thus far no kicking 
against the " slickens" is going on. The web- 
footer, unlike the tar head, seems to have 
enough to engage his attention without med- 
dling in the affairs of his neighbors. 

It will not do, however, to take too gloomy a 
view of the outlook for the mining interests of 
this region. There ia ground for hope that 
mines of untold wealth will sooner or later be 
discovered in the vicinity, from the fact that at 
no time within the history of this part of the 
country has there been more skillful attention 
paid by a greater number of men to proBpecting 
for quartz exclusively, nor have the labors of 
the prospector been devoid of encouragements. 
Reports from various directions are of a char- 
acter to cheer up the drooping spirits of the in- 
habitants of this region. Near Gold Run, but 
a few miles west of here, the Everhart Bros, 
have discovered an eight-inch ledge, which 
tested, lowest ore, $152; highest, $300. It is 
situated in the secret town mining district;. 
The test was made of rock at the depth of 74 
ieet, where the ledge was lost. They are now 
trying to get on the ledge with pay shute. The 
main tunnel is now 490 feet. These same gen- 
tlemen lately sold Mr. J. A. Parker of Sacra- 
mento a ledge for $900, which the latter is ex- 
ploring. Eighty five feet descent has been 
made already and prospects as well on the sur- 
face. This ledge averages 2^ feet. 

It ia hard for those who have long followed 
gold mining and become infatuated with the 
pursuit to give it up. It ia next to impossible 
for the miner to aee any satisfactory reward in 
but few other callings. Were this not the case 
much of his grievaoce, so far as this section is 
concerned, would, in due time, vanish. By 
actual experiment it has been made clear that 
for the production of some varieties of fruit, no 
section of famous Oalifornia can excel this. The 
difficulty, so far, seems to be to get general in- 
terest on the subject duly awakened. To the 
credit of such men as Messrs. H. A. Frost, J. 
C. Chester, Chas. E. Kidd, Kinney and a few 
others I might name, who are directing acien- 
titio attention to the matter, and who have each 
cheering promises in fruit production, it is no 
longer a queation of producing the finest apples, 
pears and plums grown in the State, and per- 
hapa uaexcelled anywhere in the United States. 
Some of these gentlempu can show last year's 
apples to-day apparently as sound and well 
preserved as on the first day of this year. The 
altitude and consequent temperature aeems 
specialty suited to the production of the va- 
rieties I have named. That this branch of in- 
dustry must soon bacome prominent, if not para- 
mount to every other, requires no great sagacity 
to foresee. 

Then again there is wealth in the climate of 
this region, and the appreciation of it will in- 
crease as the knowledge of its excellence 
spreads out and reaches our less fa von d breth- 
ren of the Eastern Statea. When the senaeless 
craze concerning Southern California climate 
shall have died out, as we have abundant reason 
to believe that it will shortly, and people be- 
come aware of the fact that California is 
notin'Los Angeles, but simply the reverse, 
then, beyond doubt, the middle and northern 
sections of the State will receive their due share 
of attention, and the western foothills of the 
Sierras will be sought out and appreciated. 
And there is comfort in the assurance that the 
boom, wiiich shall sweep over this portion, will 
not collapse with the season, but will be solid 
and enduring. 

As regards the healthfulness of this region 
but little need be said. All know, or, at least, 
should know that mountain life and healthful*^ 
ness are well nigh inseparably connected, es- 
pecially in so far as reference is made to such 
mountains as these. Numbers are beginning to 
find out that this is one of the places to come 
to pass a really pleasant spell. Reasonable 
hotel accommodations are furnished at Gold 
Run, where B. Moody of the National hotel 
pays strict attention to his line of buainesa. 
While at this place W. A. Sharon of the Dutch 
Flat house not only makes an effort to pleasci 
his guests, but succeeds so well that guests are 
loth to depart. This gentleman takes an es- 
pecial interest in making known the various at* 
tractions which the region possesses for tourist 
and others who lay over here. On my arrivi^l 
Mr. Sharon alluded to eome of the claims of 
this neighborhood upon the public aa a resort. 
I told him that I was not aware that anything 
of special importance existed here to interest 
travellers. "That is just the reason why I 
mention it to you," he said, "comparatively 
few, if any, strangers are aware of what grand 
scenery is here; one view in particular that is to 
be seen within four miles of this place. I will 
take you to it to-morrow if you wish. It is off 
the line of the railroad is one reason, I suppose, 
that so few know of it," I assured him that it 
would be a means of much gratification to me 
to behold such a view as he gave me to under- 
stand it to be. 

So on the following morning, after breakfast, 
we were not long in making ready for the trip. 
The team being in readiness, we soon mounted 
and found ourselves whirling along at a rapid 
speed behind spanking steeds part way over 
the old stage road and partway along the old emi- 
grant grade, but for the most part along a road, 
if road it might be called, that had long been 
abandoned, and was now obstructed with caved 
banka and fallen trees; but withal it was a 
pleasant ride, which brought us to one of the 
highest eminences overlookiug the American 
river that exists in the neighborhood. Alight- 
ing from our bugy and tying the horses in the 
shade of a pine tree, my escort led the way a 
few rods beyond, when suddenly there broke 
upon our vision a chasm of over 3000 feet in 
depth. The rook upon which we stood over- 
hung almost perpendicular walls of granite. 
Through the bottom of perhaps 1000 acres 
flowed a stream apparently about 10 feet wide, 
but which I was assured was at least sixty. 
This proved to be the American river and the 
spot ia known as Green valley. At the edge of 
the river Mr. Sharon pointed oat an upright 
stone which is called Pyramid Rock, 100 feet 
high, but from our position it had the appear- 
ance of less than ten. Miners' cabins, of which 
there are a number, were seemingly mere bird- 
cages, and adults presented the diminutive 
stature of iofants. Looking to the eastward, 
Old Man Mountain, a prominent snowcapped 
peak of the Sierras, loomed skyward, while to 
the south and southweat Indiana Hill, Iowa 
Hill, Forest Hill and other old mining camps of 
lesser note were pointed out to my admiring 

A little farther to ray right in dimmer dis- 
tance I could behold the great Sacramento 
valley spread out and presenting in the glim- 
mering sunbeams the appearance of a vast in- 
land sea. For more than an hour I was an at- 
tentive listener to a narrative of the scenes and 
experiences of early mining days, aa given by 
one who had participated in peraon. *' Do you 
see that riffle in the stream just below Pyramid 
Rock?" said Mr. Sharon. "That ia where 
Waterloo claim was located. It was not 
thought to be valuable at one time and was 
sold to Chinamen for $400. Within three 
months they cleaned up $125,000 from it. A 
short distance above, where you aee that 
cluster of cabins, ia Hidden Hill. At this place 
was located the famous Golden Ring claim. It 
was among the richest claims of- the American 
river diggings. I would not venture to say 
how many millions of dollars were taken out of 
it." My companion then related the Indian 
legend connected with the rook on which we 
were sitting. Aa the story runs, it appears 
that in the long, long ago, before the intrusion 
of the paleface, there dwelt in Green Valley a 
tribe of natives to which belonged a certain 
Indian maiden whom the chief's son longed as 
his wife. But the damsel willed otherwise. 
An imperative injunction was finally issued by 
those in authority over her to the effect that 
she must yield to the ardent wish of her royal 
lover. Finding entreaty on her part unavail- 
ing, one evening, as the sun was hiding hia face 
behind the lofty mountain-tops, this courageous 
daughter of the woods climbed to this point and 
cast herself down the precipice. From this 
circumstance it is since aptly termed by the 
whites, "Lovers' Leap." F. B. L. 

Dams for Mining Debris. 

The Operations at North Bloomfleld- 

Editors Press:— Sait has been commenced 
by the U. S, against the North Bloomfield 
Gravel Mine. The iDJunction of this mine as 
an open hydraulic some five years ago, ia an 
old story, but for some time past operations 
have been carried on under great disadvan- 
tages on the plan of impounding the debris. 
Of course the work has been very muoh crip- 
pled under this limitation, but the company 
has managed to do a profitable business. Now 
it seems that even this resource must be out off, 
and the once famous mine will be added to the 
long list of non- producers. 

I have just visited this mine. The manner 
of working, as many of your readers know, is 
to elevate the tailings from the monitora to a 
bight of 90 feet, by meana of the hydraulic 
elevator. They use 675 inches of water under 
a pressure of from 350 to 530 feet for piping, 
and 1400 inches under 530 feet in the elevator. 
All of this water and all of the tailings pass to 
a reservoir 2500 feet long, formed by a dam 
aoross a portion of the worked out hydraulic 
ground. The dam is 20 feet thick, stands at 
an angle of about 66 degrees, and ia made of 
small pine trees laid aoroea its length, and 

The present higbt of the dam :a 40 feet, but 
it was not built to this bight in the first place, 
but gradually, as required. This is a feature, 
of debris dama which seems to have escaped 
the attention of some, including the judges of 
Supreme Courts, who have expressed opinions 
aa to the feasibility' of impounding tailinga on a 
large aoale. A debris dam need never b3 ex- 
posed to a very considerable preaaure of water, 
being built only to a very moderate hight at 
firat, and gradually raised as the bottom under 
the water is raised by accumulation of the im- 
pounded material. In this particular case the 
dam ia absolutely safe becauae it ia at the up- 
stream end of the reservoir, and the inlet ia ao 
near to it, or at least one inlet is, that the 
coarse gravel, not the slickens, is that which 
remains banked against it, and in fact, at this 
writing, there is a strip of dry, solid land, 100 
feet wide, adjoining and forming a part of the 
dam. The angle of stability of such material 
is not greatly leas thaq the alope of the dam, 
and the gravil soon becomes in a measure ce- 
mented by the infiltra ion of aand and ferregin- 
oua watsr. No large atream of water can ever 
fiow from the reservoir over this dam to cut it, 
because the flow ia the other way, and if the 
brush of which the dam ia made (pine trees) 
should rot in course of time, and it would 
scarcely do so during the life of the mine, the 
gravel would by that time have acquired, if it 
does not now possess, stability independent of 
the dam. A' d if the dam could break to mor- 
row, and all the contents of the vast reservoir 
could run out, which they could not. the only 
result would be that the mine would be to that 
extent refilled by its original material. 

The present outlet of the reservoir, through 
which flows the dirty water and a little sus- 
pended slickens, is at a point about 1500 feet 
distant from the inlet and from the dam. This 
outlet consists of a cribbed and planked shaft 
connecting with the mouth of the old drain or 
tailinga tunnel of the mine, which tunnel, by 
the wav, coat the company half a million dol- 
lara. This shaft ia built up pari paau with the 
dam, in proportion as the reservoir tilla with de- 
bris, and so as to maintain such a depth of 
water constantly as to insure the settling of all 
but a amall percentage of aolid matter. 

A new outlet 2300 feet from the inlet ia now 
in process of construction by meana of an in- 
clined tunnel or drift on an angle of 20 degrees 
to connect with the drain tunnel. This drift 
will be 615 feet long, of whiob about 100 feet 
is now completed. At the mouth of the drift 
another box-shaft will be built up as required 
to retain the tailing^. The drain tunnel deliv* 
era the muddy water into the South Yuba 

Whether it is that the water escaping from 
this reservoir still carries suspended a sufficient 
quantity of silt to be appreciab'y injuriom to 
the rivers and valleys, or whether it Is that the 
company is in contempt of court by working in 
any way, I do not know. The case seems a 
hard one, and it is just such cases as this that 
are taking the breath and the courage 
from the miners, many of whom are convinced 
that even drift mining is doomed and quartz 
will sooner or later come under the ban; and 
why not? The same string runs through 
all, and that string sounds ever the same note, 
varying only the octave. 

I have read the article of your correspondent, 
L, who has taken the word out of my mouth, 
and your editorial remarks on judicial decisions, 
in regard to which I plead guilty of being " in 
contempt "too profound for utterance, or at 
least for printing. I know of a case near Col- 
fax, an injunction by a supreme (God save the 
mark) judge, whose charge to ajary some years 
ago moved my deep disrespect. It is not that I 
have any direct personal interest in mines. I 
should not care if every mine in California were 
cloaed to morrow, on my own account; and I 
concede, and the miners with wbem I have con- 
versed concede, that the rights of the farmers 
and other valley dwellers should hecpnsidered; 
but I have no patience with the judicial stupid- 
ity which cannot see the difference between a 
debris dam and a water dam, and which permits 
the latter, which is dangerous in spite of all 
precaution, while prohibiting the former, which, 

with ordinary prudence is absolutely safe. I 
fancy that perhaps the judge may have lost 
money in mines in the past. 

These considerations, including tboae pre- 
sented by yourselves, and some others,; lecall 
the often asked but seldom answered question, 
" what are we coming to ? " And I fancy the 
answer to be, to unbearable tyranny of (.fficiala 
and monopolists first, and to disruption ot this 
great commonwealth, or to imperialism at last. 

Americans boast of their country aa the land 
of freedom, par excellence, but California is not 
near so free as any one of the Australian cilo- 
nies, else would the Chinese question have been 
Betted long ago, and this debris matter would, 
aa it could, be arranged speedily and juatly. 
C, H. Aaron. 

North Bloomfield, Nev. Go.^ July, 1S8S. 

Ores for Leaching in Mexico. 

Editors Press: — Hdving read the interesting 
articles of C. A. Schenk on the leaching proceaa, 
published some months since in your valuable 
paper. I asked him lately if he knew par- 
ties that would take a controlling interest in 
large deposits of crushed ore fit for lixiviation, 
and he refers me to you as in a position prob- 
ably to bring me in contact with moneyed men, 
who might be interested in the subject. Thus, 
I beg leave to trouble you in a matter which 
may interest some of your frienda. The facta 
are simply these: From a bonanza lasting over 
45 years and producing weekly 2590 tons of ore, 
crushed hastily and run through the patio as 
quick as possible, there is a vast amount of 
tailings, and these tailings assay about 8 to 10 
ounces per ton. I would say the actual test 
runs yielded 12 ounces per ton of silver and 
some little gold. The location ia near a town 
of 7000 inhabitants, three miles from a Mexican 
Central R. R. station, in a col 1 climate excel- 
lent for health; by cold, I mean tabluland, with 
fresh temperature and practically no winter. 
Coal will there now soon be delivered at §10 a 
ton, while fuel ia a little more expenaive, and 
salt costs $7 a ton. For 20,000 tons of selected 
ore of 10 CO 12 ounces, one-third interest is re- 
tained and a royalty of S2 per ton has to be 
paid. In exchange, a hacienda ia offered nith 
water supply for use of the new plant, which 
would be paid by the surplus value of this ore 
and mure, because half the quantity of ore 
would be sufficient for it. After amortisation 
of all expenses the controlling interest of a lit- 
tle over half would be to the owners of the 
plant and hacienda, and thus a runniog or con- 
tinuous profit without expense secured. 

I know of quite considerable depoeits of ore 
fit for leaching and claimed to run 50 ounces 
per ton, but some distance off the railroad, 
though in a part where wood and timber ia very 
cheap, and all quiet and safe. The examination 
of both thcEe orea on the ground is so easy, 
and teat runs could be so cheaply made, that 
the calculation of profits to be secured should 
be reliable. 

For amalgamation I control 75,000 tons of 
rather free-milling ore, which leaves 38 per ton 
for treatment, while the same ore tested at 
Luckhardt's in San Francisco has been calcu- 
lated to cost from §1.15 to $1.20 per ton. Even 
supposing fuel double in price here, yet profits 
would be considerable and only a " Boss" plant 
wanted. A 40'Stamp mill is idle here, for 
which I could get all the ore it could treat at 
good profits. Max Koelul. 

Ouanajuato, Mexico. 

Tin Plate Manufacture. 

Editors Press : — A local journal haa copy of 
an article recently published by you recounting 
operations which have been taken in connection 
with the working and development of tin mines 
in your State, also stating that tin plate had 
been satisfactorily produced with tin made from 
the output of these minea; and, further, that it 
was contemplated to proceed with this indus- 
try for the supply of tin plate to the western 
portion oi the cootinent, 

I have not a knowledge of any of the parties 
interested in the movement, and would there- 
fore ask the favor of your inserting thia letter 
in yoor journal, 80 that in attracting their at- 
tention it may possibly lead to opening up the 
subject of tin plate manufacture with myself. 
Meanwhile let me state that I am a practical 
tin-plate maker from South Wales, England, 
now engaged in this country in advocating its 
manufacture, and know my contributions to the 
Eistern press are known and recognized as an 
authority upon the subject. 

I am interested in patented appliances in gen- 
eral use at tin-pUte works for reducing cost of 
production, and am therefore in the most favor- 
able position to undertake the making of tin 
plate under the most advantageous conditions. 
Trusting this letter may elicit a reply from tho&e 
connected with the movement, I am yours 
faithfuUv, WiLKiKS Frick. 

1S12 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, HI. 

TuE Technical Society of the Pacific Coast, 
which has not published any of its proceedings 
for some months, has a number of papers in the 
hands of the printer, and the rfgalar "trans- 
action" will soon be ready for distribution. 

Many teachers have already arrived from 
theEistto attend the National Educational 

July 14, 1888. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Taolamne Coanty Mines. 

River MiDloer. Mills and Mines. 

Editoes Pkk-ss:— On the SUDisUuo river, 
JQSC above Reyoolds ferry, Mesere. Cherlea 
Fitch k CompaDy have jast completed their 
taonel through aDd arouod the Horeesboe 
bend, 1200 feet in Ifingth by 7 feet in bight 
aod 5 in width. This will drain nearly l\ 
milea of the riverbed. Tbey propoee start- 
ing in work immediately. Much of this ground 
baa been worked by means of wing dams fur the 
past 30 years, always prnviog remunerative and 
paying all the way from $:{ op to as high as $200 
per day to the hand. This taooel will enable 
them to get at the eotire bed of the river as sood 
as the wbeel and pumps are io place. 

Proceediug up the main riJge toward Tuttle- 
town, we find new life has taken bold of this 
part of the county. A new discovery made 
only a few years ago, and called the Long Ouloh 
mine, was hooded by the owot, Mr. Frank 
Groes, to Victor Hansen of Sid Fraociaco, who 
immediately wont to work and erected a 6ve- 
stamp mill with frame for 15 stamps. They 
have now been running the mill for the last two 
weeks, with tbu results thus far showing an 
average of ore paying $10 per ton. The owner 
pounded out the oeat little sum cf $8000 in a 
mortar before he gave a bond of the property. 

We understand they are now down only about 
SO feec in depth, and the mine gives great 
promise af permanency. 


At Tnttletown, the once tumbled-down relic 
of by-gone days of '-10, a new lease of life seems 
to have set in. Improvements in the shape of 
new houses and mills and a perfect regeneratioo 
in the way of repainting and beautifying the 
old ones is going on. 

Mr. J. K. Ritchie has just completed a new 
fivo'Stamp m)ll just below the Patterson, and 
■has set to work on an old abandoned mine di- 
rectly alongside the stage road. The rock taken 
out runs from about $5 to $S per ton, with an 
average width of three feet of ledge. 

The Patterson Mine and Mill 

Is now running in full bUst. This property 
is under lease to Fred Morns, although we hear 
the lease expires soon. Whether the present 
party will take a new tease, or some other party 
get it is not yet decided. The ore now being 
extracted is of a low grade, yet sufficient to 
justify all expenses with a margin of profit. 
This mine in former days produced the hand- 
somest sppcimeus of ouba sulphurets in perfect 
form and varying in size from an eighth of ao 
inch up to two inches square, all covered with a 
thin film of pure gold, and was largely remuaer- 
ative to its owners. 

There has also been erected at this same little 
town a two stamp mill, whioh is owned by a 
Mr. Ferguson of Sonora, who is working a small 
ledge of very fair ore near by. 

The Old Leonard Mine 

Adjoining the Patterson on the gulch is sl'O be- 
ing worked after being abandoned for the past 
10 years. 

The Alabama. 

Crossing over Table mountain toward James* 
town, we come to the Alabama mine. This im- 
mense ledge (or rather quarry) is owned by Mr. 
Thos. Bell of San Francisco and a Mr. Harris liv- 
ing near the ground. The component parts of 
this ledge consiste largely of talcoae slate mixed 
with aulpburets of iron and stringers of quartz, 
This property, if properly handled, and worked 
as it should be, that is automatically, with am- 
ple milling facilities and proper appliances for 
reducing large quantities of ore, should and 
could be made a first class paying claim as it is 
sitnated for working very economically and 

The Chrystalline. 

Adjoining the above, and similar in char- 
acter of ore, is the Chrystalline mine and mill, 
which, although now running 15 stamps, ex- 
pect to have to shut down within the next 
month for lack of water. This property belongs 
to the Seeber Bros, and is being run by them- 
selves and a few others in interest who are all 
personally engaged io and around the works, 
looking closely sf Cer their own interests by de- 
veloping the same continuously. 

The Harris. 
Adjoining, and not over a quarter of a mile 
down the gulch, we come to the once-famous 
*'Gem" or Harris mine and mill. At tbepreeent 
time this mine is lying idle on account of it be- 
ing full of water below the SO foot level and not 
having proper pumping apparatus. This mine 
baa proved in the past one of the richest, as far 
as worked, in Tuolumne county, as I believe 
Mr. Harris originally took out over §60.000 
within a very short time with very meager ap- 
pliances. There is no good reason why it 
should not continue to pay as well as ever if 
properly worked and a good pump put in. 

Quartz Mountain Mine and Mill. 

This mine has a 25-8tamp mill at work which 
is reducing from 36 to 45 tons of ore per day, 
although the ore is very low grade. The upper 
works are all stoped out, and. unless sinking is 
done before long, they must close down or run 
out of ore. Then, again, the mill is very old 
and will require an entire n(^w outtit to make it 
the success it should be. The ledge is about 
20 feet in widtb and the walls stand well with- 
out requiring any timbering, . W. A. K, 

The Rassell Process. 

Its Practical Appllcatloc and EcoDomlc 

[The following article, which will be cootin- 
ncd in several numbers of the Misino and Sci- 
entific Press, was compiled from Mr. Rassell'a 
notes by Kllsworth Diggett of Salt Lake City, 
Utah, and was originally read before the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining Kngioeers. — Eds. 

In the first paper on the RuastU prooesa pre- 
sented by Mr. Stetefeldt, in May, 1834 (pub- 
lished in the MlNINil AM> SOIKNTIKIU PuK.SS), 
the process was treated from a purely theo- 
retical standpoint. In his nennnd paper of 
Ootober, ISSti ( rran^fao^ioni, AT), the details 
of the plant, the chemicals used, and the manip- 
ulation in both mill and laboratory, were 
treated. The aim of the present paper is to 
present economical results recently attained, 
new data affcjctiog the preparation and manipu 
lation of ore in the mill, and a more complete 
and systematic scheme of laboratory work. 

This paper is compiled mainly frnm Mr. Rus- 
sell's notes cf his own experience. Man> of these 
notes, particularly those relating to work at 
Cusibuiriacbio (called for short in this paper, 
as in common use among mining men, " Cuai "), 
Mexico, have been upon work directly under 
the personal obaervatton of the compiler, who 
takes pleasure in thus presenting data and con- 
siderations of much interest and value not only 
to users of the Husaell process, but to millmen 
generally. The description of the chemicals 
used and of the preparation oF the mill solutions 
being in part the same now as when Mr. Stete- 
feldt's second paper was published, some use is 
here made of portions of that paper. Ko 
theoretical matter is here given. For a treatise 
containin^-aUo the theory of the prooese the 
reader is referred to Mr. Stetefeldt's complete 
work on '* Lixiviation of S.lver Ores by Hypo- 
sulphite Solutions," now in preparation. 

I. Laboratory Work. 

A. — Learhintj Tests by Extra Solution or Rus- 
sell Process. — DiBerent ores require diflfrrent 
treatment on the small scale, in the aseay office, 
as well as in the mill. Consequently, for the 
reasons explained further on, eight different 
leaching tests ara used in testing raw ores, and 
eight for roasted or chloridized ores. Of the 
eight methods, the one giving the highest per 
cent extraction is then selectt^d for all further 
leaching tests on that particular ore. 

Id making the tests the following points 
should be noticed: Toe metric system and as- 
8ay-'on weights are supposed to be used. The 
weight of ore taken is one-third or one half an 
assay ton, and is placed in a beaker of about 
300 CO. capacity. 

If the fire assays are made by scorification, of 
course a smaller amount of ore should be taken, 
but no change need be made in the amount of 
chemicals or solution used. Also, if beakers 
of 300 c.c. are not at band, smaller sizes and 
less volume of solution can be used, without al- 
tering the weight of chemicals. The given pro- 
portion between hyposulphite and b'.uestone 
should be observed. 

The preliminary washing with water in the 
case of roasted or chliridized ores is by decan- 
tat on, the clear liquid being decanted upon the 
filter that is afterward used to receive the ore. 
The amount of hyposulphite of eodi used is 20 
grams, unless otherwise stated. The ** blue- 
stone solution " referred to is a 20 per cent so- 
lution made by dissolving 200 grams bluestone 
in hot water and diluting to 1 000 c.c. Unless 
otherwise stated, 25 c.c. of this solution is used. 
Id all cases the contents of the beakers should 
be occasionally stirred. 

The washing with water at the end of the 
operation is to remove the last traces not only 
of dissolved silver, but also of hyposulphite of 
soda, which would interfere with the burning 
of the filter. After the final washing with 
water, the filter and ore are transferred to a 
fldt dish and dried. When dry the ore is sep- 
arated from the filter and the filter burned — the 
ash being added to the ore, which is then ready 
to be assayed. If the fire-aseays are made by 
Bcorification, the presence of the filter-ash is in 
convenient. For such at<says, the last traces of 
the ore are removed from the dry filter with a 
stiff brush, and the filter-paper is not assayed. 

The following are the methods of making lix- 
iviation tests by the extra-solution (Russell 
process) in the assay iffiie. The first eight are 
for raw ores and tailings — the second eight for 
roasted or chloridized ores. For brevity the 
terms ''Hypo "and "Blue " are here u^ed for 
the salt hyposulphite of soda and the blue-stone 
solution respectively. 

a. Leaching-Testafor Haw Ores and for Tail- 
IvfjA. — I. Ada 250 c. c. cold water and20grm. 
Hyp'^; let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; decant; 
add 25 c. c. Blue; dilute to 300 c. c. with cold 
water; let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; add 20 
grm. Hypo; let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; filter 
and wasb. 

2. Add 250 c. c. cold water and 20 grm. 
Hypo; let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; add 20 
grm. Hypo and 25 c. c. Blue; let stand 12 to 
16 hours cold; filter and wash. 

3. Add 100 c. c. cold water and 25 c. o. 
B'ue; let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; dilate to 
300 c. c. with cold water; add 20 grm. Hypo; 
let stand 12 to 16 hours cold; filter and wash 
on filter with hot Hypo solution. 

4. Add 100 c. o. cold water and 25 c. o. 
Blue; let stand 1 hour cold; add 200 c. c. cold 

water and 20 grm. Hypo; heat to about 130^ F.; 
filter and wash. 

5. Add 250 o. c. cold water and 25 c. o. 
Blue; let stand 1 hour cold; add 20 grm. Uypo; 
heat on sand bath to 130° F.; decant; add 200 
o. c. cold water and 25 c. c. Blue; let stand 1 
hour cold; add 20 grm. Hypo; heat, filter and 

6. Add 200 o. o. cold water and 90 c. o. 
Blue; let stand one*balf hour cold; add 90 grm. 
Hvpo; heat to about loO"* F. and wash. 

7. Add 250 c. c. cold water and 25 c. c. 
Blue; heat to about 130^ F.; decant; add 20 
grm. Hypo and 25 o. c. Blue; dilute to 300 o. o. 
with cold water; heat to about l.SO"^ F.; filter 
and wash. 

8. Add 200 c. o. hot water and 00 o. o. Blue; 
let stand one-half honr; add 90 grm. Hypo; 
heat to about 150^ F.; filter and wash. 

h. Leachinn Tetts for Jioantfd or Chloridized 
Ores, Mattes and Taiiings. — l. No washing; 
add 50 0. o. cold water and 25 c. c. Bluf ; let 
stand 2 hours cold; dilute to .tOO c. c. with cold 
water; add 20 grm. Hypo; let stand 2 hours 
cold; filter and wash. 

2. No washing; add 250 c. c. cold water and 
25 0. c. Blue; let stand 12 to IS hours cold; add 
20 grm. Hypo; let stand 12 to IS hours cold; 
filter and waeh. 

3. No washing; add 250 c. o. cold water and 
25 c. c. Blue; let stand 2 hours cold; add 20 
grm. Hypo; Idt stand 2 houis oold; filter and 

4. Wash with cold water; add 25 c. c. Blue; 
dilute too 300 c. o. with cold water; let stand 
12 to 18 hours oold; add 20 grm. Hypo; let 
stand 12 to 18 hours cold; filter and wash on 
filter with hot Hypo solutioo. 

5. No washing; add 250 c. c. oold water and 
25 0. c. Blue; let stand 1 hour cold; add 20 
grm. Hypo; heat to about 130"^ F ; deeaot; add 
250 c. c. cold water and 25 c. c. B ue; let stand 
1 hour cold; add 20 grm. Hypo; heat to about 
130" F.; filter and wash. 

6. Wash with hot water; add 200 o. c, hot 
water and 90 c. c. Blue; let stand one half hour; 
add 90 grm. Hypo; heat to about 150^ F,; 
filter and wash. 

7. Wash with hot water; add 90 c. c. Blue; 
let stand one-half hour; add 90 grm. Hvpo; 
dilute to 300 c. c; heat to about 150' F.; filter 
and wash. 

8. Wash with hot water; add 20 grm. Hypo; 
let stand (with residue of wash water, ab^ut 
30 to 40 c. c ) 1 hour; add 25 c. c. Bluf; dilntn 
to 300 c. c. with cold water; heat to about 130" 
F.; filter and wash. 

B.— Leaching Tests by Ordinary Solution 

In the treatment of roanted oreci, and some- 
times of raw ores, assay cffije leaching tests by 
the " ordinary '* solution also, as well as by the 
** extra," should frequently be made. If these 
tests are made by the mill solution, as is done 
in some mills, the results may be very mislead 
ing. For instance, if caustic soda or lime were 
present in the mill solution, such a solution of 
many ores would give very low results, both in 
assay office and mill. The low extraction 
would then be laid to a change in the character 
of the ore or to the furnace-work, whereas the 
true cause of the difficulty would be the im 
parity in the solution. By the use of a frebh 
hyposulphite solution in the assay office test, 
the cause of the low results in the mill would 
become immediately appareat. 

Lake Valley 


Name of Ore. i 


16 Screen. 


Mfcsh ( f Sureen 
and Method cf 
(Crushing. -i 

iptDp^B! ' a to S3 ta 

352953 : 5532 


o o o 


° E S 

3 W_3 fc|_CJ ». 

c e - 3 

o a 

3- a- 






•cJ * 



o Oioto 


O. M 0> W O »0 




M sh of Screen 
Uned io Assa) 

Value of Ore 

SW 2 

Valuti of Tai>.nct-| 
from Ordinary! 

Valuti of 'Jatlir-cs 
from Extra Solu- 


•^ wco'^o 

Per (ient Fxtraiteo 
by Ordinary. 

o -^ ci oi o< 

Per cent by Extra.,; 

In the case of roasted or chloridized ores 
which have been so coarsely crubhed in the 
mill as to require for assaying a re-crushing in 
the assay office, a metal mortar should never be 
used, as may be seen from Table I. As there 
shown, the per cent of extraction by the ordi- 
nary solution in the assay office, on Cuai ore, 
is reduced 10 to 11 per cent by the use of the 
iron mortar, while the results by the extra 
solution are practically unaltered. The cause 
of this is probably the reduction of part of the 
silver to the metallic state, in which state it is 
much more soluble iu the extra solution than 
in the ordinary. 

Bat on the Lake Valley ores, the use of the 
iron mortar reduced not only the extraction by 
the ordinary solution to the extent of 25 3 per 
cent, but also the extraction by the extra so- 
lution IS per cent. No explanation can be 
given of the change taking place in this case. 
Oq some roasted ores the percentage of extrac- 
tion by the ordinary solution in the assay office 
is reduced 50 to GO per cent by the use of a 
metal mortar. 


EtK«CT or Ubiko * OorpiiR Vmsbi. 



TUB Abbay.Offick. 

Value in nuncoBperton 




Per cent 




in Favor of 

in Favor of 






h.ateil iQ 

I eated in 




20. M 










1 .112 








72. OJ 












12. 9 J 




























As observed by Mr, Frank Johoson, of the 
Yedras mill, in making leaching tests by the 
ordinary solution, the solution should never be 
heated io a copper vessel. Table II shows the 
difference in the results by the ordinary leach- 
ing tests in the assay office, caused by heating 
the ordinary solution in a copper vessel, as 
compared with a glass or wooden one. This 
difi^erence is caused by the dissolving of a very 
small portion of the copper vessel by the hot 
ordinary solution, thus making a very weak 
extra solution. 

(7*0 be Continued.) 

Kern Conniy Mines. 

Editors Press:— There are but few miners 
working throughout the county, although there 
is great hopes of extensive work being done 

At Kernville things are very dull. The Big 
B'ue mill and mine are idle. Judge Sumner 
employs a few men in his claim at Keysville 
and we hear he is doing well. There is great 
hopes of the Big Blue starting upon again, which 
wiU give employment to a namber cf men. 

At Havilah there are about 15 men mining. 
We think after a short time there will be a 
great many more men mining. Heretofore the 
milling facilities were very poor, two large mills 
having been burnt. However, Mr. Hays is 
putting up a five-stamp mill which will be soon 
running. We wish him all success in his under- 
taking. J. 

PlantlDg a Sequoia. 

A pleasing incident in connection with the 
graduation of the 34th class from the State 
Normal School at San Jose lately, was their 
planting of & sequoia gigantea on the grounds. 

F. M. Lane, president of the graduating 
olasB, delivered an address in the course of 
which he said: **The benefits we have here 
received are not ephemeral, but renewed on 
every day of our lives. * • * We are un- 
able to leave behind us anything that will ad- 
equately show our appreciation. Yet we feel 
that something should be done in that direc- 
tion to be a meaning reminder of the past and 
suggestive of the future, and we have, there- 
fore, left a sequoia tree, whioh grows up as 
quietly and unostentatiously to its immense 
amplitude and altitude as has this normal 
school, which has sent out thousands of grad- 
uates to all points of the compass; being, as re- 
gards its surprising capabilities of diseeminating 
knowledge, the guardian angel of education in 
the State." 

Prof. I. S. HoUoway, in behalf of the faculty 
of the school, accepted the tree '• as a visible 
token tending to keep growing the bonds of 
sympathy between you and us. * * * As 
the tree at present affects but little the general 
landscape, so your infiuence is as yet nnfelt; 
but as the tree grows, eo we hope your infiuence 
will enlarge. As the tree is ever green, so we 
hope that you may be ever fresh and vigorous, 
retaining sympathy for and interest in the 
young, never becoming dry, barren, useless 
slips of pedagogy. So we accept the tree, hop- 
ing that you anH it may grow to a stalwart, vig- 
orous maturity." 

Copper — The French copper syndicate has 
secured the output for three years of two of 
the principal cooper mines in Japan, comprising 
seven-eighths of the entire product in that 
country. This syndicate has already con- 
tracted for most of the output of the prin- 
cipal mines in this country, including 
those OQ Like Superior, Montana and in 
Arizona, and has control of the copper market 
of the world. The Japanese purchase is be- 
lieved to foreshadow another very marked ad- 
vance in the price of copper. The gigantic 
operations of the syndicate must necessarily 
stimulate the production of copper on this coast. 

A Large portion of Flagstaff, Arizona, viai 
destroyed by fire lately. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 14, 1888 


DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

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A. T. DBWEY. W. B. BWER. 0. H. 8TR0N6. 


Saturday Morning, July i4> 1888. 


EDTTOEIALB.-l^eep Creek and River Bed Mining, 
What is a Mine. 21. Pass'ne: Events; Drift Mining; 
The Stewart Mining Bill; The Russell Process, 24- 
Electric Motors, 25. ^ ^ i. .^ » 

ILLUSTRATION S.-Mlning DredEcers at the Ar- 
rovo Seco Mine, near lone, Amador County, 21. 
Keith"3Constant Current Electric Motor, 25. 

CORRESPONDBNOE.-Dutcb Flat and Vicinity; 
Dams for Mining Debris; Ores for Leaching in Mexico; 
Tin Plate Manufacture, 22. Tuolumne County Mines; 
The Russell Process; Kern County Mines, 23. 

MECHANICAL PROGRE3S.-The Literature of 
Different Irons; A New Tube-Making Process; New 
Process for Wire Manufacture; The Sand Blast for 
Cleaning Walls; German ImitatorR; Steel for Smith's 
Use; Phenomenal Wire Drawing; Corrugated Iron for 
Dwelling Houses; To Determine Manganese Steel, 26. 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS.— Contradicting Mr. 
Darwin; Feeding the Flames; Prize Studies of Torna- 
does; Velocity of the Sound of Fire Arms; Resolving 
Hydrogen, Oxygen, etc., into their Elements; Elec- 
tricity in Probing; Platinum in the Sun's Atmosphere; 
Contracting Effect of Alcohol; Diamonds in a Meteor- 
lite; Silvering Iron; A Cement for Stopping Cracks in 
Sinks, 26. „ „ ^ 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Chinese Carpenters; 
The Ivory Trade is Dead; Soldering Holes; Steel Tired 
Wheel; Oil trom Indian Corn; A Mailing Case for 
Liquids; Capacity of Pump; Brass Alloy, 2'?. 

GOOD aSALTH-— Shun Worry and Excitement; 
Bee Stings; Faith Cures; Curious Phase of Deafneaa; 
House Draining, 27. 

ENGINEERING NOTES.— Windmills as Sources 
of Power; Electrical Transmission of Power; Locomo- 
tives and Canals, 27. 

MINING SUMMARY— From the various counties 
of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Mon- 
tana. New Mexico. Oreson, Utah. Wyoming, 28-9. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco Stock Board, Notices of Meetings, Assess- 
ments, Dividends, and Bullion Shipments, 82- 

Baslness Announoeiuents. 


Electric Power— N. B. Keith. 
Sampling Works— Gillespv & Childs. • 

Hydraulic Giants— Joshua Hendy Machine Works. 
Air Compressors- Rand Drill Co , New York. 
Pumps— Dow Steam Pump Works. 

tS'See Advertising Columns. 

FassiDg Events. 

The Cracker Greek mineB, in Oregon, are 
jnat now attracting great attention. Some 
heavy sales have been made. The new mining 
town of Cleveland is at the junction of Silver 
and Cracker creek, and prospectors are arriving 
there from all directions. 

The first dividend of the North Star Co., 
Grass Valley, Nevada county, this State, is 
announced. It amounts to $50,000. This mine 
is taking out ore from the depth of 1600 feet on 
the incline, and the famous Idaho, which has 
been a regular dividend-payer for 19 years, is 
getting its ore at a depth as low as 2200 feet. 
This looks well for gold ore as ** going down." 

At last, after patient waiting, the Black 
Hilla people, Dakota, are to have their leaching 
works, the brick and lumber for the plant hav- 
ing been purchased. Exhauetive experiments 
have already been made with the ores, and the 
leaching process decided on as the beat by 
which to work them. 

It is not probable that Stewart's Mining bill 
will be acted on by Congress this session, and 
miners can go on as usual without change of 
law for the present. 

The quartz-mining industry in this State was 

never in a more proeperous condition. Reports 
eceived indicate increasing interest in this 
branch of mining in California. 

The silver-mining craze in Australia brought 
on a mintng-stock speculative boom which the 
Peess predicted would have a bad result. Late 
news from there states that many Australian 
investors have been financially rui'.ed. 

Drift Mining. 

This business, pursued in Cilifornia from an 
early day, continues one of the most active apd 
profitable branches of gold mining in the State. 
Though confined mostly to the central mining 
counties, gold extraction by the drift method is 
carried on over a wide area, the Pliocene chan 
nels or *' Dead rivers " constituting the sites of 
its most extensive operations. For reaching 
the deposits deeply buried in these old river- 
beds, recourse is had to shafts and tunnels, 
from which the work of their further exploita- 
tion is carried on. When shafts are employed 
for the above purpose, the auriferous gravel 
is raised to the surface in large buckets oper- 
ated usually by windlass or horae*power. 
Where tunnels are in use the material is 
brought out on cars run over tramways. 

The following conatitute the most notable 
drift localities in California: Vicinity of For- 
est City and Slate Creek, Sierra county, where 
some of the tannels driven exceed a mile in 
length; along Little and Big Butte creeks 
and about Magalia, Butte county, moat of the 
mines along these oreeks being small but very 
productive. At Magalia also a few of the 
claims paid enormously. Of all the drift dis. 
tricts in the State the mines on the Forest 
Hill divide. Placer county, have yielded the 
most steadily and in the aggregate perhaps the 
most largely. The closing of the hydraulic 
mines haa tended of late to give additional im- 
portance to drift mining by divertiug to the 
latter much of the capital and labor formerly 
employed in hydraulic operations. 

The Stewart Mining Bill. 

As before stated in the Press, there is little 
probability of the amendmenta to the mining 
laws proposed by Senator Stewart of Nevada 
passing Congress this session. As, however, the 
amendments provide that the period within 
which annual work must be commenced on the 
1st day of August instead of the 1st day 
of January, as heretofore, many miners have 
been anxious to learn the fate of the bill. 
We wrote aome time since to Senator Stewart 
for the exact status of his bill, and this week 
received the following letter : 

United States Senate, \ 

Washington, June 30, 1888. J" 

Editor ** Mining and Scientific PrcM '* — Deak 
Sir :— On my return from Chicago I found your 
favor of the S.h inat. Inclosed I send you a 
copy of the mining bill introduced by me as it 
passed the S3nate, It is still pending in the 
House Committee on Mines and Mining. I do 
not know what action the committee proposes 
to take on it during the present session. It may 
be amended in aome particulars. I have re- 
ceived many letters from mining men suggest- 
ing amendments to the bill, and I may submit 
some of them to the House Committee. A sug- 
gestion in a letter I have just received from 
Eureka, Nevada, seems worthy of consideration. 
It is to the following eflfect : If the same per- 
aon, corporation or association own several 
claims which combined do not exceed 1500 feet 
in length by 600 feet in width, the owner may 
make a relocation of the same and obtain a 
patent therefor in one application, provided ad- 
verse rights are not afi'ected thereby. 

I have not pressed the bill in any haste; there 
is no difiBculty in passing it when perfected. 
My anxiety has been, and still is, to have the 
bill when passed remedy the defects which have 
been discovered by experience under existing 
laws. Any suggestions, therefore, in regard to 
the bill are very welcome. Yours truly, 

Wm. M. Stewart. 

Lack of space prevents our printing the bill 
in full in this issue, but we will publish it in 
the next number of the Press. 

The Consolidated California and Virginia 
mine on the Comstock produced $405,S34;.0S in 
June from 13,030 tons of ore. The gold con- 
tained in this bullion was valued at $197,935.29 
and the silver at $207,898.79, the proportions 
being unusually even. The average yield of 
the ore per ton in bjllion was $31.14, and the 
average assay value was $36 92 per ton. Sach 
a showing of any one mine in one montb in a 
newer mining region would at once create a 
great boom. Yet many persons imagine the 
Comstock "played out." 

The Rnssell Prooess. 

With this issue, of the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press appears the first of a aeries of arti- 
cles on the ''Ruaaell Froceaa in Its Practical 
Application and Economic Reanlta." As the 
subject will be continued through several num- 
bers, it will be well to give here a short descrip- 
tion of the process, and a summary of the re- 
markable reaulta so far attained by it. 

The chemicals used in the process are any 
form of copper soluble in a hyposulphite solu- 
tion, an acid and a carbonate of an alkali — this 
term including, as in works on chemistry, both 
the mono-carbonate and bi-carbonate. Of the 
above chemicals the most important is the com- 
ponnd of copper from which is formed the 
cuprous hyposulphite generally known as the 
'* extra solution." The object of the use of the 
copper compound is partly the neutralization 
of caustic impurities accumulating in the stock 
solution, but mainly the dissolving and remov- 
ing of gold and silver compounds by the action 
on them of cuprous hyposulphite. Whether 
the copper compound is added to the ore dur 
ing the leaching with a hyposulphite solution 
or before, in some other solution, is immaterial. 
In the former case a compound of copper solu- 
ble in hyposulphite solution is dissolved in it 
and the reaulting compound solution allowed 
to pass through the ore. la the latter case a 
copper compound in an aqueous or any other 
solution is introduced into the ore before the 
use of the hyposulphite solution. From this 
solution the copper is precipitated in the ore by 
carbonates or other compounds exiating natur- 
ally in the ore or mixed with it. The redis- 
solving of the precipitated copper by the hypo- 
sulphite solution subsequently used forma the 
" extra solution " in the ore. The use of the 
ac'd is for the purpose of destroying caustic 
alkali in the leaching solution. It ia not re- 
quired in the treatment of raw ore, and aeldom 
in the treatment of roasted ore, as the " extra 
solution *' also acts as a neutralizer of caustic 
impurittea. As the aolution dissolves no more 
lime from orea containing 50 per cent than from 
those having one-half of one per cent, the 
amount of acid required ia independent of the 
lime contents of the ore. The aoluble carbon- 
ate may be used: Firet, for the purpose of re- 
moving impurities other than caustic alkali 
from the solution; or for precipitating the lead 
in the ore. Second, for precipitating the lead 
by itself from the solution containing the pre- 
cious metals and lead. In the first case the oar* 
bonate is added to the solution before using 
upon the ore, and in the second case to the solu- 
tion already used. 

Application of the Process. 

Mechanically in its ability to treat the finest 
and coarsest material, as well as chemically, 
the process has a wide applicability. Except 
in one case, that of raw elaty tailings from ore 
crushed originally for amalgamation and 
through a 50*me3h screen, no diffiaulty has 
been experienced in the mechanical treatment 
of any material. In the case referred to, the 
ore was ground in the amalgamating pans, and 
subsequently, before being subjected to the 
leaching process, re-treated and again ground in 
the pans. Even in thia case of extremely fine 
material the drying of the tailinga at a low red 
heat removed .the difficulty entirely. In the 
treatment of well-roasted material there can be 
no mechanical difficulties even in the case of 
the finest material. Well-roasted fine dust 
from the dust-chambers of a Stetefeldt furnace 
of such a fineness that 90 per cent passes a 
screen of 150 meabes per running inch, leaches 
as rapidly, owing to its light condition, as the 
coarsest material from the *' shaft." On the 
other hand, ore crushed by rolls through an 
8-mesh screen, yielded 92 per cent by leaching. 
Chemically speaking, the applicability of the 
process seems to have no limit. Partial analy- 
ses of some of the ores so far treated are given 
in the following table: 

PbS ZnS FeS2 PbC03 CaC03 MgCOS Cu 

Sombrerete 25% 8% 20% 1.5 

" 15 10 50 2.6 

«• .10 8 25 1.4 

^Tedras 19 82 37.2 .... 33% .... 0.0 

Cusihuiriachic.. . 7.6 11.9 5 04 

Ontario H 13 S 1% 03 

'• 2 0.5 0.5 2 02 

Marsac 3 Trace T)ace5 l.r> 0.5 

Lake Valley 3 .... 4 4% 0.0 

3 .... 5 2 0.0 

"'Yedras ore also contained 9.8% of arsenic. 

In some of the ores so far treated the per- 
centages of various elements met with have 
risen as high as 4 per cent copper, 20 per cent 
arsenic, 18 per cent zinc, 25 per cent lead, 35 

per cent lime and 30 per cent iron (as pyrites). 
Concentrates containing 80 per cent of iron, 
lead, zinc and copper sulphides yielded 90 per 
cent after roaating. From the experience thua 
far the amount or form of occurrence of the 
base metals in an ore aeema to make no appre- 
ciable difference with the results by the proc- 
ess. The values of the materials ao far treated 
vary from 8 ounces tailings to 14 ounces raw 
ore, and from 12 ouncea to 100 ounces roaated 
ore. For roasted ores containing lime, the ex- 
penses of treatment are usually less than for 
those that contain none. In all cases the 
amount of salt required for roaeting la leas than 
for either the ordinary leaching process or 
amalgamation. The preaence of araenicor anti- 
mony in an ore seems to make the uae of salt 
practically unnecessary when the Russell proc- 
ess is used. Requiring only one-fifth as much 
water for roasted ore, and about one-thirtieth 
as much for raw ore, aa amalgamation, the 
great applicability of the procesa to dry regions 
is apparent. A very wide application of the 
proceas will probably be in the raw treatment 
of ores, but a still wider application in connec- 
tion with concentration in the treatment of 
low-grade raw ores containing lead. The small 
coat of the plant required, the high extraction 
of the silver and saving of the lead by the two 
processea, combined with the low coat of treat- 
ment — from $2 to $3 per ton — opena up a very 
promising field. 

The Plant. 

The plant required for the process, needing 
no machinery, is entirely independent and com- 
plete in itself, and may be situated wherever 
convenient, without reference to the position of 
the crushing plant for raw ores, or the crushing 
and chloridizing plant for ores requiring roast- 
ing, except as regards the easy transportation 
of the raw or roasted ore between the two 
plants. Consequently, when either of the two 
above-mentioned plants for the preparation of 
the ore already exists in connection with amal- 
gamation or concentration, the change to the 
Russell process alone, or to this procesa in con- 
nection with concentration, can be made with- 
out stopping or interfering with the above 
planta. The estimated total cost of a 35-ton 
leaching plant now being constructed as an ad- 
dition to the Marsac mill at Park City, Utah, 
ia $3500, including grading, foandation, build- 
ing, tanks, apparatua, etc., up to the shipment 
of the product. The cost of a pUnt of the 
same capacity for the treatment of raw ores 
would be about $2500. The erection of a 
plant for the Rnaaell procoBS, in connection 
with the crushicg or the cruahing-chloridizing 
plant of many amalgamaiing-mills^andleaching- 
mills would result in a doubling of the crnahing 
and roasting capacity, in addition to the 
less expense of treatment and higher results 
obtainable. The cost of treatment by the Rus- 
sell process, including the preparation of the 
ore, varies from $1.25 for raw tailinga to $3 
for raw ore (including crushing). The cost of 
crushing, chloridizing, leaching, etc., varies 
from $4 to $5.50. 

We commend the above figures particularly 
to the mine-owners of Leadville and Aspen, 
Colorado. At the former place dry ores con- 
taining 15 to IS ounces are thrown over the 
dump. On ores from Aspen the smelter's re- 
turns are based on 95 per cent of the ore value, 
with freight and smelting charges varying from 
$20 to $25. At that place 15 ounces ore ia 
thrown over the dump, 15 to 30 ouncea ore is left 
untouched, and only such ore aa asaaya over 30 
ounces can be disposed of. The total expenses 
connected with the ahipplng and disposal of 
the product from the Russell process, including 
the difference between the New York price of 
silver and gold and the price actually obtained, 
amount to 2^ to 3 per cent of the value of the 
ore treated. At the Ontario the corresponding 
expenses on bullion from amalgamation are 2| 
per cent of the ore value. If we here take into 
account the less price paid for gold in the prod- 
uct from amalgamation as compared with that 
of the Rusaell process, the expense amounts to 
3J per cent of the ore value. 

Comparative Tests. 

As to the superiority of the Rusaell process 
over the ordinary leaching process and amal- 
gamation, both as to expenses and results, the 
statistics given are most oonvinciug. Six com- 
parative runs between this process and the 
ordinary leaching process have ao far been 
made in the varioua mills in which the proceaa 
has been introduced. These runs each cover a 

Jdly 14, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


period raogiog from two montba to two 
years, and in each, except that at the Ootario, 
the number of tons treated per day varies from 
25 to 70. 

At the Ontario, in tbu two*ton experimental 
plant erected for the pnrpoae of testing the 
Ruaeell process and comparing it with amal- 
gamation and the ordinary leachtog process 
both as to expenses and results, and in whioh 
the comparative tests were continued for over 
two years, the extraction by the Russell process 
on ohloridized ore exceeded that by the ordi- 
nary leaching process to^the extent of *Jti '2 per 
cent of the value of the ore, or 22 6 ounces per 
ton. On ore roasted without salt the extrac- 
tion by the ordinary process was only 35 per 
cent, and by the Russell process $5 per cent, a 
difference of about 'iij ounces per ton. 

The second competitive teat between the two 
processes occurred at SiWer City, New Mexico, 
on the raw tailings from the Bremen mill. The 
test was on a scale of 15 to SO tons per day for 
three months, the average difference in extrac- 
tion for the whole run amounting to 25i per 
cent of the value of the ore in favor of the Rus- 
sell process. In the test at this and other 
mills, it should be understood that when the 
ditlerence between the results by the two proc- 
esses was great, the tailings from the ordinary 
process were treated by the '* extra solation *' 
before being thrown away. 

The third opportunity for comparing the two 
processes occurred at Lake Valley, New Mexico, 
the comparison covering a period of eight 
months, the amount of ore treated varying 
from 20 to GO tons per day. The result showed 
the average difference in extraction in favor of 
the Russell proceBS to be 30 per cent of the 
value of the ore. The ore treated in this mill 
averaged for the last five months only 12 ounces 
per ton, but continued to be profitably treated 
until the supply was exhausted. 

At Sombrerete, Zicatecaa, Mexico, a large 
mill is now being constructed for the Russell 
process by the Sombrerete Mining Co. This 
mill will have rolls, the largest Stetefeldt fur- 
nace ever constructed, and leaching tanks of 
such a capacity as to hold 50 tons per charge. 
In the comparative test made in the old mill, 
and which was continued for two months, the 
difference between the results by the ordinary 
leaching process and those by the Russell proc- 
ess were in favor of the latter to the extent of 
22 6 10 per cent of the value of the ore, or about 
11 ounces per ton. 

The fifth competitive run between the two 
processes took place at the iOstamp mill of the 
Anglo-Mexican Mining Co., at Yedras, Sinaloa, 
Mexico, and lasted 14 months. This run was 
divided into three parts, the relative numbsr of 
tons treated by each process varying, as the 
plant was being altered for the Russell process, 
the time occupied in altering being very long on 
account of the location of the mill in the most 
inaccessible portion of Mexico. Baring the 
first two months the RuBsell process was run 
on a scale of only two tons per day, and the or- 
dinary process on 40 tons per day. The extrac- 
tion by the Russell process exceeded that by the 
ordinary process by 18 110 per cent of the 
value of the ore, or 11 2 10 ounces per ton, 
or at the rate of about 155,000 onnocs per 
year. During the second part of the 14 months 
the Russell process was run on about 15 tons 
per day and the old process on about 25. The 
reanlt of the run was in favor of the Russell 
process by 17 1-10 per cent of the value of the 
ore. During the third part of the 14 months 
the Russell process was run on a scale of about 
30 tons per day, and the ordinary process on 
10 tons. The difference was in favor of the 
former by 16 per cent of the value of the ore, 
or about $1X0,000 per year, the grade of the ore 
being somewhat lower than on the first run. 

The sixth competitive run between the two 
processes took place at the 60-stamp mill of the 
Cusihniriacbic Mining Co. in Chihuahua, Mex- 
ico, the tests covering a period of over a year 
and included the treatment of about 20,000 
tons of ore, containing 750,000 ounces of silver. 
The main part of the competitive run between 
the two processea took place inside of nine 
months, the whole time being divided into 
three periods of two to four months each. The 
results showed that during the months in whioh 
the Russell process was used on one-half of the 
ore and the ordinary leaching procesa on the 
other half, the net mill profits per ton were 70 
per cent greater and the net mill profits per 
month were 85 per cent greater than in tboae 

montha in which the ordinary process alone 
was used. In the months when the Russell 
process alone was used on all the ore, the net 
mill profits per ton were 90 per cent greater, 
and the net mill profits per mouth 219 per cent 
greater — corresponding to $15,000 per month — 
than when the ordinary process alone was used. 
The total net mill profits, due to the use of the 
Russell process over the ordinary leaohing 
procees, were at the rate of over $190,000 per 

LizlvlatloD vs. AmBlffamatloiL 

Five competitive runs have been made at va- 
rious mills between the Russell process and 
amalgamation. The first covers a period of 
two years io the two-ton experimental plant at 
the Ontario mill. In this plant were made the 
first experiments on the Russell procesa, and to 
the liberal management of the Ontario Silver 
Mining Co. will be due much of the benefits 
mining and metallurgical interests may obtain 
from the process. 

The result of the first comparative ran on 
Ontario ore showed that on ore crushed through 
a 16-mesh screen and roasted with 12^ per cent 
of salt the results by the Russell process were 
higher than on ore cmahed through a SO-mesh 
screen and roasted with 17 per cent of salt and 
treated by amalgamation. On ore roasted with- 
out any salt the results by amalgamation were 
only 35 per cent, while those by the Ruasell 
process were 85 per cent, a difference of 50 per 

the total net difference over $S per ton, or at 
the rate of $172,000 per year. 

The fifth comparative mill-mn was begun at 
the Oatario mill in November last, and is still 
being continued. From various causes, but 
chiefly from lack of sulphur in the ore, amal- 
gamation during the above period gave very 
poor results. The foremau, Mr. Moffat, re- 
moved the ditiioulty to a considerable extent, 
however, as shown by the difference in results 
between May and Jane, by mixing pulverized 
satphur with the salt used in roasting. This 
comparative run shows not only how great may 
be the difference between the two processes, 
but also how little the results of the Russell 
process are affected by a change in the com- 
position of the ore. The difference in mill 
workings by the two processes, and in fjivor of 
Russell's, LB given below by montha: 

per cent. 

November, 1SS7 11,6 

December, 1887 , S.5 

January, 1888 10. 1 

February. 1888 20.4 

March, 1SS8 12.0 

April, 18S8 13.4 

May, 18SS , 19.5 

June, 1888 8 

Average difference 13.8 

The average extraction in gold by the Rassell 
process for the same eight months exceeds that 
of amalgamation by 15 per cent of the gold 
value of the ore. In regard to the gold there 
is a still farther difference on the side of the 


cent, or 35 ounces per ton. The expenaea of 
leaching may also be put at from $5 to $6 per 
ton less than those of amalgamation at that 

The second run was made at the Maraac mill, 
on Daly ore. This ore being crushed and ohlo- 
ridized solely with reference to obtaining the 
best results by amalgamation, and not with 
reference to the leaching, the results by leach- 
ing fell 2 per cent short of those by amalga- 
mation during the first two weeks of the ran, 
but at the latter part of the run averaged 1^ per 
cent higher than by amalgamation. In this 
caae, as for Ontario ore, the expense per ton 
would be considerably less than by amalgama- 

The third competitive mill-run between the 
two procesaea was made at Lake Valley, New 
Mexico, extending over a period of two months, 
and on a scale of .30 to 50 tons a day by the 
Ruasell process, and five to six tons by amal- 
gamation, the leaching charges being 18 to 20 
tons each, and those by amalgamation H to 2 
tons. Not only were the expenses of the Rua- 
aell procesa much less, but also the extraction 
by it was 12.4 per cent greater. 

The fourth competitive run between the two 
processes took place at Cusihuiriaohic, Chihua- 
hua, Mexico. Two pane and one settler having 
a capacity of I^ tons to the charge were ran in 
competition with the Ruasell process in tanks 
of 8 to 10 tons each. Although both the crush- 
ing and the roasting were conducted solely 
with reference to obtaining the best results by 
amalgamation, and not for leaohing, the results 
were in favor of the Russell process by an addi- 
tional extraction of 11.4 per cent, or 5.7 ounces 
per ton more than by amalgamation. This, 
I taken with the less expense in leaching, made 

Ruaaell process in that the gold in the product 
by that process is paid for at the rate of $20 
per ounce, while for the gold in the bullion 
from amalgamation nothing is obtained. Re- 
ferring again to the extraction of silver, the 
average amount of silver in the Ontario battery 
sample being 47 ounces per ton and the number 
of tons treated daily being 90, the additional 
extraotion in silver alone by the Rnsaell process 
exceeds that by amalgamation at the rate of over 
200,000 ounces per year. Taking into account 
also the decreased expense of about $4 per ton, 
the total net difference on the side of the Rua- 
aell procesa is at the rate of over $300,000 per 

Lack of space prevents us from entering 
further here into the details of this remarkable 
process. We can only commend this subject to 
the careful consideration of mining men and 
metal Inrgiats. 

The Wood River mine-owners are very anx- 
ious to have a reduction of freight rates on ore. 
Many small claims have had to cloae down, and 
the majority of even the heaviest producers are 
only extracting and shipping enough to pay ex- 
penses. It is claimed that with reasonable ore 
rates even the smaller claims would ship from 
one to five carloads a day. The quantity of 
Wood River ore that would seek a market 
would be about 250 tons per day. They do not 
want to pay over 810 per ton. 

Iron deposits, whioh bid fair to become val 
uable properties, have been discovered on 
Hood's canal, near Lake Oashman, W. T. 

The President has nominated Colonel Thoa< 
L. Casey Chief of Engineers of the United 
States Army, 

Electric Motors. 

There are two fnndamental systems of trans- 
mitting and distributing power by electricity. 
One is called the " constant potential " and the 
other the *' constant current." 

The office of the primary power is to drive a 
dynamo-electric machine to produce electrical 
energy which is reconverted to power by the 
electric motor or motors which receive it. 
The electrical energy is the condition of the 
power during transformation and translation. 
Power is expressed in foot-pounds. That is, 
pounds of mass multiplied by feet of motion. 
Electrical energy is expressed in volt-amperes. 
That is, a pressure multiplied by a velocity. 

It makes no difference in a horse-power 
whether one pound moves 33,000 feet or 33,000 
pounds move one foot; nor whether the pounds 
be more or less, as long as the feet are of the 
number which when multiplied by the pounds 
the product be 33,000. It makes no difference 
in one-horse power of electrical energy whether 
746 amperes have one volt electro-motive force 
or 746 volts produce one ampere; nor whether 
the amperes or volts be more or less, as long as 
their product be 746 volt-amperes. For short 
the volt-ampere is called a " watt," and 746 
watts equal one horse-power or 33,000 foot- 

By the constant potential system of electrical 
transmission of power the dynamo at the prim- 
ary power (water-power for instance) is con- 
structed to produce its electrical energy having 
aconatant, invariable number of volts; but the 
number of amperes variea constantly, as the 
work done by the motors on the oironita varies. 

By the ** constant current " system the dyna- 
mo at the primary power is conatructsd to pro- 
duce its electrical energy having a constant, 
unvarying number of amperes; but the number 
of volts varies conatantly in proportion to' the 
variations in the work done by the motors on 
its circuit. 

Under the "constant potential" system the 
volte are small in number and the amperes 
large. Under the oonstant current ayatem the 
volts are large in number and the amperes 
small. For instance: 110 volts x 678.2 amperes 
= 100 horse-power; 3000 volts x 24.8 ^ 100 

Under the former ayatem the copper con- 
ductors between the dynamo and motors must 
be large in order to accommodate a large num- 
ber of amperes. Under the latter system the 
conductors are email, because they have to car- 
ry a amall number of amperes. 

The conductors in the constant potential sys- 
tem may be likened to a large ditch carrying 
water to many water-wheels, which it reaches 
through pipes from the ditch, a pipe to each 
wheel, and the same number of feet fall to each. 
The larger must have large pipes, and use more 
water than the small ones, and in proportion to 
their size and power. So from the large con- 
doctor smaller ones branch to the eleotrio 
motors, and eaoh motor uses of -the amperes of 
electricity in proportion to its capacity or work. 
Whatever water goes to each wheel goes to no 
other wheel. Whatever amperes of electricity 
goes to a motor goea to no other motor. 

The conductors in the constant current sys* 
tern may be likened to a stream having a num- 
ber of successive falls in it, and at each fall a 
water-wheel, the falja varying in bight with the 
power required from the wheel. Each wheel 
uaea all the water, and the water flows from 
wheel to wheel. So from the dynamo the am- 
perea all flow ancceaaively through all the 
motors, and the motors vary in their power by 
their aize and capacity of utilizing a greater or 
leas number of the volts. 

Constant potential motors are constructed to 
automatically vary the number of amperes o 
electric current they nee in proportion to the 
work they do, Conetant current motors are 
conBtructed to automatically vary the number 
of volts of electric energy they use in propor- 
tion to the work they do, as does a ateam-en- 
gine governor vary the amount of steam admit- 
ted to its cylinder in proportion to the work. 

In our issue of June 9th last we illuatrated 
one of Prof. Keith'a constant potential motors. 
In this issue we illustrate one of his constant 
current motors. It will be observed that their 
forma are substantially the same. The bracket 
at the pulley serves to sustain the governor. 
We shall take an early occasion to describe the 
construction and operation of this latter ingen- 
ious mechanism. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 14, 1888 


The Literature of D.fferent Irons. 

A Philadelphia corresponclent of the N. Y. 
Iron Age calls attention to the fact that while 
very much is being done in the way of investi- 
gation into the chemistry of B isaamer pig metal, 
very little is being done toward determining 
the character of foundry irons by actual 
analysis. We condense from his communica- 
tion as follows: 

The paper of Mr. Meissnerupon the " Chem- 
istry of Foundry Irons," following the contri- 
butions of Messrs. Keep, Fleming and Ojter- 
bridge in this country, and Turner in Eagland, 
indicates that the attention of chemists and 
physicists is being directed in a channel too 
long neglected. For years the chemical and 
physical properties of Bessemer pig metal have 
been thoroughly investigated, and the composi- 
tion and characteristics, of rails, plate, etc., 
made from it have received almost a monopoly 
of attention. The results of these investiga 
tions have amply compensated for the labor and 
money devoted to them by the marvelous ad- 
vance made in the production of manufactured 
steel, both as to quantity and quality. Bat 
while this progress has been taking place, we 
have practically stood still in the investigation 
of foundry and mill irons, although in the latter 
specialty more has b?en accomplished than with 
foundry irons; but the literature on the subjsct 
of foundry irons is less than its importance de- 

An approximate estimate nf the quantity of 
foundry iron produced in 1S87 is between 1,000,- 
000 and 1,500,000 tons, and yet how little of it 
is used with a full appreciation of either its 
composition or other qualities. The mere matter 
of grading pig iron is but little understood, and 
traditions or customs have too often more to do 
with an order sent to the furnace than an inti- 
mate knowledge of the composition or chiracter- 
istics of the metal used. 

It is an open secret that a coating of rust 
upon a broken pig many times makes it accept- 
able and satisfactory, when, if the true face or 
fracture were visible, the iron would be con- 
demned untried. Again, the product of certain 
f urrraces is deemed essential, either by the foun- 
dry or by the parties who patronize the foun- 
dries, and a few tons of these standard irons 
kept in stock or a few pounds added to a cupola 
charge satisfy the supposed necessity. 

This notion is not confined to pig iron, but 
some ores come under the same category, and 
the fact that ore from a certain mine or iron 
from a certain furnace is used is accepted as 
fulfilling all the requirements, whether the 
proportion is large or small. But that practice 
without investigation is not to be compared 
with that which carefully tires and proves the 
adaptability of the material used . 

Mr. Meissner emphasizes the fallacy of some 
notions, as to the necessity of certain irons, by 
the analysis of Scotch pig irons, which are 
deemed so essential to success that they have 
within two years been carried into the Missis- 
sippi river and by rail to Chicago and other 
points. The question arises: Is this iron im- 
ported b scause of its cheapness, or on account 
of its quality ? If for the former reason, our 
Scotch friends have the ideal cheap iron, or our 
Birmingham iron producers are sadly deceiving 
themselves for taking the cost of Birmingham 
iron at a price which is above the estimates 
sent out from that district. 

An analysis of the figures shows that it is 
not cost but quality which causes this impor- 
tation, and if quality, what were the very valu- 
able characteristics which make it so necessary 
for foundry use? If the chemical constitution 
does not show the desirable qualities, what do 
physical tests determine ? 

It is hardly presumable that, as one contrib- 
utor to the limited literature asserts, "we be- 
lieve that the time is coming when pig iron 
will be sold on its chemical analysis, instead of 
the crude methods of grading at present in 
vogue." An investigation of the reasons why 
irons of certain compositions give specific re- 
sults will be to the advantage of both produc- 
ers and consumers. Our blast-fnrnace mana- 
gers will find intereatiog nuts to crack in some 
of the analyses presented by Mr. Meissner, and 
a public comparison of results obtained will 
do much to awaken both the producer and con- 
sumer to a realization that without assuming 
that we must closely follow any fixed rules of 
chemical composition much can be done toward 
properly appreciating the merits and demerits 
of iron of cetain grades or analyses. Such ap- 
preciation will then be based upon character- 
istics of the metal as determined by specific 
tests, and not upon visionary or uncertain rea- 

We are all familiar with ' the statement of a 
manager of a large Southern industry who 
facetiously asserts that " whether iron goes to 
one grade or another depends upon the con- 
dition of the grader's liver." Unfortunately we 
have relied upon a method — it cannot be called 
a system — which varies so much that the only 
grade which approaches uniformity is white 
iron; and from this, d fferent blast furnaces 
grade upward to 4 to 6, to 16 or even to 20 
grades, making the determination a fine art, 
requiring an expert's opinion and probably in 
many cases developing no chemical change be- 
tween two or three numbers. 

and important addition to its metallurgical in- 
dustries. The London Siemens Sbeel Co. are 
about fitting up extensive works for utilizing a 
new method of manufacturing steel and copper 
pipes, invented some two or three years since 
by Herr A. Mannesmen, and now in successful 
operation in that country. The English firm 
will confine themselves to the manufacture of 
steel pipes. A concession has also been granted 
by the inventor to a French firm in Paris who 
will use the same method in that city for the 
manufacture of copper pipes. An estimate of 
the importance of the new process may be gath- 
ered from the fact that the capital of the Ger- 
man syndicate was S300.000. The principle in- 
volved consists in casting an adjustable core, 
which accommodates itself to the contraction of 
the metal on cooling, and thus prevents crack- 
ing. The steel cup obtained in this manner is 
then rolled in an ordinary train. The special 
feature of the core used in the casting oonsti- 
tntea the patent granted. The principle is also 
applicable to gun-making, and by it the difiBoult 
and expensive process of boring is avoided. 

New Process roK Wibe Mancfactcke.— It 
is recorded that Mr. H. A. Williams nf the 
Williams Manufacturing Co. of Taunton, Mass., 
has invented a machine for cheapening and im- 
proving steel or iron wire, which is calculated 
to make a change in many branches of industry 
in which iron, steel, copper and brass wire are 
used. The invention, which has just been 
patented, consists of a series of rolls in a con- 
tinuous train, geared with a common driver, 
each pair of rolls having a greater speed than 
the pair preceding it, with an intervening frio 
tion clutch adapted to graduate the speed of 
the rolls to the speed of the wire in process of 
rolling. The entire process of manufacturing 
the smallest sized wires from rods of one-half 
inch is done cold. The new process obviates 
the danger of unequal annealing, and of burning 
in the furnaces, and the wire is claimed to be 
more fljxible and homogenous than that pro- 
duced by the common processes, and capable of 
sustaining greater longitudinal strain. It ^ is, 
therefore, specially adapted for screws, nails, 
cables, pianofortes, and many other uses, and 
copper wire made by this process is claimed to 
be possesed of greatly increased electrical con- 
ductivity. A new corporation, called the 
Williams Wire Machine Co., will be formed to 
manufacture the machines at Taunton. 


The Sand-Blast tor Cleaning Walls, 
ETC — Amateura adopt uew ways and improved 
methods more readily than your skilled work- 
man. Aa occasion offers, let amateurs try the 
sand blast for cleaning old stained and dingy 
stonewalls of buildings instead of using wire 
brushes; also for cleaning rust from iron and 
sand from castings without scraping. Possibly 
the sand-blast may answer for cleaning floors, 
stairs, interior walls, ceilings and without 
washing or scrubbing. No patent on these 
adaptations of the sand-blast. 

A New Tube-Making Process. — An English 
paper reports that Swansea is to receive a new 

German Imitations. — Making so-called 
'* wrought-iron " anvils in Germany, and brand- 
ing them " Trenton," after the New Jersey 
town of that name, is, do doubt, an enterprie- 
ing procedure, bui; the Eigle Auvil Works of 
Trenton finds the joke has a serious side, aa a 
good many of the German anvib get broken, 
and are sent to them by users to be repaired, 
under the mistaken impression that they were 
made by them. Each of theirs bears an eagle as 
a distinguishing brand. 

Steel for Smith's Use. — The Railroad 
Oazetie reports that a firm which has added 
BsBseiJner converters to their original iron- 
making plant, lately aent out a large number of 
ateel bars and rode for smiths' use. These bars 
were supplied to customers who had formerly 
used the wrought-iron bars made by this firm. 
The users have, however, made no complaint, 
and apparently found that the steel conld be as 
readily worked and welded aa the iron former- 
ly supplied. 

Phenomenal Wire Drawing. — William 
R'ddell & Co., Glasgow, has finished for the 
Gliagow exhibition two pieces of wire, one of 
brass, 65 miles long and 4S w. g. in diameter. 
The other is of copper. 111 miles long, 4S w. g. 
in diameter, and waa reduced at one prooess 
from 22 w. g. to 48, taking 40 houra continuous 
running to run it off. Except in the precious 
metala, thi'i length has probably never been ex- 
ceeded, and certainly never without annealing. 

Corrugated Iron for Dwelling Houses. — 
An English writer urges the introduction of 
dwelling; houses made of corrugated iron. He 
claims that they would be much cheaper than 
dwellings of brick or stone, and would thus 
effect reductions in rent. Being lined with 
wood they would necessarily be warm in winter. 
To make them cool in summer he suggests that 
they may be built on the plan of the Indian 

To Determine Manganese Steel. — The 
American Analyst says that an approximate 
idea of the amount of manganese contained in 
ateel can be ascertained by the means of the 
magnet. A magnet capable of lifting 30 pounds 
of ordinary steel or iron wiU only lift a few mil- 
ligrams if the' metaL -Contains 20 per cent of 
manganese. So ama,ll.a quantity of 8 per cent 
of manganese will nearly neutralize, the mag- 
netic attraction. ' 

Contradicting Mr, Darwin. 

When Darwin waa a young man the work 
that did more than anything else to give him a 
wide reputation as a rising man of science wae 
his investigation of the coral reefs of the Pacific 
during the cruise of the Baagle, and his famous 
theory with regard to their origin, which, for 
half a century, was accepted by the scientific 
world aa the correct explanation. Dirwin*s 
theory is now rejected by some of the leading 
authoritiea on deep-sea investigation. The moat 
recent contribution to this subject ia the work 
just published by Prof. Alexander Agasaiz on 
the oceanic researches of the United States 
steamer Blake, during which his investigations 
of the coral reefs oflf the coast of Florida have 
led him to reject the D-irwinian theory aa cor- 
rectly explaining their origin. 

It was Professor Darwin's belief that the reef 
building polypi, which exist only at compara- 
tively short distances below the surface, laid 
the foundation of their coral stracturea in shal- 
low waters, and that the gradual subaidence of 
the ocean had enabled them continually to add 
to the hight of their structures, while they 
themselves remained in the limited depths of 
the reef coral zone. In this way he believed the 
great oceanic groups of atolls which rise from 
very deep water were formed, and he wholly 
rejected the assumption that immense piles of 
sediment heaped on the floor of the oceans far 
remote froin land could have made the baaia for 
the coral formations. 

In Mr. H. P. Gappy'a recent paper on coral 
reefs he ahowa that this explanation, which 
Darwin rejected for lack of evidence, is the 
very theory that the recent reaearches have 
tended to support; that many of Darwin's areas 
of subaidence are, in fact, areas of elevation, 
and that the discoveries of Murray, A. Agassiz, 
Bachanan aod others go to show that, upon vast 
deposits of calcareous ramains, deep-see corals 
are reared until they reach a level suitable for 
the growth of reef corals. 

Pfofesaor Whitney tella us that as late as 
1794 the pleading text-book on geography 
nsed in American schools announced that the 
AUeghanies were the most considerable mount- 
ains in North America and that " the Andees 
and AUeghanies are probably the same range, 
interrupted by the Gulf of Mexico." In the 
present state of geographical knowledge such 
blunders are go longer possible, but some of our 
long-cherished views on problems in physic il 
geography are receiving severe treatment at the 
hands of the Uteat investigators. 

Eeeding the Flames. — London Iron says 
"Most people are familiar with the expression 
' feeding the fiimes,' which is usually to be met 
with in accounts of eocflagrations which are sus- 
tained and extended by reason of the devouring 
element attacking inflammable substances with 
in its reach. It is, however, in another sense 
that we now use it, namely, that of aaataining 
a domestic or other fire by means of materials by 
which humanity has hitherto been fed. To put 
the matter plainly, we received a short time 
since a sample of block or what is generally 
known aa patent fuel, with a request that we 
would test it and publish our opinion." The 
editor remarks that he will take an early op- 
portunity to experiment with the fuel and gives 
the following as the formula by which the fuel 
is manufactured: Add to 1 ton of smudge 5 
pounds of flour, 5 pounds of reain, 1 pound of 
salt, 1 pound of aodium, 5 pounds of augar, and 
from 2 to 3 per cent of pitch. The cost of the 
whole of the ingredients bought wholesole is 
about Is. Id. The editor then continues: *'Bat 
what we do not at all see is the force of literally 
' feeding the flames ' on those commodities 
which so many thousands have such a struggle 
to obtain for feeding themselves and their chil- 
dren. It may be that this point can be satis- 
factorily Bellied by Mr. Jackson, and therefore 
— to use another old expression — we pause for 
a reply. This is certainly ' feeding the flames ' 
with a vengeance !" 

Prize Studies of Tornadoes. — The Ameri- 
can Meteorological Journal, desiring to direct 
the attention of students to tornadoes, in hopes 
that valuable results may be obtained, offers 
the folbwing prizes: For the best original 
essay on tornadoes or description of a tornado, 
S200 will be given. For the second best, $50. 
And among those worthy of special mention, 
S50 will be divided. The essays must be aent 
to either of the editors. Professor Harrington, 
Astronomical Observatory, Ann Hirbor, Mich., 
or A. Lawrence Roth, B'ue HU Meteorological 
Observatory, Readville, Masp., U. S. A., before 
the first day of July, 1889. They must be 
signed by a nom de plume, and be accompan- 
ied by a sealed envelope addressed with same 
nom de plume and enclosing the real name and 
addreas of the author. 

Hia experiments ahow that if a bullet is fired 
from a rifle againat a plate of cast iron, then so 
long as the velocity of the bullet is in excess of 
the normal velocity of sound through air, the 
noise of the detonation and of the bullet etrik- 
ing the plate reach an observer situated in the 
plane of fire behind the plate at the same in- 
stant. It the distance of the plate from the 
rifle is increased till the velocity of the ballet 
before reaching it ia reduced below that of 
sound, then the noise of the detonation reaches 
an observer before that of the shock against the 
plate. Hence the author concludes that the 
bullet, so long as its velocity ia greater than the 
normal velocity of sound, is the seat of aonorone 
disturbance, resembling in character that due 
to an explosion, and this view he has substanti- 
ated by further experiments. 

Resolving Hydrogen, Oxygen, etc.. Into 
Their Elements. — A paper by Professor 
Gruenwald, recently published in the Chemical 
New8y upon the spectra ol hydrogen, oxygen 
and aqueous vapor, is an extremely important 
one. Gruenwald claims to have discovered, 
from the spectra of these gases and vapors, that 
hydrogen ia a compound of one volume of a 
primary substance (&), with four volumea of 
another primary substanoe (a), and ia therefore 
a compound substance, analogous to ammoniam 
(N. H.4 ), the volume of which, on its dissocia- 
tion at a sufficiently elevated temperature, ia 
in the proportion of two to three. The sub- 
atance (a) is the lightest of all gaseous bodiea — 
much lighter than hydrogen; and (6), if we re- 
gard (a) as a univalent element, is a pentava- 
lent gaseous element similar to nitrogen. He 
has also found oxygen, carbon and nitrogen to 
be compnunda of similar aubatancea. The ele- 
ment (6), noted above, corresponds with the 
assumed element occurring in the sun and 
known as ** helium," thus proving that hydro- 
gen is dissociated in the sun's atmosphere. 
Another unknown snbatance present in the 
sun'a corona which gives the spectral line 1474, 
he concludes, is due to the other constituent of 
hydrogen (a). Much more extended observa- 
tions will be necessary to prove the correctness 
of this alleged discovery; bnt the facta brought 
forward by the author are sufficiently confirm- 
atory to justify the most thorough investigation 
of the matter. 

Velocity of the Sound of Fire Arms. — 
Many experiments have proved that the veloc- 
ity of sound, obtained' by observing from a 
known distance the instant of the discharge of 
a rifle and the arrival of the sound of the deto- 
nation at the place of observation, is frequently 
greatly in excess of the normal rate of propaga- 
tion. To determine the cause of this increase 
and. the laws which govern it, a series of experi- 
ments have recently been carried out by M. 
Journe, who has presented a memoire on the 
subject to the Paria Aoademie des Scienoea, 

Electricity in Probing. — Dr. John H, 
Girdner haa made an extremely ingenious ap- 
plication of electricity in a telephonic bullet 
probe. The operator covers both ears with tel- 
ephonic receivers to which are connected two 
wires. One of these terminates in a piece of 
steel, which the patient holds in his mouth, 
or which may be applied to other parts of the 
body where a good contact can be obtained. 
The other wire is attached to a delicate ateel 
probe. Now, when the probe paaaea through 
flesh or tissue, or touches bone, nothing ia heard 
by the operator, but when the point of the 
needle touchea a lead bullet, the circuit is com- 
pleted, and a clicking and scraping is heard in 
the telephone. The probe may be left in place, 
and serve as a guide to the knife. The manip- 
ulation of the probe is not difficult or painful 
and ia not attended with danger. The inven- 
tion is destined to increase largely the efficiency 
of surgical practice in cases of gun-shot wounds. 

Platinum in the Sun's Atmosphere. — 
Messrs. Hutchins and Holden recently gave an 
account of certain inveatigatione upon the solar 
spectrum, which seem to prove the presence of 
the metal platinum in the sun's atmosphere. 
This ie the farst time any lines corresponding to 
that element have been obierved. They also 
find additional evidence of the presence of cad- 
mium, bismuth and silver, which have always 
been considered doubtful, while the presence of 
lead, tin, potassium, lithium, and the cerium 
group ia not confirmed. 

Contracting Effect of Alcohol. — It is 
well known that sponge, wood, etc., when sat- 
urated with alcohol contract, while if saturated 
with water they expand. The cause of the 
dissimilar action may not be ao well 
know, but is no doubt due to the fact that al- 
cohol abstracts the moisture from porous sub- 
stances. It is from this peculiar property of 
alcohol, in withdrawing water from organic 
tissue, that it derives its chief value as a preser- 
vative agent in the arts, 

Adaiiascobite ia the local name of a mineral 
which is said to be found only in one place in 
the world and that is the State of Miaaouri. 
The stone is very peculiar in ita structure and 
properties. Ita cutting power is diamond-like, 
cutting away steel very rapidly, and still re- 
taining an exceedingly fine edge. 

. Diamonds in a Meteorolite. — A cablegram 
from St. Petersburg, dated July lat, says: A 
number of Prussian scientific men have discov- 
ered a quantity of small diamonds in a meteor- 
olite that fell recently in the neighborhood of 

Silvering Iron. — By a recent Austrian in- 
vention iron is given a silver surface by cover- 
ing the iron with mercury and silvering by the 
galvanic process; then by heating to 300" C. 
the mercury is evaporated, and the silver firm- 
ly fixed. 

A Cement for Stopping Cracks in Sinks. — 
Take of litharge 20 parta and one of burnt lime 
in fine, dry powder. Make into a putty .with 
linseed oil. 

Jolt 14, 1888.1 

Mining and Scientific Pres^ 


Useful Infori^atio]^. 

Cbinese Carpenters. 

' i«e» a auccesaral rival to the be»t fegetable oils. 
From a buehel of corn, costing iij cents, a gal- 

[ Ion of clear amber oil is ob:uned, worth 75 

cents, and the solid sabstaoce remainiDg is said 
to be a better article of animal food than any 
I of the oil cakes now on the market. If anticl- 
Iron Atjv ! pations in regard to the business are realized, 
the farmer will be enabled to obtain a good 

A correspondent of the N. ^ 
writes to that joornal as follows: 

"llive jost been haTiiig a time with the , p^i^e for hiscom and feed it to his utook atter- 
oarpentere trying to get them to make a good j ward — to oat his cake and have it, as it were. 

joint. We are framing timbers for a shaft; 

and it is quite necessary that the joints should I ^ Mailino Cask fob LiyciDS.— A device 
be well made, for the sins of one joint are per- f,j, beeen patented for use in transmitting bot- 
petuattd in all the other timbers as they are ([j, through the maiU or otherwise, with a 
put in. The natives do very well with the I ^j^^ ^ preventing injury to goods which may 
tools they have. All their saws are like the I ^^^^ ;„ contact with them from the breaking of 
ordinary bucksaws, and they are all sharpened (i,e bottle and the spilling of its contents, 
as rip.saws, but are used indifferently for rip- j -phis mailing case consists of a round wooden 
ping or crosscutting. A line is made by snap- (jg, ^in, ^ mrew top, there being inside the box 
ping a string run through india ink and water | ^ thick lining of absorbent material, which, in 
instead of a chalk line, and their pencil is a j ^^^ o( breakage, will quickly absorb the liquid 
piece of bamboo split op at the end and dipped : ^^j prevent damage that might otherwise oo- 
in ink. The chisels are like ours, only far ^m- ^j ^ result of this construction it is 
clumsier. Their pUnes are like ours also, save ohiimed that the breaking of the bottle is not 

likes and dislikes, stamp and cheer, and cry 
theiiieelves hoarse, according as the sentiments 
expressed are agreeable or me reverse to them. 
It 18 the stimulus produced by great numbers of 
minds acting on each other. It is exhausting, 
and every one of the partioipaois feels the re- 
action within a few hoore. — y. Y. Sun, 

that they are pushed by both hands on a cross 
bar handle across the top of the plane just bs 
hind the blade. Squares, bevel squares and the 
like are made by themselves from wood as they 
are wanted. Kibbeting planes and other spe- 
cial tools they likewise make when wanted, 
starting on a basis of a plane blade. A miter 
box they know not, and I think I most show 
them its virtues. Their hatchets are about the 
size and shape of our lath hatchets, but with 
about three times the amount of metal in them. 
A broad axe ihey do not have, but the adze is 
in constant use. The blade of the adze is about 
three inches wide and over all some four inches 
in length. Opposite the blade is a socket fit- 
ting on a wooden shank, which carries a straight 
handle. Their drills fit into a wooden shank. 

followed by the escape from the mailing case of 
any of the bottle's contents. 

Capacity of Ppmps. — To find (approxi- 
mately) the amount of water a pnmp will move 
per minute, assuming a hundred feet piston 
speed as the standard, square the diameter of 
the water cylinders and divide by four; and in- 
versely, to find the size of a pump to pel form a 
required duty in gallons, divide the number of 
gallons by four and extract the square root of 
the quotient. The result is the diameter of 
water cylinder required. 

Bkass Alloy. — A very good brass is made of 
16 pounds of copper, 8 pounds of zinc, and one- 
half pound of lead. The lead should be added 

Enqij^eef^ing I]otes. 

which is revolved by a strip of leather with one ^f^^^ j[,g copper and zinc have been melted to 

or more turns around the spindle and with the 
ends fastened to a straight stick, which is 
sawed like a fiddle-bow across the shank. The 
drills are sharpened like our drills for iron. 
A constant source of surprise is the suppleness 
of the native workman. You often see a car- 
penter standing by a waist-high bench with one 
foot on the ground and the other holding a 
piece of wood on the bench while he saws or 
planes it. They are very fond of sitting down 
to their work in positions we could not assume. 
A cramped posi' ion to a native is an impossi- 
bility, though it might be achieved by forcing 
him into a trunk." 

The Ivory Trade is Dead. 

Celluloid has or soon will eefectually kill the 
ivory trade. The chief portion of the ivory of 
commerce has heretofore been derived from 
Africa and consists of the tusks of the large 
elephants of that country. The largest of these 
tusks sometimes weighed as much as 130 pounds 
and were valued as high as $800; but tnere is 
not much doing in the business at the present 

gether. These proportions of the different 
metals makes the best brass that can be made 

with zinc and copper. For very light castings ^_ , 

the lead should be omitted, as it makes the | effects of bee poison.— Sa(urrfay Review. 
alloy less fluid; but in heavy castings it makes 
them more solid and clean. 

Bee Sxisiis — It is a common mistake to sup- 
pose that an angry bee is certain to sting on 
alighting upon a human hand. On the contrary, 
she will usually examine the skin very carefully 
first with the palpi— very delicate and nervous 
feeling organs, which are situated near the 
sting. It may seem that she stings at once and 
without care or reflection, but a bee can do a 
great deal in a very short space of time, in 
proof of wbioh it may b? mentioned that "she 
can flap her wings more than 400 times per sec- 
ond, and that each flap ^involves the extension 
and contraotion, through a nerve impnlse, of 
the muscles employed in the wing movements." 
This being the case, aa Mr. Cheshire says, " we 
►hall see at once that the ' no ' time d ffuulty is 
is removed." When a person has been stung by 
a bee, be should remove the sting immediately, 
" if possible, by the nail, running it in the di- 
rection opposite to that by which it has en- 
tered." On no account let him take hold of the 
sting with his thumb and finger, or a forceps, 
for then he will probably squeeze more of the 
virus into the wound from the poison bag, which 
is generally left attached to the sting. Although 
the virus of a bee sting is a strong acid, it does 
not always follow that an alkali will cure it. 
Much depends upon the temperament and con- 
stitution of the patient, and while arnica mon- 
tana and ledum palustre will give relief in 
many cases, in others they are injurious. 
We may dismiss the subject of bee stings by 
giving the young bee-keeper two pieces of com- 
fort—the first, that at swarming time the bses 
are nearly always in an exceedingly good tem- 
per; the'eecond, that each time he is stung he 
will probably become less soaceptible to the 

A Handy Fdrnitore Polish. — Make a mix- 
ture of olive oil one part and vinegar two parts. 
Apply it to the furniture with a Canton flan- 
nel cloth. Rub dry with another cloth of the 
same material. A housekeeper who uses this 
polish on the finest varnished furniture says it 
has no equal. 


Shun Worry and Excitement. 

Regarding the preservation of youth and 
vigor, we find the average of longevity greater 
than 50 years ago. We find some men and 
women decaying and growing old much sooner 

and that little is constantly growing lass, than others. We find one man as fresh and 

Natore's " Safe Cure " for kidney diseases, 
and many others, is strictly purified water. So 
important to health is strict purity in water 
that it may be reasonably presumed that one of 
the causes of the remarkable increase of kidney 
complaints is in the increasing imparity of 
water, consequent upon our multiplying popu- 
lation, manufactures, etc. Says Professor 
Charles Mayr : "Of the thousands of chemical 
compounds and waste products formed in the 
human system many require pure water for 
their solution and elimination; and water so 
overloaded with salts, etc., as average^weU 
water will not work satisfactorily. 
Those who have never drank pure water do 
not realize what an effect such water has upon 
the kidneys; its effect is better than that of ace 
tates, nitrates, opiates or alcohol, and for peo- 
ple with tendency to kidney disease or dropsy 
there is no better drug than pure water." — Sani- 
tary Era. 

Nearly everything that was made of ivory a few 
years ago is now made of celluloid, and a great 
many other things besides. How many pianos 
in these days have ivory keys? Only the most 
expensive; and then, too, combs and brushes, 
umbrellas and cane handles, billiard and pool 
balls, and even dice are made of celluloid which 
one can scarcely tell from ivory, so perfectly 
are they done. The latest thing, however, in 
the celluloid line is in the shape of playing- 
cards, and they will supplant the old fashioned 
cards altogether when they become more gen- 
erally known. 

Old and broken billiard balls that are only 
slightly chipped or broken are readily turned 
down into balls suitable for bagatelle or parlor 
games, but those that are badly broken are 
thrown away as useless. If the billiard-rooms 
should all close up we should find little to do 
in the line of ivory manufacture. All first-class 
billiard saloons are provided with ivory balls, 
for the celluloid imitations have found but litjle 
favor in the eyes of billiard players. With- 
the pool table, however, the case is different, 
for the majority of pool sets are made of otllu 
loid. In New York, where 100 sets of ivory 
pool balls were sold two years ago, less than 20 
are now sol 1. Celluloid is now almost exclu- 
sively used in that branch of manufacture. 

Soldering Holes —The American Artisan 
says; There are many people who think it is 
an easy thing to solder a hole in an old tin pan, 
but, like many other tricks of the trade, can 
only be acquired by practice. The great trou- 
ble with most persons when they try to solder 
anything is that they do not get the work 
clean — that is, scraped bright; then the tin 
may be all scraped off, and if they try to solder 
with rosin the solder does not stick. When 
acid is used, there may be so much on the arti- 
cle that the acid does no good. Then the sol- 
dering copper is apt to be too cold or too hot, 
and the result will be that a poor j-b is done. 

Windmills as Sources of Power. 

There is a very general opinion that a wind- 
mill is too old-fashioned a motor to be eco- 
nomical and etticient. This opinion is, after 
all, not very well founded, even although the 
clumsy specimens to be seen in this country 
would lend countenance to the notion. The 
windmill has been very much neglected by our 
millwrights and engineers. When once they 
come to devote as much time and attention to 
it as they have to other machines, we may ex- 
pect to see very great improvements effected in 
its construction. Our electrical engiueers, it 
seems to us, would do well in their own interest 
to extend a little of their attention to the wind- 
mill as a means of obtaining power for generat- 
ing electricity. 

An article on " Windmills for Generating 
Electricity," by Mr. A. R. Wolff, in the 
Slecena Indicator, draws attention to the em- 
ployment of windmills as a source of power for 
charging accumulators. The writer maintains 
that the reason windmills have not thus far 
been put to practical use for the generation of 
electricity is not due to the first cost of the 
motor nor to any Uck of economy in its opera- 
tion. The windmill, also, he points out, is not 
so irregular in its revolution as many suppose, 
the fact being that the leading American 
makers employ governing apparatus which au- 
tomatically so varies the extent of surface pre- 
sented to the wind that a practically uniform 
rate of revolution is obtained irrespective of 
direction and varying velocities of wind, for all 
winds exceeding a velocity of six miles per hoar. 
This latter velocity must be reached before 
windmills of good design, as ordinarily con- 
structed, operate at the rate of revolution for 
which they are set. It has been found, by ex- 
perience, that on an average, for at least eight 
hours oat of 24 hours of each day, the wind 
exceeds this velocity of six miles per hour, the 
average velocity of wind, during the eight 
hours of run, being 16 miles per hour. Total 
calms in excess of two days' duration are prac- 
tically unknown in the United States. The fact 
that the windmill is at rest, often at short in- 
tervals, aggregating not quite 16 hours out of 
the 24, ia no objection to the use of this motor 
for the purposes of driving dynamo machines to 
charge electrical accumulators, for one of the 
very features and acknowledged requisites of 
such accumulators should be that they can be 
charged spasmodically, at will, and at odd 
times. Mr. Wolff is of opinion that the reason 
why windmills are not more employed than 
they are is because the accumulators are not 
yet a satisfactory and assured success. The 
windmill at the present day, he maintains, is in 
a developed state, a practical success, ready and 
available for this new use at once. It awaits 
the elec'rical accnmnUtor that is a thorough 
practical success. — Mechanical World. 

Steel.Tired Wheels.— It is stated that the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company is obliged to 
replace annually one out of every 250 of its 
chilled cast iron wheels, or four per cent. On 
the Like Erie line the figure is still higher, as 
six per cent have there to be replaced every 
year. The steel-tired wheels on the Pennsyl- 
vania give much better results, as only .01 per 
cent have to be renewed yearly. 

igorous at 55 or 60 as another may be at 35. 
There must be causes for these differences in 
the preservation of the body. And as there 
are causes for such variations in the condition 
of the body, may there not be other causes, still 
unknown, which may tend to preserve physical 
and mental vigor for 100 years, or even longer ? 
Mental worry and ditquiet, arising from any 
cause, is the strongest agent in " aging " men 
or women. It is an incessant source of exhaus' 
tion to the vital forces. You do so exhaust 
yourself when you worry about your business, 
your family, and about anything. It carves 
lines on the face and bleaches the hair. A pee- 
vish young woman at 20 will look old at 30, 
because her peevish or worrying thought rep- 
resents so much of her force used to tear her 
down instead of building her up. 

You can have responsibilities without alwaya 
worrying over them. You do not make things 
a bit better through such worry. You only make 
them worse. Worry does not plan. It does 
not make a clear head. It does but fume, fret, 
and cause indigestion and old age. It affects 
your sleep at night. It canses you either losa 
of sleep or a poor rest when you do sleep. If 
you carry your cares to bed with you and they 
are ** on your mind " when you fall into slum- 
ber, they will stay on your mind all night and 
cause you troubled dreams. There is a health- 
ful sleep coming of the permanent, cheerful, 
composed, non-worrying frame of mind, two 
hours of which will give you ten times more 
rest, strong h and refreshment than the un- 
healthful sleep coming of the mind which en- 
tertains care and worry and makes them con- 
tinual guests. 

We often use up our force faster than we 
make it. We work through a whole day's ex- 
citing business, and are then at a theater or 
some place of amusement until 10, 11, or 12 
o'clock. So long as the body is awake there 
must be outUy of force to sustain it. There 
can be as much exhaustion in this search for ex- 
citement or amusement as in work. We get 
force to sustain the body in these ex-drafts 
upon it in two ways — either through artificial 
material stimulant or artificial mental stimulant. 
By artificial mental stimulant is meant the ex- 
citement caught and absorbed by crowds sim- 
ilarly influenced, and occupied as oursplvea at 
night. It ia not a healthful nor natural source 
of supply. It will eventually, if relied upon, 
strain the body and ** age it " prematurely. 

Faith Cdres.— The latest addition to the list 
of victims to the " faith cure" mania is a young 
lady at Dis Moines, Iowa. Some weeks ago 
she sustained internal injuries by reason of a 
fall. During this time she has been treated by 
an exponent of the doctrine of healing through 
faith; but, filling to receive benefit therefrom, 
she at length resorted to medical advice. Had 
she done this at the time of the accident, all 
would have been well, but physicians now pro- 
nounce her ease hopeless, as the morbid condi- 
tions have existed too long to be susceptible to 
medical treatment. We are along-suffering peo- 
ple, and probably a few more deaths will occur 
through the treatment of workers of miracles 
ere legifUtive aid ia invoked against this form 
of fanaticism; but it wool I seem aa if we had 
nearly reached the point beyond which for- 
bearance ceases to be a virtue. 

Coriods Phase of Deafness.— It is often 
said that persons atllicted with certain forms of 
deafness can hear peifeotly in the midst of a 
tumult. A locomotive engineer, upon exami- 
nation by a medical expert, was found to be 
deaf, and, although he protested that he could 
hear perfectly well while in the cab, he was 
suspended. Some time afterward, having made 
vain attempts to better his defect, he applied 
for reinstatement, again urging the fact of his 
perfect hearing while on duty. Finally, to sat- 
isfy him, the physician rode with him upon a 
locomotive for a long distance and put him to 
every possible test. To the doctor's surprise, 
be found him able not only to hear ordinary 
sounds without difficulty, but also to distinguish 
whispers and faint movements that were inaudi- 
ble to the physician. — Boiton Post. 

Oil from Indian Corn.— A St. Louia party 
is engaged in the business of expressing oil 
from Indian corn, and the new industry prom- 

House Draining.- The drain inspector of 
Montreal says that housekeepers should not 
think so hardly of draughty, cool houses in 
winter. He believes that many people are 
saved from sickness in badly drained houses, 
owing to unpremeditated ventilation. " Often 
and often," said Mr. Lowe, " the houses we 
would consider the warmest and best is the one 
where sickness prevails, owing to the imperfect 
drainage. There is nothine like ventiUtion. 
Housekeepers do not pay sufiBoient attention to 
the sinks. Closed sinks will get dirty ""■' 
prove breeders of disease. 

Electrical Transmission of Power. 

As an interesting instance of the transmission 
of power by electricity over long distances, the 
London Electrician refers to that of the Phceuix 
gold mines in New Zialand. The current is 
generated by two No. 8 Brush machines, each 
capable of giving 26-horse power. They are 
driven by Pelton water-wheels, with a head of 
180 feet. The current is convoyed to the 
motor about three miles distant, and back again 
by a No. 8 B. W. G. copper wire (0.165 inch 
thick) nearly six miles long, supported on tele- 
graph poles. The power lost in the line is only 
three-horse power. A Victoria motor is used, 
running about 350 revolutions per minute, and 
the power is transmitted to the machinery by a 

be"- , c , u . 

At Hatfield, on the Marquis of Salsbnry s 
estate, the River L'ia is utilized to generate 
electricity, which is transmitted to the house and 
over the estate for a variety of purposes. Two 
turbines are used, one to drive a 40horse power 
Siemens alternating current dynamo for lighting 
the house and the other to drive a lehorse 
power Brush machine for arc lighting at night, 
and in the day for working the motors at the 
house and on the farm. Those at the house 
drive pumping and ice making machinery, and 
a 24 inch Blackman air propeller fixed in the 
roof for ventilating. On the farm the motors 
are used for elevating hay and corn sheaves to 
the tops of the stacks for thrashing, for cutting 
rough grass with chaff-cutting machine, for en- 
silage in fields extending to a distance of two 
miles, for grinding corn, etc., to make fodder, 
and for other purposes. The motors have also 
been used for pile-driving, for making coffer- 
dams where necessary in the river, and also for 
dredging the river and cleaning it of weeds. 


rain line oooy ano age x. p„M.......^. SOME European towns forbid the <";«°Pa'«'° 

Mental stimulant and the mental intoxioa- of newly built houses until four months after 

iyientai stimuiaui. auu mo uiouv^i luguAioa- V. U.J...J - Kt\nn lln«o nf 

tion coming from it ia evidenced at noisy, tar- completion, as there are nearly 5000 gallons oi 
bulent public meetings, where thousands oom- water used in the mortar and building oi ou,- 
ing together, infiaenoed by partisan prejudioes, 1 000 bricks, which should first dry out, 

Locomotives and Canals.— It is supposed 
by many that railways and canals are irreconcil- 
able antagonists. Recently, however, an exper- 
iment was made on the Shropshire Union canal 
at Worleston, Eng., by officials of the London & 
Northwestern Riilway, which is suggestive of 
the lion lying down with the lamb. A set of 
rails -was laid down on the canal bank for a dis- 
tance of about a mile, and a small locomotive 
from the Crewe Railway Works was placed on 
the line. Two boats were attached by ropes to 
the locomotive, which drew them along easily 
at the rate of seven miles an hour. Four boats 
were then attached, and the same speed was at- 
tained. The locomotive worked very smoothly 
and the experiment is looked upon as a success. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 14, 1888 


The following Is mostly condensed from joumala published 
in the interior, in proximity to the mines mentioned. 



Sutter Creek Mine.— Amador Ledger, July 7: 
Have extracted and milled 65 tons of ore from cross- 
cut No. 2, drift from same crosscut driven 12 feet. 
Ore in face 8 feet wide. Mill has been closed down 
few hours on account of slackness of water. At 
present running steadily. 

A AND B Mine.— Calaveras Chronicle, July 7: 
We paid a visit to the A and B mine, owned by 
Messrs. Allen and Bishop and located near the head 
of Poorman's gulch, about two miles from here. 
Operations were commenced on this mine about a 
year ago. Water-power hoisting works were put up 
and an incline tunnel started. According to the 
survey the expectation is to reach the " channel " 
with an incline in the neighborhood of 1000 feet in 
length. The tunnel is now in about 800 feet, but 
a great flow of water has just been encountered 
which will require an additional amount of machin- 
ery to overcome it. At the present time about 900 
gallons of water per hour are being drawn out. Mr. 
Arrowsmith, the superintendent, went below this 
week for pumping machinery which will be put in 
place as soon as possible. Further progress is im- 
possible until pumps are put in. 

Contention Mining Co. — The Contention Gold 
Mining Co. was organized July 2, 1888. to operate 
in Mill Valley mining district. J. W, Meyer of this 
p'ace is president of the company and Joshua Al- 
bright secretary and treasurer. There are eight 
shareholders. The company has 260 acres of 
placer ground in the above-named district. As far 
as prospected the gravel yields from eight to ten 
cents to the pan. They are down 65 feet on a por- 
tion of the claim, passing through 15 feet of gravel 
without yet reaching bedrock. The channel is trace- 
able for two miles and a half and extends through the 
entire location. 

El Dorado. 
Gold Quartz. — Placerville Ol>se>-ver, July 5: 
Chas. A. Gardner has opened a fine vein ot gold- 
bearing quartz, in the old tunnel in Big canyon, on 
which some work was done four or five years ago by 
D. J. Knighton. Mr. Gardner was in town Satur- 
day last and had some quartz tiken from a pocket, 
that was literally alive with the precious metal. 

VoLCANOViLLE.— Georgetown Gazette, July 7: 
This old mining camp lies in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, by trail 8 miles, and 16 miles by wagon-road 
from Georgetown. The Josephine mine was first 
visited. We found Mr. Neugues absent. The 
20-stamp mill is temporarily hung up, awaiting 
the setting up of the Triumph concentrators which 
will be ready in a few days, and the mill run- 
ning. With the Triumph concentrators the Joseph- 
ine mill will be the best equipped mill in the county 
and one of the best in the State for economic work- 
ing of quartz. Several levels have been run in on 
the steep mountain-side, all in pay ore. The mine 
lies along the east side of the serpentine belt. The 
Cooley gravel mine, owned by Barklage, has been 
bonded by Judge Edmondson and St. Clair Nye, for 
three years, price $[ooo. This mine paid well in 
years past, but lay idle for a period. The present 
parties found that with a little capital and much 
hard work the pay channel could be reached with a 
new tunnel' and drifted upon to good advantage, 
and receiving favorable terms from Mr Barklage, 
they entered into the work last winter. They expect 
to cut into the channel some time this summer. A 
mile to the southeast is the Last Chance claim work- 
ed by Richard CoHict, Chas. Kane and Merrick 
Creigh. They have a tunnel and shaft with 100 feet 
face. The lode averages about four feet, b<^tween 
blue slate and porphyry. It is thought the rock will 
mill $6 or %j per ton. They are getting ready to put 
up a three-stamp mill (the old Potter mill), and ex- 
pect to begin crushing in a few weeks. D. C. Web- 
ster and C. F. Lloyd are drifting in iheir claims on 
the Ross channel. Immense deposits of material, 
supposed to be of volcanic origin, covtrs much of 
the country about the old camp, as it does about Mt. 
Gregory and other portions of the upper divide. 
This deposit often reaches a depth into hundreds of 
feet. Beneath these great deposits of material exist 
remnants of the bed of an ancient river. Con- 
siderable wealth has been mined from accessible 
places beneath this deposit in years gone by. but of 
late years little has been accompUshed, owing to the 
want of capital and good engineering skill. 


Soda.— Inyo Independent, July 7: Mr. T. H. 
Flagler has been at Keeler for some weeks past put- 
ting up a windmill and pump. The machinery 
pumps water from the lake into ground tanks, and 
has a capacity of 500 gallons per minute with a mod- 
erate breeze. The water evaporates quickly from 
the tanks and the soda that remains is then easily 
gathered. The windmill method of pumping is 
much cheaper than steam-power, and the latter will 
likely be dispensed with as the former is proved suc- 
cessful. These windmills are cheap and quite re- 
liable to furnish all the power required. 


Fresno Y-Lh.ts.— Expositor, July 4: Mr. Taylor, 
froni Fresno Flats, reports wonderful activity in that 
mining district. The Surprise mill is running with 
a force of 50 men. The Grub Gulch mine is in a 
flourishing condition and paying well. A new 20- 
stamp mill is now in course of construction. The 
Crystal Springs, a new mine, is expected to pan out 
well. A road is already being built to it, and a mill 
is in contemplation. The Nob Hill and Gambetta 
mines are also in a flourishing condition, and are 
paying well. There will be four mills running dur- 
ing the present season. 

Copper.— Cor. Fresno Expositor, Ju'y 4: Pros- 
pectors in this district are still active. A vein of fine- 
looking copper ore has been struck on Kings river 
by the McDowell Bros., which not only carries a 
great deal of copper but considerable silver. The 
Peterson Bros, have crushed several tons of rock 
from their Valley Vein mine which has paid them 
handsomely. In their tunnel the vein is about a foot 
in width, and they have run about 30 feet into this 
chute and it looks no more like giving out than when 

they first struck it. This is the same chute which 
they have in the bottom of their lower shaft, and 
which has continued down from the grass roots, so 
that now they have over 125 feet of backs which 
they can stope out. Messrs. Nmnis, Jensen & 
Fritch appear just as happy as the Peterson Bros., 
for their copper prospect has turned out even better 
than they anticipated. They have a large pile of 
first-class ore on their dump. Messrs. Hutchison 
& Sharp have quite an amount of ore out which is 
now being shipped or about to be. Their vein is 
now about four feet in width, and their ore assays as 
high as 70 per cent. Messrs. Wyatt & Co. are still 
working their Fancher creek mine. 


Diana Mill Burned.— Inyo Register, July 5: 
Benton suffered a loss last Saturday night in the 
total destruction of the Diana mill. The fire, when 
first discovered, was a small patch of blaze, but by 
the time the townspeople could reach the scene the 
entire roof was on fire. It is supposed that a spark 
from the engine, which hard been running till some 
time that evening, had caught in the shingles and 
burned slowly for some hours, at last attaining 
dangerous size. Jno. F. Millner, the owner, says 
$20,000 would not compensate for the loss, which is 
all the heavier because the mill was just now making 
a very profitable run. A quantity of rich pulp 
awaiting further work was almost all lost in the 
ashes. The insurance on the property was light, 
not above J5000 at the most. We are told that there 
■3 a possibility of rebuilding. The disaster will be a 
severe one for Benton. 


The Neversweat. — Nevada City Herald, July 
7: The owners of the Neversweat mine are liable 
to wake up this section by showing a mine of great 
value. The shaft is down 300 feet. Three years 
ago the company started a tunnel to strike the shaft 
at that depth. They have got in i6o3 feet, and will 
be under the shaft some time this week. The tunnel 
was run on the line of the ledge. The width of the 
ledge in the bottom of the tunnel is now two feet. 
A crushing was made last month from the rock taken 
out while running the tunnel. Part of it was sent to 
the Selby Smelting Works, San Francisco, and part 
worked by mill process here. That sent to San 
Francisco yielded $200 per ton. That crushed here 
yieldedabout $80 in free gold, exclusive of the sul- 
phurets. The mine will be worked by water-power, 
which is obtained from Slate creek. They use an 
8-foot hurdy-gurdy wheel and double nozzles. Not 
much water is required for power. 

North Star Mine Dividend.— Grass Valley 
Union, July 7: The North Star Mining Co. has 
declared its first dividend, payable on the nth inst., 
of 50 cents per share on the capital stock of the cor- 
poration, which amounts to $50,000 on the 100,000 
shares. This is a good dividend, and no doubt it is 
the forerunner of others, as the mine is understood 
to be producing profitably. This is encouraging for 
a mine that was permitted to lie idle for years upon 
the theory that its wealth was exhausted. 


Mining Situation. — Herald, July 7: In the 
mining sections a great deal of work has been done 
in opening mines and preparing for further develop- 
ment. Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to de- 
termine the channels, but the prospects show that 
before the present season shall have ended several 
new and paying mines will be in operation. Quite 
a list of mines on the Forest Hill Divide have been 
purchased by San Francisco capitalists who are pre- 
paring to operate them as soon as men and machin- 
ery can be set to work. Thus the whole country is 
doing well, and no one except the hydraulic miner 
has any reason to complain or growl. He has a 
right to complain, and should keep up his fight until 
the Government assists him to work his claim 
unmolested by spies or sheriffs. 


Paying. — Plumas National, July 7: The Lucky 
" fa " quartz mine, under the management of Uncle 
John Hardgrave, is paying $25 per ton. Chatty & 
Bro., in Granite bisin, are working $60 rock. The 
ledge is about one fool thick. 

San Dleeo. 

Pacific Mining District. — San Diego Union, 
July 7: The Pacific raining district is highly spoken 
of by T. Ramsdell, the mining expert who has just 
returned from a visit to the mines. Only develop- 
ment is necessary, he says, to produce an immense 
output of mineral gold and silver. The mines will, 
he says, finally be classed as silver and are exceed- 
ingly rich. The mineral development alone, he 
says, will demand the completion of the Cuyamaca 
railroad, and with reduction works at San Diego, 
will be a great source of wealth to the city. 


Gold Bars.— Redding Free Press, July 7: The 
gold product from the Squaw creek mines still en- 
riches the world. We learn that Joe Josephs 
brought in from the Riley and Bliss mine on Mon- 
day last, $4000; and Jack Conant, from the Uncle 
Sam mine, about $5000. Jack took half of this to 
San Francisco with him. 

Iron Mountain Silver,— Sixteen silver bricks 
from the mine at Iron Mountain were shipped from 
Redding Thursday to the Selby Smelling Works. 
These bricks average $1000 apiece, making $16,000 
in silver. 


New Find.— Sierra Tribune, July 7: Frank 
Cook brought a batch of fine rock down from Hog 
canyon the other day. It was taken from a new 

SoDNTO Arrive.— Nevada Transcript, July 7: 
The 40-stamp mill to be put up on the Red Chief 
quartz mine on Kanaka creek, Sierra county, wiJ 
probably arrive here next week, and will be trans- 
ported by wagon as rapidly as possible to the claim. 
The Red Chief Co. appears to have a long purse 
behind it, 


Steamboat Claim.— Yreka Journal, July 11: 
The Fort Jones Gravel M. Co., now working the 
old Steamboat claim, near mouth of McAdams creek, 
cleaned up a few days since from the gravel washed 
during reopening of claim, and realized 20 ounces. 

East Fork.— y(7;/?-//a/, July 7: Capt. Weaver 
superintendent of the Golden Chest, has 30 mules 
on the trail between North Fork and East Fork 

packing the machinery for the above-named mine. 
He will have the work of packing completed in a few 
days, when the construction of the mill will be be- 
gun in earnest and pushed to completion as early as 
possible, It will probably be several months b.:fore 
any bullion will be shipped from the mill. Several 
locations have been made during the past month, 
and some of them show very flattering prospects. 

Deadwood.^Jo. Falan is working on the old 
Willey mine and is taking out very rich rock. Geo. 
Klein has two locations on Deadwood and is getting 
good prospects on the North Pole location in two 
places. The latest discovery was in the tunnel just 
above the mill, and looks well; he is now sinking on 
the ledge. The other prospect on the North Pole 
yielded $60 to the ton from 7 tons crushed. Mr. E. 
B. Lamb has run the tunnel on the Red Diamond 
mine in about 60 feet, and has struck the ledge 
which he is now following. The vein is 30 inches 
wide and looks well; the quartz carries free gold and 
the sulphurets are rich. Mr. Lamb's location is on 
the north side of Deadwood creek and contains three 
ledges; the other two prospect better in free gold 
than the Red Diamond, but are smaller ledges. The 
ledge of the Red Diamond is well defined and hes 
between porphyry walls. 

A Good Cleanup. — Journal, July 7: Mr. W. 
J. Leavitt came in from East Fork Tuesday, with 
$2600 worth of bullion as a result of a cleanup from 
27 tons of ore from the Enterprise mine. The quartz 
of the Enterprise is very uniform, averaging $100 to 
the ton, since the present owners have taken charge 
of the mine. 

Did Well. — The Segalia placer mine on Red 
Hill has made an exceedingly good cleanup. The 
paities interested were happily disappointed by ob- 
taining much more than they anticipated. They 
were put to a heavy expense in putting a suspension 
bridge across Trinity river last summer and many ex- 
perienced miners talked discouragingly concerning 
the affair. Nearly all the debts incurred in conse- 
quence of bringing the water into the mine will be 
paid off this season, and if a fair run is secured for 
next season there will be a surplus for the owners. 


Experimental.— Tuolumne Independent, July 7: 
The Experimental mine made a cleanup last week, 
and as a result a nice brick was obtained. The run 
was 26 days, yielding the boys very fair wages. 
Many disadvantages and drawbacks hindered the 
operations. These will be overcome next time. The 
company is composed of Messrs. L, A. and John 
Engelke, J. P. Conlin, Henry Dunn, Geo. Stayton 
and Geo. Bonnifoy. 

Closed Down. — The Buchanan mine closed 
down last Saturday. About 60 men were discharged. 
No definite reason for this sudden stoppage of work 
is given, but rumors of " Fourth of July, s^le of half 
interest, change of management, rock don't pay, 
etc., etc.," continue to circulate. This was the 
largest, and gave employment to more men than 
any mine in the county. It was supposed to be in 
a thoroughly prosperous condition, had formed quite 
a town around it, and the closing down was a sur- 
prise to every one. 

Quartz. — Sonora Democrat, July 7: It is said 
that a recent crushing of rock from the lower 
levels of the Patterson mine yielded handsomely. 
Messrs. Gillis & Rice of Tuttktown are taking out 
considerable gold right along in their pocket mines 
on Jackass Hill. 

Struck It. — Messrs. Louis Page and David 
Oliver have struck it big in the Old Fuchs claim 
above Saw-MiU Flat. We do not know the exact 
amount, but it certainly will reach well up in the 
thousands. The bonanza came in during the early 
part of this week, and at last reports the gold was 
still coming out in large quantities. As much as 
$4000 was taken out in two days. It will be remem- 
bered that this is the claim on which Louis Page 
erected hoisting works last winter. Even under ad- 
verse conditions he worked away with strong hope 
and much energy. The considerable depth of the 
lowest workings (on which the pockets are now 
found), the terrible caving condition of the walls, and 
the large quantity of water to contend with did not 
discourage him. Success came at last. His part- 
ner, David Oliver, seems to be attended by fortune 
wherever he goes. No one in this county has been 
so singularly fortunate. 

Cement and Gravel.— Messrs. C. C. Gurnee 
and othtrs have purchased a cement and gravel 
mine x % miles above Byrne's ferry on the Stanislaus 
river. The name of the Stanislaus Tunnel and Min- 
ing Co. has been adopted and big works will shortly 
becommsnced. From Mr. Frank McCann, one of the 
parties, we learn that it is proposed to erect a quartz- 
mill and several mammoth rock- breakers, the latter 
being intended to crush the cement and gravel very 
fine preparatory to going into the mill. Thus by the 
larger pat t of the reduction work being performed 
by the rock-breakers it is estimated that about five 
tons of material to the stamp can be crushed. The 
works will have a capacity of at least loo tons per 
24 hours. The claim embraces 480 acres. Initial 
oper^.tions will be commenced 300 feet above the 
bed of the river at a spot which physically and in 
valuation is the key to the entire channel. Mr. Mc- 
Cann states that the entire cost of mining and mill- 
ing the material will not exceed $r per ton. 


Washoe District. 

Iowa. — Virginia Enterprise, July 7: East drift 
face is in vein porphyry and clay with some quartz. 

Con. Imperial. — Are still engaged in repairing 
the main north lateral drift. 

Keves. — Good prospects are still being obtained 
in the exploring drift on the 280 level. 

Benton. — Are making fair headway in the drift 
that is being run north on the 725 level. 

Overman. — About 280 tons of ore a week are be- 
ing extracted from drifts on the old upper levels. 

Andes. — The winze that is being put down below 
the 240 level is still in quartz of promising appear- 

Ophir. — No. 2 upraise is up 102 feet above the 
track floor. It shows no important changes of ma- 

Savage. — Are stoping ore from the north and 
south drifts on the 400 level, also from the south drift 
on the 500 level. About 80 tons of ore per d^y are 
being mined at points between the 400 and 900 lev- 

els. The pulp assays average $20 a ton. The amount 
of bullion on hand and heretofore shipped for the 
month of June amoiints to $34,550. 

Mexican. — East crosscut No. i from the main 
north drift is out 172 feet and continues in vein por- 

Segregated Belcher.— Good progress is mak- 
ing in the east drift which is to connect with the 
Overman winze. 

Alta. — The ore-producing sections are looking 
about as usual, and the mill and concentrators are 
steadily at work. 

Confidence.— The daily shipments of ore to the 
Brunswick mill average 182 tons, and the battery as- 
says average $28 per ton. 

Utah.— On the 372 level opposite the south drift 
a north drift is advanced i6o feet. The formation 
is vein porphyry and quartz. 

PoTOSi.— The stopes joint with the Chollar are 
yielding the usual quantity and quality of ore, which 
is being worked at the Nevada water-mill. 

Scorpion.— The south drift on the 300 level has 
now a total length of 370 feet. The formation is 
about the same as at date of former report. 

Best and Belcher.— EI Dorado Tunnel: North- 
west drift from main west drift advanced 32 feet; 
total, 368 feet. The face is in porphyry. 

Lady Washington.— The crosscuts from the 
upraise at points above the 725 level are in a prom- 
ising formation of quartz, clay and porphyry. 

West Con. Va. & Cal.— The new hoisting ma- 
chinery is working well and smoothly, and good 
headway is making in sinking the main shaft. 

Union Con.— The north drift from west crosscut 
No. 2, on the 1300 level, is out 93 feet, and the 
south drift started from the same is out 32 feet. 

Bullion.— The south drift from the bottom of 
the winze on the 640 level is making favorable prog- 
ress. There is no change of material woi thy of note. 
Sierra Nevada. —On the 520 level the south- 
west drift is out 1769 feet. Its face is in a mixture of 
quartz, clay and porphyry. It still shows some 

Yellow Jac^ket.- The daily ore shipments aver- 
age 90 tons. The stopes continue to look well. A 
good deal of prospecting work is in progress at sev- 
eral points. 

Challenge Con.— On the 1000 level the north- 
east crosscut is out 33 fett. The face continues in 
vein material. Good headway is being made with 
all repair work. 

West Yellow Jacket.— A large belt of rock 
has been encountered in the face of the driit, but it 
appears to be a mere rib, aud will probably be passed 
through in a few days. 

Alpha. — Explorations are still continued on 222 
and 382 levels, and good headway is making in sink- 
ing the main shaft, which will be put down to the 
500 level before drifting. 

Baltimore. —Some good ore is being cut into on 
the 300 level west, and the outlook is good for find- 
ing a large body that will pay for milling. The 
pumps are now doing good work. 

Belcher.— AH is now nearly in readiness for 
starting up the hoisting works recently erected at the 
old shnft. The starting up of these works will great- 
ly facilitjte all underground operations. 

Crown Point.— On the 600 level the raise is still 
showing streaks of ore of good grade. On the 700 
level the southeast drift is out 45 feet, and the east 
crosscut started from the end of it is being pushed 
ahead in promising vein material, 

Chollar. — The mine is looking well in all the 
ore-producing sections, and the usual amount of 
ore is being reduced at the Nevada mills. The sta- 
tion at the foot of the main incline on the Sutro tun- 
nel level is about completed, and ready for the tim- 

Gould and Curry.— From the 250 and 300 lev- 
els extracted and shipped to the Douglass mill 105 
tons of ore during the week, battery samples of which 
show an average assay value of $30.30 per ton. 
West crosscut No. 2, started from the main south- 
west drift, has been advanced 33 feet. The forma- 
tion is quartz and clay. There have been worked at 
the Douglass mill during the month of June 1000 
tons of ore, which yielded $16,026 in bullion. 

Occidental.— Shipped to the Atlan'a mill during 
the week 113 tons of ore, and to the Excelsior mill 
26 tons. The former showed a value of $23 per ton 
and the latter the same per ton, from assays made 
from wagon samples. Worked during the month of 
June at the Atlanta mill 465 tons of ore, which 
yielded $5903.16. Worked at the Excelsior mill 
during the same month 300 tons of ore, the bullion 
yielded by which is now at the assay office in Vir- 
ginia City. 

Hale and Norcross.— During the paFt week 
there were hoisted 1819 tons of ore Irom the 600 and 
700 levels, and shipped to the Mexican mill iioo 
tons, and to the Nevada mill 525 tons. All the ore- 
producing sections of the mine continue to look well. 
The extraction of ore from the west upraise will be re- 
sumed next week. On the 400 level No. i east 
crosscut has been extended 36 feet. There is on 
hand and heretofore shipped bullion for account of 
June amounting to $[50,000. Full returns from the 
mills for June account have not yet been received. 

Con. Cal. & Va.— On the 1465 level the ore-pro- 
ducing sections continue to look well, and are yield- 
ing the usual quantity of ore. The east crosscut 
from the top of the north upraise on the 1500 level is 
still in ore of good quality. The north drift from the 
north stopes at the north end of the main north drift is 
still in quiitz that shows value by assay. The ore 
slopes on the i6oo level are still looking and yield- 
ing well. The south drift from the Ophir east cross- 
cut is out 60 feet in Con. Virginia ground. The 
usual amount of ore will be shipped to the river mills 
during the week. 

Aurora District. 

Good Indications. — Esmeralda A'e7vs, July 7: 
M. Carabantes has been working on the Consoli- 
dated No. 2, of which he is the owner. He has a 
tunnel in 53 feet, with good indications of striking 
the ledge. He expects that when the tunnel is in 
eight feet further the ledge will be exposed. 
Eureka District- 

Ore Shipments. —5£«//«(?/, July 7: The follow- 
ing number of tons of ore were shipped from the 
mines of the district to the furnaces during the week; 

Jolt 14, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Silver Lick mine. 34 tons; Duoderberg, 42>i tons; 
While Pioe. 5% tons; Gcddcs A Benrand, lajf 
tons. Bob Waters. H ton; Kl l>orado, 3>i tons; 
West End, 6}i tons; Marrion Farrel, 2 if tons, and 
the Needle. 3 ions. From Woodchopper, g% tons, 
and Leonie, 3 tons. 

Bristol District. 

Copper. — Piochc Kaord^ July 3: Two tons of 
copper bullion were brought in (roni Brisiol. Wed- 
nesday, for shipment to Salt Like. It is a part of 
the product of the recent short run of the smalt fur- 
nace there. 

Uosa Dlatrlct. 

Black Prince.— Esmeralda News, July 7: The 
Black Prince mine is about 3)^ miles from Kinkead. 
We are informed that there are 300 ions of copper 
ore on the dump and that three men are kept busily 
eng^aged exir<icting more. There is an eight-foot 
ledge of copper ore in the Black Prince, average as- 
says of which give 22 per cent. This mine is further 
developed than any mine in Moss district, and is 
owned by Knapp. Laws \- Warner. 

Ophlr Oaoyon District. 

Mill Running.— iJelmont C(>«r/>/-, July 7: k. 
H. Robinson of Ophir reports his gold-mill running 
steadily and doing good work. 

Osceola District. 

Thb Plackrs.— Virginia lintcrpriie, July 7: 
These mines, situated on the west side of Mount 
Wheeler, White Pine county, are 10 be thoroughly 
worked. They cover a large area, and water is to 
be brought to them at a cost of $(20,000. The sup- 
ply of water will be 2600 inches for seven months 
each year. All parts of the ground have been pros- 
pected by shalts and by actual workings. In all, 
over $40,000 have been liken from these pbcers. 
much of which was in large nuggets. Heretofore 
the great trouble attendant upon the working of 
these placers has been lack of water. In the mount- 
ain slopes, on which these placers are situated, are 
doubtless immensely rich quartz veins, which will 
probably be found when the placer ground comes to 
be washed over by hydraulic process. 
Ploche Dlatrlct. 

Stopim-:d WoKK. — i'loche A'ecord, ]\x\y y. It is 
found that the Yuba ore does not contain a sufficient 
per cent of lead to admit of il5 being successfully 
concentrated, and yesterday the vanning machines 
were shut down. A good portion of the silver in 
the ore is com lined in gangue so light that ii floats 
over the tables and is lost in the tailings. The 
vanning machines erected for the purpose of concen- 
trating the ore work well, and successfully concen- 
trate the old t^i'ings now at the mill, though the per- 
centage of lead contained in them is small. .Ar- 
rangements will probibly be made by which all the 
old pit will be worked over. 

SeligmaD District. 

The Concentrating Works —Eureka Sentinel. 
July 7: S. k. Krom. the New York inventor and 
owner of the Krom Machine Works, returned here 
from Seligman last Wednesday morning, having 
complel-d some important alterations in the con- 
cenlraling works at that place. It appears that the 
original plans of the mill were not followed, and 
these alterations therefore became necessary. Mr. 
Krom thinks that there will be no trouble about the 
mill doing its work efTectivety after this, and expects 
shorily to receive orders from Eugene N. Robinson 
for nine additional concentrators, the machinery of 
the mill being adapted to the requirements of 18. 
nine of which are already kept working to their full 
capacity. Recent work and developments have 
shown that the ore in the Pursell series of mines is 
practically incxhau=tible, and while no one has even 
attempted to show Ihat the ore is very rich, there is no 
reason why it should not improve in quality, as we 
learn that it does, as depth is attained. From Mr. 
Krom we learn that Mr. Robinson contemplates 
erecting smelters at Seligman for the reduction of 
the concentrates near the mill, but this will depend 
necessarily on their chemical contents and the facili- 
ties for obtaining the requisite fluxes on the spot. 
Taylor District. 

Argus.— White Pine Ne^os, July 7: Bf iter ore is 
being encountered in ihe lower levels of the Argus 
mine and the force is being increased as necessity 

Tybo District. 

Producing Ore.— Belmont Courier, July 7: 
Hank MlU informs us that the Ma Alta mine, T>bo, 
is looking well and producing good ore. In fact as 
developmtfnts progress the mine looks better and 
better. The first-class ore is shipped to Salt Lake 
for treatment, and the second-class is sold to the 
Nye Mining Co. of Tybo. Mr. Metz thinks that 
Tybo is on the eve of prosperous and busy times. 
N, S. Trowbridge is now working successfully ores 
that contain 15 ounces of silver to the ton, and net- 
ling a satisfactory profit for the Nye Mining Co. 
Custom ores are worked in this mill and the chlo- 
riders of Tybo and contiguous camps need not ship 
their ores for treatment away from home. 
Tuscarora Dlatrlct. 

Grand Prize lAii.u~Times-Review, July 6: 
All is now act viiy at the Grand Prize mill. Prepara- 
tions are being made for a lengthy run on the ore 
left in the slopes last winter, and the new ore develop- 
ment recently made on the 200-foot level which daily 
increases in size and richness as the drills are ex- 
tended. The mill is being put in working order as 
rapidly as possible and fuel and other supplies are 

Navajo Queen.— Fair progress is being made in 
the northeast drift, 2oo-(oot level. 

Found Treasure.— Some high-grade ore is be- 
ing liken out. Water continues to decrease. 

North Belle Isle.— The winze from the 300- 
fool level has been connected with the 400-foot level, 
materially improving the ventilation. 

North Commonwealth.— North drift from west 
crosscut on the first level has been exi-^nded 25 feet. 
The vein is looking very favorable, yielding some 
high-grade ore. The south drift has been extended 
16 feet. The vein is about two feel wide, but the 
ore is not as good as in the north drift. 

Nevada Queen.— On the 350-fool level the 
slopes have been extended both north and ^uth, 
improving both ways, and are looking well the en- 
tire distance. Very fine ore is being extracted 130 
feet above, where the chute from the 200-foot level 
is being straightened. The vein is large and high 
grade. The 400-fool level of North Belle Isle is 
very close t^ the line, and very high-grade ore in the 

face. They will reach the line within a week, after 
which the »^»ueen willcontioue ihework. It is a fine 
development and has every appearance of being the 
continuation of the ore body opened on the 350-foot 
level. .Average cir samples for Ihe week, $232 per 
ton. Repairs on ihe mill will be finished by Sun- 
day, the 8th instant 

Commonwealth.— Work has been resumed in 
No. I north drift to open up the ore body cut in the 
shaft, wh'ch has been followed north about 90 feet, 
and is extremely rich ore. East drift, south of the 
shaft, has been connected with th*; main south drift. 
150-focl level, by a crosscut, making the ventilation 
first rate. I Live resumed work on the ore going 
east, which is looking well. Average assay (car 
samples) of ore hoisted, $619 per ton. 


PiMTiNUM. — Juneau Mining Record, June 30: 
Glacier Bay district is attracting some attention and 
several good claims have been located. Messrs. 
Summers & Van Brocklin have about 35 tons of ore 
on their dump, some of which ii is said will assay 
nearly $400 to the ton. It is said that miners in the 
Yukon country, while working the placers, find large 
quantities of platinum, which they throw away, be- 
lieving it to be of no value. This is a great oversight, 
as that metal has quite a commercial value. 


Various Mining CAhWs.-^/onmai-Miner, July 
4: The Old Reliable, in Uradshaw di-lrict, main- 
Liins the liile to its name. The Last Chance, in the 
Bradshaw mountains, is siid to show up for the 
amount of development as well as any claim in the 
county. Philip Richardson, from the Congress, 
says the main shaft is now down over 400 feet, the 
ore body being continuous the entire distance. The 
second shaft is also down now over 200 feet with 
good ore all the way. Jolin Curtin and Nelson 
Gible have made good progress in running the tun- 
nel on the Lion mine, in i\Iaple gulch, and are in 
exceedingly good ore. The ore body is increasing 
in size as well as in richness as progress is made in 
the work. Waller Wright was in town yesterday 
with 49 ounces of gold bullion which he had ex- 
tracted in the Del Pasco mill from rock from the 
Wild Pigeon mine. He says that the mining out- 
look was never so bright for the Bradshaw country 
as at present. All the chims which are being 
worked are looking well. Brann S: Mitchell have 
over 400 tons of good ore on the dump of the Vet- 
eran mine and have btitied up the Wonder mill 
crushing it. 


Notes. — Denver Republican, July 7: Work has 
been resumed on the Iron Mask mine at Red Cliff. 
The Republican mountain mines at Georgetown are 
increasing their output. Some good ore has been 
found near Pitkin, on the north side of Hall's gulch, 
in a well-defined contact. 

San Miguel. — Journal, July 7: Owners of pros- 
pects on Bear creek now have an opportunity to test 
their ores al the Cropsy mill. Frank Maumey and 
French Joe made a new discovery on Mill crtek this 
week that bids fair to develop into something unusu- 
allygood. Another tunnel to cut the Sheridan mine 
500 feet lower down than the one now being run was 
surveyed and started this week. The Silver Bell at 
Ophir is making regular shipments and is showing 
better than ever before. The Gold Chicken mill is 
now running full blast under the supervision of John 
Flood. The mine is al present working a small 


Reduction Works. —Deadwood Pioneer, July 
4: It is with genuine pleasure that we are al length 
able tomtke the announcement that the first acuve 
step has been taken toward preparing the grounds 
for the erection of the Deadwood Reduction Works 
company's leaching plant. Surveys and maps have 
been completed by Engineer Thos. H. While, and 
yesterday a force was taken to the site and started 
at work on trenches, ditches and other excavations 
necessary to be made before the building is erected. 
Plans and specifications are looked for from Mr. 
Clark. Al once these are' received, so that ihe 
directory will be enabled to intelligently proceed 
with^execulion of the plans, a larger force will be 
employed and work on the building begin. 


Good for the Schoolboy. —Wood River Times^ 
July 7: A four-ton lot of first class ore was brought 
down from the Schoolboy claim, in Croy gulch, this 
week, and sampled and sold. It carried 82 J^ ounces 
silver and 62K per cent lead, and netted the owners 
about $100 per ton. This was only a sample lot. 
Now that they know its value, the owners will ex- 
tract more ore. 

The Buttercup a Mine —Very encouraging re- 
ports come from the Buttercup claim — a somewhat re- 
cent location owned by McFarland & Sutherland.and 
situated about four miles north of Clarke's station, 
at the upper crossing of Willow creek. This claim, 
it is stated, is showing a huge vein of first and sf cond- 
class ore, and a tunnel driven in depth has demon- 
strated the existence of a high t of over 200 feet of 
solid galem. and a width ot about 18 inches of first- 
class, and from one to three feet of second-class ore. 
The properly is already spoken of as one of the 
best shown up on Wood river, and as being second 
only to the Minnie Moore. 

A General Sample from the Lead Belt. — 
About 2 J^ tons of ore were brought in yesterday 
from the lead belt near Era— the same being one- 
half of a general sample made up from their proper- 
ties by the mine-owners in the vicinity. The other 
half of the sample lot will be received in about one 
week. When received the whole will be sampled, 
and if the returns are remunerative shipments will 
be made from several mines there. 


Rich Rock, — Pasadena Union, July 7: Frank 
Voighi, who returned Saturday from Ensenada, 
Lower California, brought some very rich gold rock 
from that section into the Union ofl&ce this morning. 

The rock showed considerable free gold and will 
probably run S400 or $500 a ton. He also exhibited 
a gold button which had been taken from a quan- 
tity ol the rock. 


PROSPEcrs.- .^nacond* Revir.o, June 29; A trip 
up Foster creek reveals some very fine prospects. 
The Ontario, which Messrs. Davidson and .Sawtelle 
have bonded to Ed*ards &, Barker is looming up. 
'I hey are sticking some beautiful carbonate ore. 
Just above the dam we find a group of cabins, one 
of which is owned by .\Ir. John has a 
good miner working with him and ihey are sinking 
an incline on their claim. They will probably send 
a carload of ore out some lime this summer. Messrs. 
Young and Churches have a fine vein of fire clay 
near by, which we learn st.inds as high a test as 
anything in the country. Mr. Young is working on 
a claim irom which he is sacking a little ore diily. 
It is high grade (200 ounce>), but the pay streak is 
small, although It gives good indications of widen- 
ing. At the next cabin the owntrs of the ranch, 
Messrs. John Cadle and Ben Caspar, are working 
on the Casius Bennington lode and piling up some 
150-ounce ore. They have several more lUtt ring 
prosp-cis up here, probably the next best of which 
is the E. L. K., from which they have sacked con- 
siderable 500-ounce ore, but the pay st'eak is nar- 
row and the headway is small. The formation here 
is mostly lime although tie lime capping is shallow, 
as granite is plainly seen at most anywhere at the 
creek level. The boys have some claims located fur- 
ther up which are in granite on both sides and which 
show good ore at the surface. The general impres- 
sion one gives of this section is a most favorable one, 
and there is no doubt but the head of Foster will be 
heard from soon in a manner not to be forgotten. 
Good reports continue to come to us from Olsen's 
River View, in Olsen gulch, in which a rich strike 
was recent'y made. 

Rich New Quartz District.— Helena Mining 
Revicio, July 6: There is no longer any reason to 
doubt the richness or the vast extent of the ores 
lat-ly discovered on Cold Spring creek, 20 miles 
south of Horse Plains, Montana. Several soeci- 
mens fioni various claims there would indicate 
wealih for their owners. It is believed by experts 
that these leads are the ones from which came the 
placer gold that was taken out on Quartz and Cedar 
creeks, in such vast quantities, 20 years ago. , Sev- 
eral shalts are now down 20 to 100 feet and the 
ledges grow richer in the precious metals as the 
work prog'-esses. Capitalists from Helena, Butte, 
Anaconda, Porllind and the East have been at- 
t acted to these new mines, and after making per- 
sonal inspection of the claims have made several 
heavy investments. E. M. Parks, an old prospector 
of Missou'a county, one of the first on the ground, 
located a good slice of the gold quartz, and a lew 
days ago sold a one-third interest in it to a Portland 
syndicate for $30,000 cash. He asks an equal sum 
for another third, and says the remaining inierest re- 
mains with him to comfort his declining years. Col- 
onel Geo. W. Irwin of Butte and B. B. Taylor of 
Anaconda lately spent several days there, pro- 
nounced the indications the best they had seen in 
years, and are reported to have secured some impor- 
tant options. This district has been but sparsely 
prospected and there is doubtess a rich fit-Id here 
for expert prospeciors. A great many of them are 
going in from Hor^e Plains, realizmg the fact that 
this i": the nearest and most practical railroad point 
at which to outfit and from which to start. There is 
a good ferry there and one of the bebt mountain 
trails in the West runs direct to the mines. Fifteen 
men have been at work for two weeks past clearing 
out the old Adams trail, over which parties can now 
ride into the heart of the new diggings in five hours. 


Malone. — Soiii/nocst Se/iiinel. July 7: Several 
men are employed on the Young Man mine near 
Malone, all being engaged in development work. 
The directors of the company are expected daily, 
and on their arrival will make a thorough inspection 
of the property, and it is rumored that a full force of 
miners will be employed and the mine opened in 
first-class manner. 

Lake Valley.— Silver City Enterprise, July 7: 
The Silver Mining Co. of Lake Valley, successor 
to the Sierra Grande Mining Co., has paid a five 
per cent dividend, and will probably pay another of 
the same amount, after which it will still have $50,- 
coo in its treasury. Good, thiit! Hon, John Bragaw 
Irom Georgetown says that T. B. Pheby is taking 
out more ore than was ever taken out at Georgetown, 
and will start the mill again in a few days. He has 
about 40 men at work. Work was resumed on the 
Grand Tower of Gold Hilt, by Lewis & Cottrel, four 
weeks ago. In dressing up the mine an i8-inch 
vein of $175 ore was discovered on the hanging-wall 
which is now being taken out, and will probably be 
shipped to the Fiagler works of this city lor treat- 

COONEY Camp.— A big strike in the Oak'and 
mine. Not long ago Mr. Huson came from Den- 
ver and opened up this mine, taking from or near 
the surface a carload of ore and shipped it to Den- 
ver, which netted him a nice little profit, since 
which time he has been sinking on the vein and is 
now down 50 feet. About a week ago the vein 
commenced widening and growing richer. Now it 
will require crof scutting to ascertain the width. The 
shaft is 5x7 feet and is m solid quartz with two pay 
streaks of high-grade ore, one 16 inches wide and 
the other four inches, that will run from $200 to $500 
per ton; the balance is good milling ore that will 
run from $20 to $80 per ton. There is on the dump 
from 200 to 300 tons of ore that will average $50 
for milling, and two-thirds of its value is gold. 

G.ld Hill. — Silver City Sentinel, July 7: The 
increased activity in mining circles has been the 
means of centering and directing attention to Gold 
Hill, the most promising gold-bearing ore in the 
Burro mountains. The first discoveries were made 
in 1884, and attracted considerable attention in 
mining circles. The year following these, the first 
locations, little was accomplished aside from the 
annual assessment, but enough was ascertained to 
prove to the mo t skeptical that the new camp was 
infinitely better than the surface croppings indicated. 
The Indian troubles of 1885 in a great measure re- 
tarded development, and it is a well-established fact 
that negotiations for properties in the Gold Hill dis- 

trict were sLispended, l.eciuse of the unsettled con- 
dition oi tlu- oinury as they related to Indian 
alTiirs. 'Ihe miner and prospector, notwitlistanding 
the risks to life and limb, pursued his calling, and 
to-day is the proud possessor of miningclaims which 
are destined in sevenl instances to yield him fortunes. 
The Standard mill is running full time; and the re- 
sults obtained under the manaRement of Mr. Cole- 
man are very flattering. A run of 48 hours, followed 
by a pailial cleanup only, gave a return of S1800 
in gold. The Grand Tower, the properly of Lewis 
& Cottrell. is rapidly taking a leading position among 
the coming silver mines of the coun'ry. 


La Bellrvue.— Bedrock Democrat. July 4: The 
Dcmotrat reporter had the pleasure yesterday of 
conversing with J. B. Cabell, one of the owners of 
the Li Beilevue mine on Onion crerk, this county. 
In regard to his mining property, the I^ Beilevue, 
Mr. Cabell said: " We now have a tunnel in on the 
ore vein 450 ft et. at which point the ledge is 11 
feel in width bi tween walls, and the ore will average 
$50 per ton throughout In depth on the ledge we 
are 250 feet, and can tap the ore body 1500 feet be- 
low the surface by driving a tunnel low down on the 
mounnin. We are now taking out ore which we 
will ship to Denver for reduction. Fifteen tons are 
now in this city ready for the car?, and 30 tons more 
will be here as soon as teams cm deliver it. The 
ore we ship works from $250 to $5co per ton, and we 
are now taking out some ore that will go $3000. We 
employ eight men constantly, and will most likely 
put up a concenfaior and work ;ibout 20 men before 
winter comes on.'' The 1-a Belltvue has more than 
pa'd exp-nses of development from thesiari, and can- 
not now be purchased of iis owners for less than a 
quarter of a million dollars. Such mines as the La 
Billevue, Eureka, Excelsior, Columbia, Herculean, 
Gray Eagle, California, and a dozen other well- 
known bonanzas, will bring a mining boom in the 
near future. 

Bakeh Co. Mines— Bedrock Democrat, June 
29: Dr. Thibode, ol this city, who hadja^t returned 
from a vis t to Cracker creek district, favored the 
Democrat reporter with the following notes; The 
La Bellevuf, owned and operated by the Cabell 
Bros., the Dr. pronounces one among the finest ore 
producers tliat he has ever seen. The mine proper 
has an elevition ol 7340 feet above spa level. Ob- 
servations taken on the south side show a tunnel 700 
feet long; vertical depth 225 feet. The ore body is 
450 fett in length with an average width of 4 feeL 
Crosscut al the face shows 10 feel of ore and no 
foot wall. The hanging wall is porphyry; foot wall 
gneiss; 150 feet of hanging wall is almost perpen- 
dicular and foot wall nearly flat. On north side, 
tunnel on ledge is in 175 (eel. winze 55 feel from 
level; ore between walls, 4 feet; pay ore, 2 feel; 
distince between tunnels, looo feet. On this side 
the ledge can he tapped at the de| XS of 1500 feet. 
There is 00 the dump 100 tons ot shipping ore, 
averaeing from $350 to $400, and from 700 to 800 
ions of ore averaging between $75 and $150. The 
Wide West, owned by Messrs. Klaheriy, Lucas and 
Garrison, is another property that b'ds fair to some 
day create a stir in mining circles. Tunnel, 500 feet; 
crosscut, 350 fct; vertical depth, 140 feet below 
upper tunnel. Uppsr tunnel is too feet long; cross- 
cut, 80 feet; vertical depth. 80 feet; ledge in upper 
tunnel, 4 to 5 feel; lower tunnel, 5 to 6 leet; can be 
tapped 500 feet deeper by tunnel. 

Baker County Mines.— Bidrock Democrat, 
July 7: It is ag-iin gratifying to us to be able to 
note the rapid strides made in the development of 
mines and sales made in Baker county. Our county 
records to-day show Ihe fact that another great min- 
ing sale has been consummated. Messrs. Henry and 
Erwin Cable yesterday transferred the first extension 
south of the great Eurtka and Excelsior mines on 
Cracker creek, known as the Columbia, to an East- 
ern syndicate for a handsome figure. This mine 
was bonded on the 28th d.iy of May by H. Steven- 
son of Salt L^ke City, who has succeeded in selling 
it to men who, ere long, will have a mill on the mine 
turning out gold bars. Mr. J. E. Meacham of 
Caldwell, Idaho, an oid-time mining superintendent, 
has taken charge of the mine as foreman, and will 
push the work vigorously for" his company. The 
Cable Bros, have been working mines in Baker 
county for the last 15 years, and are experienced 
miners. They aLo own the great California mine, in 
the Cable Cove, which they now expect to develop, 
and are perfectly assured that they can make as 
large a mine of this as there is in the State. They 
now have 1000 (ett of tunnel on the mine, exposing 
the ore vein in three places from which they have 
^hipped rich ore to Denver and San Francisco, and 
have made considerable money in this way. There 
is also some rich placer grouud in the district which 
has been located. 


Review.— Salt Lake Tribune, July 7: The week 
has seen t'le close of the half-year a rather 
diminished metal production. The receipts in this 
city of bullion, excluding all ores, for the six months 
past were as follows, as per current reports; Janu- 
ary. $327,141.43; February, $285687.79; March, 
$283,263.98; April, $224,019.60; May, $385,735.14; 
June, $333,899.42; total, $1.839747.36. Several 
operations which make no current reports are 
necessiri'y not carried in the above. The slight rise 
in the price of lead has continue i to help through- 
out the week, and the receipts ofore have been good. 
For the week ending July 4th, inclusive (really the 
3d, the 4th being a holiday), five days, the receipts 
of ore wera to the value of $61,23649; of bullion, 
$93-497-23; total, $154,733.72. For the previous 
week the receipts were $199 654.18, of which $103,- 
217.27 was bullion and $96.47689 was ore. The 
On tirio product for the week was $20,56847 from 
ore sales, and of bullion 7835.12 fine ounces. For 
June the Ontario product was $77,614.85 from ore 
sales, and of bullion. 104,977.39 line ounces. The 
Daly output for the week was of bullion, 14,285.38 
fine ounces. For June the Daly output was 67,295.94 
fine ounces of bullion and $7688.92 from ore sales. 
Fine bar receipts for the week were to the value of 
$52,760.30; gold bars, $3351.03; base bullion, $17.- 
050. The product of the Hanauer smelter for the 
week was $11,180 in bullion; of the Gerraania, 
$9155 82. Ore receipts in this city for the week 
were $4r, 580.85 by Wells, Fargo & Co., $14,500 by 
McCornick & Co. .and $5155.64 by T, R. Jones 
& Co, 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[JoLY 14, 1888. 

About Obtaining Patents. 

Patents are Virtually Contracts, 

The Patent Law provides that in. case a patei-t, -which Is 
theevi'encccf thecont act, is oot execQtei in compliauce 
withthere-iuiremeatiof the law, it may be aonullcd and 
ren.lered void ITenc^, it is of the greatest importance to 
cT ry inventor that liii patent or contract be ekiUfu'.iy and 
iLzcur^telj drafted, ia nrdei- that i . may afford him corapkte 
\irotectiou for bi5 invention during the life of his ijate-t. 

Secure a Good Patent. 

An inventor should first a3C?rtain whether or not his im- 
provement has beeii p.tented to another. This requires an 
tibaustive search among ail the patents in the class to 
W ieh the invenLrion relates. If, by this "preliminary ex 
amination,"the improvement is found to have been pre- 
viously i vented, our client wx'. receive, for the small sum of 
£o for the examination, a verbal or written report showing 
definiteJy -wherein hia invention has been anticipated, 
I'lereby saving him further expense and perhaps much time, 
(oxiety, etc. 

To avoid all needless delay, however, and secure patents 
B.t the earlitst moment practicible, inventors will do -well to 
forward a mod 1, drawing or sketch, -\vith a plain, full and 
comprehensive description of their invention (stating dis- 
tinctly -what the particular points of improvement are), with 
Sloasafirstin tallmentof fees. If the improvement ap- 
pears to us to be novel and patentable, the necessary papers 
for an applica'ionfor a patent -will be prepared immediately 
and forwarded to the inventor for his signature. When he 
receives the application and finds it duly prepared, he will 
carefully Fign and return the same plainly addressed to us, 
with postal money order or express receipt for our o-wn fee. 
The case -will then be promptly filed by us in the Patent 
OfBce, and vigorously prosecuted to secure the be^t patent 
possibla ^[This course is the most expeditious and satis- 
fa tory, as no time is lost in transmitting correspondence 
relative ta the preliminary steps.] "When the pat- nt is 
aIlr)WPd the inventor will be duly notified, and on sendiog 
the final Government fee of §20 to us, we will order the 
isBueof the patent, and forward the same as Boon as it Is 
secured from the Patent Office. 

Th > payments are tbiLS divided and made easy. We make 
no pretense of doing cheap work, in order to entice custom, 
nor do we af forward make additional charges to bring the 
bill up to a fair compensation. We do our work honestly 
and thoroughly, and we never give up a case so loug as there 
is a ch*Dce of obtaining a patent. The Agency charge, in- 
cluding dra-wings, rarely exceeds §40, and for this we do a') 
we can -without appealing the case. 

Models and Drawings. 

Models are now seldom required by the Commissioner of 
Patcts, and genera'ly only in intricate cases. Perfect draw- 
ings f practical working machines are more satisfactory to 
the Patent Office than the old cumbersome system of stor- 
ing up an immense bulk l f countless models. 

Drawing i or sketches, sufficient to illustrate the invention 
clearly, w tb a description tbat will enable us to make a full 
set of perfect drawings for the Patent Office, is all that we 
require. A model will answer our purpose as well, however, 
i cases where the inventor can more eas'ly furnish it. 
>The value and even the validity of a patent oEt.n depends 
on the character, clearness and sufficiency of its drawi-igs. 
There are thousautU of existing patents in which tlie im 
provementa ere but partially or poorly illustrated in the 
drawin-p ;^ When an attempt is n-,ade to di.'pose of such 
paten s, thevaguenesi and defects ot the drawings eft u 
prejudice capitalistsand manufacturers against the inven- 
tion, whil In reality it may be of g eat value, and would 
meet withiead/sile had it been Ftillfully, completely and 
I tistically j^ortrayed. In all cases prepared by u^. the 
drawings are made under our personal supervision, by 
skilled draftsmen In our constant employ, and every precau- 
tion is taken to have the inven ion fully and clearly shown 
by different views, bo that the improvement will be readily 
understood by the Examiners in the Patent Office, and com- 
prehended by the public when the patent Is granted. 

A-dvantages to Inventors on the Pacific 

The firm of De-wt:t & Co. has edited and published the 
Mining axd Scibntifiq Press continuously slice ISbO. 
a period of 23 years. Pew agents, who are sti 1 engagel in 
the business, hav- had so long-extended practice in p:teut 
soliciting. Tho members of the firm give person I atten- 
tion to the applications intrusted to their care; and theli 
f.imilimty with inventions and with local affairs in the 
Pacific tates and Territories, enables them to uuderstand 
the wants of inventors on this coast Tcore readily and 
th iroughly, as wo believe, than any other agents in America, 
Thus there Is saved a great deal of the time which ordlna-ily 
—when d stan*. agen s are employed -is wasted in p elimi- 
oary -writing back and forth. 

Th's happy combination of Ion? business ex:>erience to- 
gether, and wid J connections, has placed our firm iu a posi- 
tiin unquestionably most fortunate fur affording inventor-- 
prompt and i eliable advice, and the bust facilities f jr sccur 
ing their full patent ligiits with s.fety and dispatch. a( 
uniformly reasonable rates. 

Every patentee of a worthy Invntion is g^iaranteed the 
pratuitous \iublicatiou of a clearly-stated and co rcct de- 
Bcr'ption of his invention, in cne or mere of our iuQucri'ial 
and reliab'e newspapers, affording ]uct the circulation best 
(alculated to -widely inform the clisi of readers espEalally 
interested in the subject of his invention. 


A Caveat is a confidential communication ma-^a to tha 
Futont O Lice, and ijLaerefore filed witiiiu its sccrub archives 
The privilege secured under a caveat is, i hat it entitles the 
caveator to receive notice, for a period of one year, of any 
application for a patent subsequently filed, which is ad- 
judged to be uovlI and is likely to iutei fere with tUe inviu- 
tion described in the caveat, and the ca.veator is then re- 
quired to c^imple' e his appl cition for a patent within tbreo 
won hfl from the date of said notice. Caveat papers should 
be very carefully prepared. Our fee for the service varies 
from SlJ to S2J. The Government fee is SO addi ional. 

To enable us to prepare cave t papers, we require only a 
sketch ai.d uoscripi>lou of the iuventioo. 

Rejected Applications. 

Inventors who have rejected ca'^es (prepa-ed either h? 
themsehes or for them by other ageotsj an I desire to ascer- 
ta.n their prospects of Bucc ss by further efforts, are invited 
to avail themselves of our unr.valed facilities for secu ing 
f i,vorable rtsuifci. "We have been successful in securing Let- 
ters Patent in many previously abandoned cases. Our terms 
are always reasonable^ 

Inventors doing business -with nB-wilt be notified of the 
Btate of their application in the Patent Office whenever it ia 
possible for us to furnish such iuformatioo, 

D'^WBY & CO., 

Pat^«nt Solicitors, Office of Scientific Press, 252 Market 

4) 'it. Elevator entrance, !No. 12 Froat Hi., H. !F. 
C£0. H. STBONQ, YT. B. EWEB, A. T. PEiray. 


Cor. Fremont and Mission Sts., 

San Francisco, Cal. 













ERs. ;: 














ING, PAINT, irrc. 







The best form of Feeder ever devised, and pronounced by reputable mining men to be far 
superior to any form of "Roller" Feeder manufactured. We refer to the follow- 
ing gentlemen who have furnished us with testimonial letters to the 
above effect, which can be seen at our office, viz.: 

ST. W. Crocker, Supt. Bunker Hill Gold Min- D. O.Wiokham, Taylor Minp, Greenwood, Cal. 
ing Co., Amador City, Cal. J. R. Tkegloan, Sapt. South Spring Hill Gold 

W. G. Roberts, Greenwood, El Dorado Co., Cal. Mining Co., Amador City, Cal. 



And will furnish descriptive Catalogues and quote prioes upon appUoation,} 


[Patented May 28, 1832.] 

Tura 18 the beat and cheapest Ore Feeder now lo use. 

It has fewer parts, requires less power, is simpler in 
adjustment than any other. Feeds coarse ore or soft clay 
alike uniforralj*, under one or all the stamps in a battery 
as required. 

Id the Bunker Hill Mill it has run continuously lor two 
years, never having been out of order or costing a dollar 
for repairs. 

Qolden State and Miners' Iron Works, 

Sole Manufacturers, 
S27 First Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


No. 25 Bond St , 





Manufectnring Purposes. 

Wholesale and Ketaii. 
Native Platinum and Scrap purchased. 


T^HE H. H, H- Horse Liniment pute 
* new hfo into t'ae Antiquated Korea ' 
For the last li yeara the H H- H. Horse 
Lniment hae oeea the leading rercely 
£j::ong Farmers and Stockmen for ti' 
cure of Sprains^ Braises, Stiff Jointa. 
fcpaviDs, WindfraJls. Sore rfhoalders, etc. 
md for Ifamily Use is without an eqaeA 
^or Rheumadsm Neoralffia, Aches. Pains 
Mi?^'T/*- * ^^-'^''■ii'iSprainsof all characters 
iho H. H. H. Liniment has many imit& 
t:ons. and we caution the PubHo co ess 
hat the Trade Mark ' H. H H." is ©a 
3very Bottle before lonrchaeing. For sais 
everywhere £oe EG csnti" and tlM pes 

For Sale by all Drucglats. 



24 POST ST.. S. P 

Collefre instructs in Shorthand, Type Writiner, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish hranches, and everything pertaining to bui-inei-s, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 

E. P. HEALD. President. 
C. S. HALKY, Secretary. 

San Francisco Cordage Factory, 

Established 1850. 
Constantly on hand a full assortment of Manila Ropej 
Siea Rope, Tarred Manila ftope, Hay Rope, Whale 
Line, eta, etc. 
Sxtia sizes and lengths made to order on short notice 
fin and 813 Front St.. San Francisco. 




c| 9 Geary St. 1^ ^"^-^^ 

e|SAN FRANCISCO, Cal. I a ^ ® S 

r — — — D. 0)^30 

their Patents through Uewey&Co.'a 
Mining and Scientific Prbbs Patent Agency, Uo. 220 
Market St., S. F.. 

July 14, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


STURTEVANT MILL fRASER & CHALMERS Hnntlngtoii Centrifngal 

" " " ■ QUARTZ MILL. 

This MUl afl & Crusher and Pul 

verizer is withoat rival. 

Ib in operation in ead* 

ing amelting wor^s 

and mills, 

SiJTD rot CATiuraui mo Tibtuioniaia 










Fulton and Union Streets, Cblcaeo, 111. 


Boom 48, No. a Wall Street. 







No. 248 Eighteenth Street, Denver, Colorado. 

No. 11 Oalle de Juarez, Oblhuahua, Mexico. 


Mining Turbine Water Wheel. 

These Wheels are designed for all purposes where limited quantities of water and 
high heads are utilized, and are guaranteed to give more power with leas water than 
any other wheel made. Being placed on horizontal shaft, the power is transmitted 
direct to shaftini^ by belts, dispensing with gearing. 

Eetimatea furnished on application for wheels specially built and adapted in 
capacity to suit any particular case. 

Further information can be obtained of this form of coustruction, as well as the 
ordinary Vertical Turbines for Wooden Penstocks and in Iron Globe Cases, free of cost, 
by applying to the manufacturers. 

Springfield, Ohio, or 110 Liberty St., New York. 

PRASBB & CHALMERS. General Agenta, 

Chicago, 111., and Denver, Col. 

PARKE Si LACY, Generar Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 


44 Third Street, 

San Francisco, Cal, ^ 

Thifl Fire-proof Brick Building la centrally located, in 
tbe healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and cloae to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Officea. 

Laundry Free for the use of FamilieB 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 


C. H. EVANS & CO., 

(Succestora to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 & 112 Beale Street, S. F. 

Steam Pumps. Steam Engines 

and all klnda of MACHINERY. 


hd P 

issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pxir- 
chas© the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, "walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
' styles and quantities, Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will bo sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 


111-114 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

This paper Is printed with In& Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson Ss Co., 600 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch OfS- 
cea-47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Ohlcaso. Aseat for tbe Paclflo Coast— 
.Joseph H. Dorety, 639 Oommerolal St., &. F- 


First Premium Awarded at Mechanics' Fair, 1884. 

oxjiOO? ct3 Ai: :e3 !£: s £3 , 

Sole Licensed Manufacturers of the 

Medart Patent "Wrought Rim Pulley 

For the States of California, Oregon and Nevada, and the Territoriea of Idaho, WaBhington 

Montana, Wyoming, Utah and Arizona. Lightest, StroDgeet, Cheap'^nt and 

Best Balanced Pulley in the World. Also Manufacturera of 



Nos. 129 & ISl Fremont St.reflt. 

San Frandflco. Cal. 


Are you going to make any change in machinery? Are you freighting by teaiu or packing on 
mulca? Do you want Piilleya on Shafting already up? If_ bo, don't fail to look into the 
merits of 



They are the Xilgrhteat, Strongest, Best Balancer! and Most 
Convenient Pulleys Made in the World. 

Entirely new and original. Adapted to any power required. Time, trouhle and money aaved by using these pul leyB. 
.Also Aeent for the DODGE SYSTEM OF ROPE TBANSfllIS3ION. Eatimatea furnished. 
^^ Price List and Catalogues mailed free. 

JOHN SIMOND.S, Pacific Coast Affent, 509-513 Mission St., S. r. 

New Almaden Quicksilver. 

Room 22, 320 Sansotne St., 


_ Revolving, Jettinfr, Hydraulic, Dia- 
Imond, Prospecting Well Tools, Wind 
■Engines and Deep Well Pumps. Trea' 
Jtise on Natural Gas, or our Encyclo 
•ipedia, mailed for 
JjWell Works. 

Aurora, lU 




524 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Ores Received on Oonsignment, Sampled, Assayed, and Disposed 
of in tbe Open Market to the Highest Bidder, 

(fletallljfgy apd Ore?. 



416 Hontgomery St., San Francisco. 

And Assay Office. 

Highest Prices Paid for Gold, Silver and 
Lead Ores and Sulphorets. 





SHOT, Eic, Etc. 


Standard Shot-Gun Cartridges, 

Under Chamberlio Patent 





63 & G5 First St., cor. Miselon.San Francisco. 

We would call the attention of Aseayere, Chemists' 
Mining Companies, Milling Companies, Prospectors, eta. 
to our full Block of Balances, Furnaces, Muffles, Cruel' 
hies, Scorifleis, etc., including, also, a full stock of 

Having been engaged in furnishing these supplies sinot 
the Qrst discovery of mines on the Pacific Coaat, we fee 
confident from our experience we can well duit the de 
mand for these goods, both as to quality and price. Oui 
New Illustrated Catalogue, with prices, will be sent oc 

i^"Our Gold and Silver Tables, shovring the value pBi 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for computation of assays in grains and gramme), 
will be Bent free upon application. Agents for the Patent 
Plumbaeo Crucible Co., London, England. Also for E. 
G. DENNiSTON'a Silver Plated Amalgam Plates. The 
plates of this well-known manufauturer are thoroughly 
reliable, and full weight of Silver guaranteed. Orders 
taken at hia lowest prices. 


Nevada Metallurgical Works. 


Near First and Market Streets, S. F. 

C. A. Ldokhari>t, Manager. Estabusbbs 1869 

Ores worked by any ProoeBB. 
Ores Sampled, 

Assaying in all its BrancheB. 
AnalyaeB of Ores, Minerals, WaterSi etc. 
Working Testa (practical) Made, 
Plans and Specifications furnished for the 
most suitable Process for Working Ores. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Mines; Plana and Reports furnished, 

(Formerly Huhn &, Luckhardt, 
UtnlnflT EnflTlneern and MetallurcrlRtn 



318 Pine St. (Basement,, 

Corner ot Leidesdorff Street, 


Ores Sampled and Assayed, and Tests made by my 
Assaying and Analysis of Ores, Minerals and Waters. 
Mines Examined and Reported on. 

Practical Instruction given Treating Ores by m- 
proved prooeaaea. 

Mlnlnir Eneineerw and Metal lureists. 

GrO a"0 

American Exchange Hotel. 

The abive Hotel is situated In thef midst of the Bank- 
ing and Commercial Houses of the city, and is by fat the 
most home-like and desirable Hotel to stop at. 
OHAS. & "WM. MONTGOMERY, Prop'ra. 


G. A. STETEFEIST, President. 

Boom 709. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 14, 1888 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacilio Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report ol U. S. Patenta In Dbwit A 
Co.'B Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., 3. P. 


385.401.— Windmill— F. Boccard, Oakland, Cal. 

385,500.— Car Coupling— S. Byrne. Brown's 
Valiev, Cal. 

385',6oo.— HvDRAULic Well-Boring Machine 
— G W. Durbrow, Los Angeles, Cal. 

385^346.— Billiard-Table— W. P. Flint, Marys- 
ville, Cal. 

385,551.— Ore Concentrator -"G, F. Gould, 
Grass Valley, Ca\. 

385,457.— Stump Extractor— A. C. Hall, Cedar 
Mill. Ogn. 

385,458. — Dvnamo-Electric Machine — A. 
Harding. Oakland, Cal. 

385,460.- Hydraulic Step— F. G. Hesse, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

385,5 [6.— Spirit Level — J. C. Hutton, Cor- 
vallis, Ogn. 

385,466.— Fence— D. B Matlock, Sin Jose, Cal. 

385,467.— Fence— D. B. Matlock, San Jose, Cal. 

385,470.- Haystacker— D. McRae, Umatilla, 

385,473.— Harmonica Holder— W. Mulhollan, 
Portland, Ogn. 

385 423.— Insecticide— M. Ongerth, Alameda, 

385,372. — Carpet Stretcher — S. S. Pearl, 
Halsey, Ogn. 

385.431.— Slide Valve— W. J. Thomas, Sauce- 
lito, Cal. 

385,486.— Lamp Bracket— A. Thurber, S. F. 

385,389.— Device fob Fumigating Trees— L. 
H. i iius, San Gabriel, Cal. 

385,653.— Nozzle — Benj. Wright, Los Gatos, 

385,495.- Commode— W, R. Wythe, Santa Bar- 
bara, Cal, 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patenta furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the ehorteet time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign pateo'iB 
obtained, and general patent businees f or Pacifio Coa jt 
Inventors transacted with perleot seourlty, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press U. S. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the foUowing are 
worthy of special mention: 

Dynamd-Electbic Machine. — August Hard- 
iug, Oakland. No. 385,458.; Dated July 3, 
18S8. The object cf this iaventioa is to pro- 
vide an improved and convenient conatructiou 
of the frame of the revolving armature and of 
the commutator sections, eo that the parts 
may be easily separated or assembled. The dif- 
ferent parts of the armature are perfectly and 
completely separated from each other and the 
commutator, by its construction, overcomes the 
common difficulty of short-circuiting. 

Lamp Bracket. — Alfred Thurber, S. F. No. 
385,486. D.ited July 3, ISSS. This bracket 
for supporting lamps consists of a pair of semi- 
circular jaws, the outer ends of which are made 
to receive and hold the lamp body, while the 
inner ends are hinged together with a peculiar 
arrangement of the box within which the inner 
ends are contained and the spring by which the 
jaws are closed. By the construction devised 
all the parts may be put together without the use 
of the screws, and are very easily adjusted or 
taken apart whenever desired. By extending 
the rear portion of the j iws behind the pivot- 
pin within the case they serve to steady the 
jiwa and prevent them from swinging from side 
to side. 

Balllon Shipments. 

We quote shipments since our last, and shall 
be pleased to receive further reports: 

Iron Mountain, July 7, S16,000; Riley & 
B'.iea, 7, §4000; Uncle Sim, 7, S5000; Con. Cali- 
fornia and Virginia, 7, $92,203; El Dorado Tun- 
nel (for June), $16 026; Sivage, 7, $34,550; 
Hale and Norcross, 7, 1^155,000; Con. California 
and Virginia, 10, §68,806- total for June, $405,- 
834. Shipment of Eureka Con., quoted in 
Press as $4000 Jane 30bh, was really $16,000. 
Germania, July 3, $1496; Hanauer, 3, $3900; 
Queen of the Hills, 3, $1100; Silver R-jef, Ucah 
(rorJunp), $21,517; Germania, 4, $1340; Han- 
auer, 4, $1880. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persona receiving this paper marked are re- 
qaested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
aoription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far aa practicable, aid in circulatiog the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
oenta, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
aubaoriber, please show the paper to others. 

Sampling Works for Sale. 

The works are s'tuat'^d on A. & P. R. R., Calico 
Mining District, Daggeit, Cal., andcontiin a first- 
class Engine and Boiler with Ore Crusher and other 
machinery, Plat'orm Scales, Mill Scales, Assaying 
Outfit, etc., all nearly new. Also upon the prem- 
ises an oftice building and a comfortable dwelling 
house (portable). The above can be had at a bar- 
gain. Apply to Gillespy & Childs, 123 Cali- 
fornia street, San Francisco, 

Mining Sjare Market. 

Notwithstanding the favorable outlook of the 
Comatock mines, the shares in the market show 
rather a decline than otherwise. The more 
bullion the mines turn out the lower shares go. 
While ore which promises many more dividends 
is known to be in sight,. yet the rapid decrease 
of volume of water in the Carson river fore 
bodes a decrease in milUog facilities and a con' 
sequent liability of assessments. 

According to the monthly financial state 
ments, the following companies have cash on 
hand: A'pha, $14 307.48; Andes, $14,626.82; 
Belcher, $6879.66; Bulwer, $19,048.88; Bullion, 
$9738 32; Bodie, $42,053 31; Balle Isle, $8148 54; 
Grown Point, $16,027; Con. Cilifornia and Vir- 
ginia, $172,932 93 in cash and $178,392.61 in un- 
sold bullion, and about $165,000 more in bullion 
to arrive; Crocker, $15,270.85; Con. Imperial, 
$4229 99; Dudley, $489.16; Exchequer, $10,- 
522 56', Found Treasure, $266 51; Independence, 
$4835 80; Julia, $1524 88; Mexican, $7130.63; 
Mono, $18,625 24; Navajo, §714 05; North Belle 
Isle.: $30,08707; Ophir, $2221.35; Occidental, 
§8181.51; Pondere, $150; Peerless, $18,867.01; 
Sierra Nevada. $3537.25; Syndicate, $9853.89; 
Standard, §42.651.92; Ucah, §17,606.33; Wel- 
loo. §4326 30. 

The following companies have an indebtedness : 
Beat and Belcher, $5123 89; ChoUar, §46.555.48; 
Commonwealth, $11,761 03; Del Monte. 
$3701.41; Gould and Curry, $8096.64; Grand 
Prize, $30,182 35; Locomotive. $6107.41; Ne- 
vada Qieen, §28,381.75; North Commonwealth, 
$9036.42; Potosi, $55,570.49; Peer. §1643 07; 
Savage, $46,937.40; Seg. Balcher, $28,- 

New Incorporations. 

The following companies have been incor- 
porated, and papers filed in the office of the 
Superior Court, Department 10, San Francisco: 

Auto- Pneumatic Car Motor Co., July 9. 
Capital stock, $1,000,000. D. rectors— R. H. 
Marchant, A. A. Hibbard, W. H. H. Graves, 
Chas. Hadenfeldt and John C. Rend. 

California Bituminous Block Manufact 
URING Co., July 9. Capital stock, §200,000. 
Directors— H. Datard, A. Halsey, M. B. Pond, 
W. C. Watson and A. Jndson. 

Virginia & Gold Hill Electric Light 
Co., July 9. Cipital stock, §250,000. Direct- 
ors— W. E. Sell. C. T. Bridges. N. D. Auder- 
aon, Chaa. S. Wheeler and A. W. Rdss, Jr. 

TuscARORA Water Co., July 9. Location, 
TuBcarora District, Elko Co., Nev. Capital 
stock, §500,000. Directors— Th OS. Ball, Daniel 
Meyer. John F. Oaaswell, P. 0. Hyman and S. 
C. B gelow. 

Portland Mining Co. (Oregon), July 7, Ob- 
ject, development of mines in Oregon and 
Idaho. The company owns four mines on B3av- 
er creek, Ccear d'Alene, the Silver Tip. Sitting 
Bull, Red Dragon and Mule Deer. Capital 
stock, $5,000,000. Directors— John C. Daven- 
port, J. H. Smith. P. 0. Kanffmao, J. P. Koh- 
ler, John Markle, G. B. Markle, Jr., W. H. 
Sherman and O. F. Paxton. 


The Mining and Scientific Press of June 23d 
is a 32-page edition and devoted mainly t> an ex- 
haustive and inieiligent description of the Lick Ob- 
servatory at Mt. Hamilton. A perusal of this issue 
of the Press will repay those who are int-'rested in 
matters telescopic, and also those who wish to keep 
posted on California's progress as an enteiprising 
State. — North San Juan Times. 

Government Buildings, ) 

Wellington". June 3, 1888. | 
Editors Press : — I have to inform you that hav- 
ing received no copies of the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press by the last mail, I feel untasy, as 1 
have each volume bound as it comes out, and there- 
fore do not wish to lose any of the numbers. 1 
look upon your paper as the ^most valuable one 
thit comes into this colony for the mining class, and 
therefore regret the temporary stoppage very much. 
Yours fdithiully, 

Hknrv a. Gordon, 
Inspecting Engineer, Mines Dep't, New Zealand. 

San Francisco Metal Market. 


Thursday. July 12, 1838. 

Antimony— French Star y (($ 9i 

Borax— Refined — @ 7 

Powdered 7@ — 

Uouceutrated 6i(^ — 


Bolt ; 26 @ — 

Sheathing 26® — 

Ingot — @ 20 

Fire Box Sheets — @ 26 

I RON— Glengarnoct ton — @ 23 50 

Eglinton, ton — 027 00 

American Soft, No, 1, ton — @3i &o 

Oregon Pig, ton 21 (323 00 

Clay Lane Wliite — @23 00 

Shotts, No. 1 — (529 00 

15;ir Iron (base price) ^% 2J.@ 

Lead- Pig 5 00* t* 

Bar 5 25 @ 

S heet 8® — 

Pipe 7 @ — 

bhot, dluuouut 10/^ on 500 bag Drop, %i bag. 1 55 «» — 

Buck,l^bag 1 75 @ — 

OhiUed, do 1 95 @ — 

a TE EL— English, lb 16 @ 20 

Black Diamond tool 20 w 16 

Pick and Hummer 8 ot 10 

Machinery 4@ k 

Toe Calk 41 a — 

TiNPLATB— Coke 5 75 @ 6 SO 

Charcoal 6 75 « 7 25 

UiOKsiLVER— By the flask 38 50 @40 00 

Flaeks, new 1 05 {» _ 

Flasks, old 86 @ — 

Forty one mining companies on the Com- 
Btock paid out in wagea last month $257,999. 




Location. No. Am't. Levied. Dblinq'nt. Sale. 

Sboretary. Place of BuaiK ess 

Bests BelcherMCo Nevada. .40.. 

Bodie Tunoel ^ Co California.. 15.. 

Baltimore M Co , N evada . . 2 . . 

Challenge Con M Co Nevada.. 4.. 

California Slate Co California.. 1.. 

Diana G& S M Co Nevada.. 7.. 

Eldred M Co Ca iforuia., 2.. 

Gould &. Ourry S M Co Nevuda..59. 

Gray Eagle M Co Califo'nia,. 8., 

LivH Oak Drift G M. Co California.. 9., 

Nye M Uo Nevada. . 1. . 

Occidental CoQ M Co Nev da.. 2.. 

Kusaell Reduction & M Co. .California.. 2.. 

Silver Kiug M Co Arizona.. 1., 

Summit M Co Calif ruia.-lO. 

Seg Belcher & Mides Con IM Co Nev.. 1,. 

Southern Civl Coal fit Clay Uo .. Cal.. 1.. 

Scorpion M Co Nevada.. 25.. 

Sierra Nevada M Co Nfvadft.,92.. 

Union M Co California 36.. 

Venus M Co Calif ornia,. 3., 

Western Mineral Co California.. 2.. 

25. .June 5.. July 10 July 31..L03bom 309 Montgomery St 

25.. June 5.. July 9....July 31. C C Harvey 303 California St 

25. .June 30.. Aug l...,Aug 22..W W Tenney 402 Montgomery St 

50.. May 28.. June 29. ... July J8..C L McCoy 3^9 Pine St 

10.. Apr 18.. May 24.. . .June 25..J O Hanacom 10 California St 

10.. June 5.. July 10.... July 31.. J W Pew 310 Pine St- 

OL.May 28..Juue ;8 .. July 30. .N A Eldred l&:^3 California St 

..Aug 16.. A K Durbrow 303 Mnutgomery St 

.Aug 31.. T Wetzel 322 Montgomery St 

60.. June 22.. July 26.. 
05.. July 7. .Aug 11.. 

^5..J^Ule 13..Ju]y 17....Aug 6 JMorizio.. 

C5.. May 2d. .July 
20.. May 29.. July 2... 
10. .June 6. .July 9..., 
50. .June 22. .July 30... 
10. .June 8. .July 11.. 
25.. June 5.. July 9.... 
10.00. .May 26. June 26.. 

. 328 Moutgo'mery St 

July 24.. W J Dorlon '40i California St 

.July 25. .A K Durbrow 309 Mintgomtry St 

.July 31. .J Morizio 328 Montgomery St 

..Aug 23.. J Nash 328 Montgomery St 

..July 31.. G W Session 319 Montgomery St 

July 30 EBHolmes 309 Montgomery St 

.July 26. .W G Mugau 10 California St 

10.. May 15.. June 22... . July 1G..G K Spinney 310 Pine St 

25.. July 10.. Aug 14. ...Sept L.ELParker 309 Mootsomery St 

■ 05.. July 5.. Aug 7 Aug 25.. R Hancock Grass Valley 

35.. July 3.. July 31.... Aug 20..JCalver 152 Fourth St 

1.00..JuLe 2t.. July 3J.... Aug 20. .A Chemeraut 328 Montgomery St 

Name of Company. Looation. Secretary. ■ Office in S. F. BIeetinq Datp 

Benton Con M Co California.. V R Allen 330 Pine St Annual July 27 

Great Western Q M Co California.. A Halsey 328 Montgomery St Annual July 16 

Lady Wasliiugtou M Co Nevada,. W H Watson 3s(2 Montgomery St Annual July 25 

Maryland M Co California.. L V Doraey Grass Valley Annual Aug 28 

Mayflower Gravel M Co California,. J Morizio 328 Montgomery St Special July 21 

North BeUelBle M Co Nevada. J W Pew 310 Pine St Annual July 27 

Savage M Co Nevada.. E E Holmes 309 Montgomery St Annual July 19 

Tusc roraCon M Co Nevada.. J J Scovitle .309 Montgomery St Annual.. July 19 

Union Con M Co Nevada.. J M Buftiugton 303 Califoruia St Annual July 16 

Nam:k of Oompant. Looation. Skceetaby. Office in S. F. Amount. Payable 

Con California & Va M Co Nevada.. A W Havens 309 Montgomery St 50 . 

ConiideLce S M Co Nevada. . A S Groth 2.00. . 

Eureka Coo M Co ..Nevada..H R P Hutton 306 Pine Bt 2ft . 

North Belle Isle M Co Nevada.. J W Pew 310 Pine St 50.. 

North Star M Co Oa"iforoia..D A Jennings 401 California St 50.. 

Hale& Norcross SM Co Nevada.. J F Lightner 309 Mo- tg niery Sc 50.. 

Idaho M Co California. . . . ._ Gr.B8 Valley. . 

. July 12 
..July 10 
...July 9 
...May 7 
..July 11 
. . July 9 
..July 11 

Pacific Uorax, Salt & Soda Co.. California.. A H Clnugh 230 Montgomery tit l.CO July 10 

Standard Con M Co California.. J W Pew 310 Pine St C5 June 12 

rable of Lowest and Highest Sales in 
S. F. Stock Exchange. 

Name of 

June 21. 

Jime 28. 

Jnly 5. 

July 12. 
























11 J 




















1.55 1.75 
1.50 1.65 
1.25 1,35 


4 15 4.50 

3!6.5 4 05 

1.25 1.30 

.75 ,80 

.55 ,65 

2,25 2.41, 

!!!! '!80 
10 101 
4.00 4.60 

3^75 4!65 
17! 20 
,60 ,65 
.35 .40 

(A 'i.W 
J. 00 1.25 

I'.io i!2il 
1.85 2 30 
3 35 3.60 
7.50 7.75 

':65 ".m 


l.OC 1.05 

;::: 'm 

i'io i!45 

3.75 4 10 
... 3.46 

ilso 2!o6 
3.20 3.10 

%M 4!i6 

i'io iiio 

7.00 7.50 
1.70 1.95 
3 35 3.70 
2.10 2.35 
.70 .75 

3:95 4:26 

2 75 2.95 

3 60 4.00 


'!65 "Xi 
'■SM, 4!66 











1 15 


2 CO 





3 30 



2 70 

3 45 




4 55 












1 00 











2 (■5 







1.76 2 10 
1.55 1.05 
1,25 1.30 
... .15 


Best & Belcher.... 

3.90 4.60 
1.25 1.30 
.55 .76 


Bodie Con 

Benton - 

Bodie Tunnel 

.65 .65 
2.50 2 95 

'!a5 i!o6 

Con. Va. &Cal 





Cou. Imperial 

98 11 
6.::6 6.60 

SISB 3'.90 
191 21 


.35 .45 

Con. Pacilio 

Crown Point 

i^SO i!95 
1.00 1.10 



East B. &B 


.45 .55 
i!26 i'.35 

Grand Prize 

Gould & Curry.... 
Hale & Norcross.. 



2.25 2.60 
i 05 3.20 

6.26 7.60 
... 1.75 

:75 ".95 




1. 10 1.20 
2.70 3.25 

Lady Wash 

Martin White 



.35 .40 
1.60 i',95 

3.50 3 95 

Mt. Diablo 


.... 3.26 

North BeiielEde.... 


Nev. Queen 

North G. & 













3.60 3.95 
i!90 6!25 

i:^ iire 

6.60 7i 


1.65 1,8! 
3.20 3.65 


2 00 2.25 


P. Sheridan 

Silver Star 

.65 .75 
i!05 i!60 

S.B. &M 

Sierra Nevada. 

2.75 3 25 
3 30 3.80 

Silver Kmg 



..» 1.00 
.65 .75 
.20 .75 

3.3) 3 8i 


7ellow Jacket 

1.40 1 551.40 
4.70 5.004.25 

1 5M.40 I.51) 
5.004 70 5.00 

Sales at San 

Thursday, July 

Prajioisoo Sto 

12,1888. 1 2f0 Cent 
.. 15cl 120 Goul 





rl *r 



.1,95 3U0 Grand Pr 
,1.60i 550 Hale a No 


t 7i 


2C0 Mexican. 
150 Mono.... 



.2 60 

200 N. Belle 1 
100 Nev. Que 
100 Overman. 
650 Oplilr.... 
860 Occidenta 

s 3.80 

en 6J 




Con 1.76 

120 ChaUeDse 

150 Con Va a Cal. 


200 Sava 
970 S. E 
200 aierr 

SM 3.06 

a Nevada 3.60 

400 Con. Imperial. 

220 ntah 

75 Union ... 




100 Yellow Ja* 



Reduction Works are to be constructed at 
National City, San Dtego county, and $30,000 
will be expended on the plant. The projectors 
claim they can handle $10 ore, and will begin 
Bmelting Sept. lat. They expect ore from 
Arizona, Lower California and San Diego 
county. The plant will be one of 50-ton 
capacity. __^ 

The 8teel cruiser Charleatown, the firat man- 
of-war ever built in a private yard on this coast, 
will be launched from the Union Iron Works 
shipyard on Thursday, Jnly 19th, at 7.30 p. m. 

Silver City, Sierra county, this State,_ is 
earning for itself the reputation of a very rich 
mining camp, 

The Lick Observatory— Illustrated and 


Tub Mining and Scientific Prbss of June 23, 1888, con 
tnins an elaborately illustrated description o( the Lick 
Observatory and all i^s appliances. The hifonnation 
given is very full m all dttails. There is a history of 
the Observatory from its inception, and a biographical 
sketch of tho founder, James Lick, with portrait. 

The description of the buildings includes the main 
buildinj,', library, dome tor the 12-inch eciuatorial, me- 
ridian circle-house, tianait-house, pbotograpbic labora- 
tory, dwelling-houses, water-supply, etc. 

Ihe infoimation is the latest and most complete for all 
who arc interested in this, the most complete observa- 
tory and largest telescope in the world. 

Extra copies containing the above In addition to the 
UEual weekly contents of the paper, embracing 32 pages, 
will be scut post paid for ten cents while the edition 
lastp. Dbwey & Co., Publiahers, 

220 Market St., S. F*. 

New York Metal Market. 

Telegraphic advices dated July 12th give the following 
New York prices; 

Bar Silvkr— 92ie per oz. 

BOKAX— 9c. 

COPPBR- Lake— 810.90 

Iron— No. 1,$22 00. 

Lead— »4.06@— 

Tin— S1H.50{<5 . 

The following is the latest by mail from the " New 
York Metal Exchange Market Report": 

Coppbr— Firm, spot closing at S16.50@16 05. Trans- 
ferable Notices (Lake) issued at S10.5Oti* . 

Lbad- Firm, at 64.021(rt4.07 spot. Transferable Notices 
Issued at $4.00. 

Tin— t/uiet at SlT-S^caiS-OO. 

Prices generally ruling for metals not regularly dealt 
in on call at the N. Y. Exchange, oovering extremes of 
buyers' and sellers' views. All prompt delivery. Aus- 
tralian Tin, @ ; Billiton Tin, @ ; 

Banca Tin. @ Baltimore Copper, SH.75@15.00; 

Orford Copper, $16.50@X7.76; P. S. C. Copper, @ 

; Foreif^n Lead, S4.50@4 60; Foreign Spelter, 

S5.00@6.10. Antimony, S10.12@13.30. 

Our Agents. 

Our Fribhds can do much in aid of our paper and the 

:au8e of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
i^gentfl in their labors of canvassing, by lending tbelr In- 
duence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

6. W. Imoallb— Arizona Territory. 

A. F. Jbwbtt- Tulare Co. 

C. K. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 

R. G. Huston— Montana Territory. 

Wm. Wilkinson- Butte and Tehama Co.'s. 

W. W. TiiROBALBS- Sonoma, Napa and Yolo Co.'s. 

F. B Logan- Placer Co and Nevada State. 

S. J. LiTiLFFiHLD— Santa B.irbara, Los Angeles and 
San Diego Co.'s. 

Mining and Scientific Piess. 

Tub Best Practical Mining Journal in tub World. 

Established in 1S60, this paper has been eminently 
successful as a popular and useful mining and mechanical 
journal. Relative to precious metals especially, it is the 
leading mining paper of the world. 

Subscription, S3 a year. Advertising rates, moderate. 
Send for samples and further information. 

It is largely patronized by the leading Miners, Mine 
Owners, Superintendents, Engineers, Metallurgists, Chem- 
ists, Manufacturers, Mechanics, Scientific, Professional 
and Industrial " Men of Progress" on the Pacific Coast" 
and many leaihng Mining Men throughout the mining 
fields of the world. 

It is by far the best advertising medium in the Pacific 
States and Territories for Mining, Mechanical, Engineering, 
Building and Manufacturing Tools and Implements 
Goods, Supplies, etc 

Being thoroughly able and reliable in its editorial and 
business management, and long established in the most 
progressive industrial portion of the Union, at present 
jts power as an advertising medium is unsurpassed. 
DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

XSO Market Street, San Frandsco- 

Jolt 14, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


A New i'Ai'ER Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's paieni 
elastic binder, for pcnodi- 
cals. musicand other primed 
shevis, is the handiest, and 
very cheapest of all fconom- 
ical and practical tile bind- 
ers. Newspapers aj e quick- 
ly placed in it (as received) 
and held neatly, as in a 
cloih-boucd book. It is 
durable, aod so simple a 
child can use iL Price (size 
of this paper, Harpt!r's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
Ace. Send for illustrated 
circular. Afifents wanted. 

j- .\. JoHNsciN, 307 Monlgomtry street (the Ne- 
vada Bank building) is the eeoeral agent of the Stiles 
quartz machinery, and offers easy terms for intro- 


Sock-ly. l>-26 CalltoniU et.— For the ImU-year an<lii)g 
June 30, 1&8S. ft dividend bu buen (Iccla'cd at the rate 
of (oorand one-b»lf (4l)pcr cent per annum on turni 
deposits, and thrm and three ijuartors (HJ) p«r cent per 
annum on orHinary dcpo«itd. I'ayablu on and after 
Uonday, July 2, ISSS. 

WU. HERRMANN, SecrcUo'. 

A. L. OTT, 

MaMactiiriBg Jeweler & DiamoDiI Setter, 

Abovo Montgomery, bet. Butjh and Sutter, San FranciBtx}. 

DoAgns and Estimates tornished on anpllcation. 

Practical Treatise on Hydraulic Mining. 

Bv AUG. J. BOWIE, Ja. 

This new and important book is on the use on*' con- 
struction of Ditches, Flumes, Dame, Pipes, Flow of Water 
on Ifea^7 Grades, methods of mining sliallow and deep 
placers, historj' and development of mines, records of 
^old woshiuKi mei^hanic-al appliances, such as nozzles, 
hurdy-jTurdys, rockers, undercurrenta, eta; also describes 
methods of blasting; tunnels and sluices; tailing's and 
dump; duty of miners' inch. etc. A very practical work 
for gold miners and users of water. Price, j5, post-paid. 
For sale by DtWBT & Co., Publishers, 252 Market St., San 


A half Interest in a gold bearing <(uartz mine, tituatoc' 
at UokcluMinv Hill, Calaveras County. Two ehaftv BUDk 
60 and 110 fttt. rv^pfctively; aUo a luvel run at the bot- 
tom of the 110 foot aliaft about 100 f«eL The ore bodv 
averigod three tttt alrung, and varied from 010 tu 1^ 
t<er ton. A tunnel \v\a iloi-u r^n 300 feet, and a tedgv 
has ti«on rtnick which b (oar feet in width. TbU ore 
will j l«ld «£ to >6 per ton. It ie only sixty feet frcni the 
surface. Toe object <>( tielllng the al)Ove-uanicd mtcrcst 
is to ulitain tiuniu rfS(.onhii<lc t-'arty, with ineaiiH, to sink 
a shaft ;iOO Icot, and run several drifts ali>ntr the ledge. 
The pre-eut ownerH c<.-&Bed oi'iratiunH for %vunt of work- 
ing capital. None but principals neul apply. The party 
purchasing must commt-nce oporations uitblri tblrty 
(lays from d«t« uf slguini; contract and work oontlnu- 
ou»ly and systematlcalls till tlio shaft Is compltted. It 
i« patented property. AddreFrt, 

No. 606 Battery St.. 8an Fraocleco. Cal. 

Incandescent & Arc Electric Lights. 

Electric Motor*. Iiyntmne, Tramcata. Ekvators, SiffDals and all kinds of Electrical Systems for linhtlng and 
w=.'uimiAsii>n of power, either direct or with btorage Batteries, 

For Mines, Hoisting Works, Mills, Reduction Works, 

Indoor and Outdoor Illumination of every kind. Gas, Oil and Candles su|>eniodel bj the 


The only romplete and satisfactory Inf^ndesrcnt svstem. Lights rcpiire no attention and are nmler coniplete con- 
trol. Over fiOO.Ooo lights in use in thu Vuitv<\ States SKUF-UfCGULAll N<} ARC LICBTS lurn nlgbt 
Into day and afford a mtans of ^'orkiiig V wlu'lc 24 huurs; Invalualile to coutracturs aiitl utJierit tu whom 
titue Is au object. Eetlinatos and ilcsigni on application. 

Offices and Showrooms, 323 PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 


American Railway Publishing Co. 


l-t'BLISIilKB or 

"The Street Railway Jonrnal," **The Ameri- 
can ilourual of Railway Appliances," 
" Power— Steam." 

Bkphrbbxtbd by 


115 Kearny St. (room s), San Francisco- 

idrThc best advertlslnj; medium in their lino in the 
world. Kates on application. 


Ores, Mining, and Commission, 

420 Montgomery St.. 8. F. 


UNION COPPER MINE. Calaveras Co.. 

Correspondent as Agent for Smelters in London, Li\er- 
pool, New York, Boston and Baltimore. 

Twenty years experience, in Calitornia, purchasing Ores 
and dealing in Mines. 

Special attention given to nianatroment and sales of 
mines and purchase and shipment of copper produce 


2 Triumph Concentrators. 

1 New 12-inch, 35 H. P. Engine. 


130 SanBomc St. room 12. 


DRAULIC GIANTS which we manufacture. We guarantee purchasers of this farm of Giants agninat all 
roBts, expenses or ilaniaecs which may arise from any a-iverse suits or action'^ at law. We are further prepared to 
furnish Slnj^ln-JolDted Giants when required. Prices, discounts and Catalogues of our specialties of Iiy- 
draallc Mining Machinery sent on application. 

JOSHUA HENOY MACHINE WORKS, 39 to 51 Fremont St., San Francisco. 


For MINE and MILL. 

For Circulara giving particilirs, send to 

40 Nevada Block, SAN FRANOISOO, OAL. 

*oi'tlj».-n ci , ^1-. 

Syclxi.037-, rj. js. -w. 


21 and 23 Frement Street, 










Westinghouse "Standard" and "Junior" Engines, Rocl< Drills and Air Compress- 
ors. Saw and Planing Mill Machinery, Machine Tools, Governors, 
Injectors, Oil Cups, and Lubricators. 


We are prepared to give estimates for Hoisting Works and Pumping Plants, Stamp Mills, 
Smelters and Concentrators. 


23- I^arlx. I»l£»,ce, ISTex^r "Srorli.. 

We are now so situated 
with our new work? as to 
offer to the mioerB of the 
Pacific Coast amall Air Com- 
pressinir Plants at auch 
prices that almost any email 
mine can afford to put in 
puwer drills if they have 
none in use. 

By our new and patented 
syatems (by which the duty 
or performancG of drilla is 
not reduced with use) it is 
no longer necessary to buy 
a Compressor of double ca-' 





RAND DRILLCo 23 Park Place iiEwYORK*i';i 

pacity than the drills are 
expected to require, in order 
to keep up the supply of air 
necessary on account of the 
wear of drills and com- 

Besides having the newest 
and lightest dustcutsd email 
drill planls, the Band Drill 
Company, as is well knowu, 
has built, and is now build- 
ing, the larireit Compressor 
I>laiit8 in thJB country, and 
has patterns foral' Bizesup to 
40-inch diameter of cylinder. 

In respect to capacity In speed of drriing, perhaps it is in order to aay that in every authoritative contest for 
speed J et initiatefJ, the Rand Drills have, without exception, been vjctorioua. This fact, coupled with another im- 
portant one, that the drilla use much les'» air and cause less repairs, has won for them nearly all of the Eastern 
milling trade, which has kept their works always busy. 

Since the reasons which formerly restrained us from the California market no longer exist, we are now 
in the field f>>r the business- 

^SPECIAL A ITENTION is called to the latest designed sectional Compressor just built for the Batopilaa 
mine in Mexico, and to the Compound Engine Compressor built for the Anaconda mine iu Montana. 

Dewey Engraving Company, 



Engravings made from photographs, drawings and oripnal designs, for newspaper, hook, card and job printing. 
Engraved prints enlarged or reduced, cheaply and quickly. Also copies of manuscript, legal documents, wills, 
contracts, signatures, portraits, buildings, machinery and printed documents reproduced with accuracy. Photo- 
graphs, stereoscopic viewa, etc., duplicated, enlarced or reduced. Slides for maciclanterna mad e froni photographs, 
itJiographs, and steel or wood engravings, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed. Agents wanted in all cities and in all 
towns. Address, for further information. Dbwet Engraving Co.. 220 Market St, San Francisco. 

First Preminm, Gold 

Medal, 1887, 




At Ibe Last Ueciianics' Fair Eiposition. 




FOR EVERY possiblf: duty. 

Compound Pumping' Engines for Water Works Service, Mining Pumps, Irrigating Pump^, Independent Air Pumps, and Oondensgrs for Station- 
ary Engines or Steam Pumps, Power Pumping Machinery, Improved Compound Air Compressors, etc,, etc. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jolt 14, 1888 




and others interested in 

Engineers' Tables of Progress 




Section 16x16 feet; Length 36 miles. 



For Catalogues, Estimates, Ettc. address: 




8 California St., and 21 Fremont St., 






UP TO 20,000 LBS. WEIGHT. 

True to pattern and superior in strengrth, toughness and durability to Oast or Wronffht 
Iron in any position or for any service. 

CHINERY CASTINGS of Every Description. 





ALSO Steel Rods, from } to 3 inch diameter and Flats trom 1 to S inch. Angles, Tees, Channels and other shape 
Steel Wagon, Buggy, and Truck Tires, Plow Steel; Machinery and Special Shape Steel to size and lengths 
STE£L RAILS from 12 to 45 pounds per yard. ALSO, Railroad and merchant Iron^ Rolled 
Beams, Angle, Channel, and T iron. Bridge and Machine Bolts, Lag Screws, Nuts, Washers, Ship and Boat 
Spikes; Steamboat Shafts, Cranks, Pistons, Connecting Rods, etc. ' Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, 
and Iron Forglngs of all kinds, Iron and Steel Bridge and Roof Work a Specialty. 

tS" Orders will have prompt attention. Send for Catalogues. Address 

PACIFIC ROLLING HILL CO., 202 Market St., San Francisco. 

Irop apd fflachipe tfork^. 

WM. H. BIRCH & CO., 


No. 119 Beale St., - - San Fraaclsco 


Steam Engines, Flour Mill, 

MlnlnGT, Saw Mill and 

Dredelns Macblnes 
Brodle Rock Crushers, 

Steam Power, Hydraulic, 

Side Walk and Hand-Power 
Hanufacturen of B. E. HenricksOD's Patent Automatic 
Safety Catches for Elevators. All kinds of machinery 
made and repaired. I^Ordbrs Solicitbd. 






Best and Cheapest in America. 

No imitation, no deception, no planished or rotten 
iron used. Only genuine Russia iron in Quartz Screens. 
Planished iron sLTeene at nearly half my former rates. 

I haie a large suoply of Battery Screens on hand 
suitable for the Huntington and all Stamp Mills, which I 
will aeli at 20 per rent discount. 


For Flour and Rice Milla, Grain Separators, Revolving 
and Shot Screens, Stamp Batteries and all kinds of Miu 
ing and Milling Machinery. Iron, Steel, Copper, Brass, 
Zinc and other metals punched for all uses. 
Inventor and Manufacturer of the celebrated Slot^Cut 
burred and Slot Punched screens. 
Mining Screens a specialty, from No. 1 to 15 (fine). 
Orders promptly attended to. 

San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works, 

%\. Si. 223 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

JOHN W. QUICK, Proprietor. 





j9£&xx X*xr<%3a.olfiioo. 



Propeller Engines, either High Pressure or Compound, 
Stern or Side-wheel Engines. 

MINING MACHINERY.— Hoisting Engines and 
Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore Cars, Pumping Engines 
and Pumps, Water Buckets, Pump Columns, Air Com- 
pressors, Air Receivers, Air Pipes. 

MILL. MACHINERY.-Batteries for Dry or Wet 
Crushing, Amalgamating Pans, Settl rs. Furnaces, Re- 
torts, Concentrators, Ore Feeders, Rock Breakers, Fur- 
naces lor Reducing Ores, Waier Jackets, etc. 

Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, Dredging 
Machinery, Powder Mill Machinery, Water Wheels. 

Tustin's Pulverizer 


Steam Engines, Boilers, 



Flouring Mills, Saw Mills and Quartz Mills Hachioery 

coDstructed, fitted up and repaired. 
B'ront St., bet. N & o Sts., Sacramento, Oal. 

Golden State & Miners Iron Works. 

lUacaActnre Iron Oastlnge and Machinery 
of all Kinds at Qreatly Bednced Bates. 


Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

nrst St.. betTreen Ho^Tard A Folsom. S. F 





129 and 131 Beale St., between Mission and Howard, S.F. 


C. K. ORTON. ■'. U. W1LLIAU8. 

"W llllc^XKXfii c£3 Ox-toxi, 

Works, No. 315 Mission St., San Francisco. 
Special attention given to Woodworking Machinery, 
Steam and Gas Engines. Correspondence solicited. 

Mining Engineers. 

Gives the highest efficiency of any Wheel in the world' 
and is everywhere recognized as the standard for high 
pressure service. 


From 12 to 20 per cent better remilts guaranteed than 

can be produced from any other Wheel in the countrv. 

It is not only most economical of water, but the most 

mple and reliable power for Quartz Mills, Hoistins, 

Pumping, or any other purpose where water power can 



Power from these Wheels can be transmitted by elec- 
tricity several miles with pmall loss^ and i>ade available 
for running Mills. Pumping and Hoisting Works, Tr^m 
cars, etc. Addrejs 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co., 




For Working 
Rock Drills, Coal Cutters, 
Hoisting Engines and Water 
Pumps in Mines and Tunnels, 
Sinking Caissons, Elevating 
Acids, Transmitting Natural 
Gas, Atomizing Petroleum, &c 
For Catalogues, Etc., address, 

Clayton Air Compressor Works, 



Either for use on Steamboats or for use on Land. 

Water Pipe, Pump or Air GoItuhiu, Fish 
Tanks for Salmon Canneries 


Boiler Repairs Promptly attended to and at vgry moaerate rates. 


I>©aj3.© Stefi/Xxx I*vun."K5. 


Corliss Engines and Tostin Ore PnlverlzerB. DBANE STEAM PUMP. 

Agents and Manufacturers of the Llewellyn Feed Water Purifier and Heater. 


Manufacture Three Kinds of Powder, wliich are acknowledged by all the Great Chemists of the World as 

The Safest and Strongest High Explosives in the Market. 

Of Different Strengths as Required. 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE," which contains 94 per cent of Nltro-Olycerlne, and 

GELATINE-DYNAMITE, Stronger than Dynamite and even Safer in Handling. 


rOR RAILROADS AND LAND CLEARING. Is from three to four times stronger than ordinary Blast- 
mg Powder, and is used by all the Railroads and Gravel Claims, as it breaks more ground, pulverizes better and 
saves time and money. It is as dry as the ordinary Blasting Powder and runs as freely. 




Inventor and Manufacturer of 


Contractor for the Construction of Electric Railways 


Plants for the Transmission and Distri- 
bution of Power by Means 
of Electricity. 

iarSend for Circulars giving particulars. 
Office, 40 Nevada Block, Saa FranclBCo, Oal. 
Factory, 11 «e 28 Stevenson St. 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer 


Mines, Hining Machinery & Snpplies. 

Mines Examined, Reports and Estimates Furnished. 
Contracts made, etc. 

Ofiaee, 237 First St., 

San Francisco, Oal. 

Practical, Civil, Mechanical and 
Mining Engineering, 

SnrYETiDg, ArcMtectEre, DrawiDg 


A gpecia'ty. Round, slot 
or burred slot holes. Gen- 
uioe Russia Iron, Homo- 
geneous Steel, Cast Steel or 
American planished Iron, 
Zinc, Copper or Br-sa Screens for all purposes. Cali- 
fornia Perforatinir Screen Co.. 145 & 147 Beale St , S. F. 


58 Market St.N.E. cor. Front (upstairs), San Frandsco 
Experimental machinery and all kinds of metal, tir 
copper and hraea. 


Manufacturers of 

Inserted Tooth 






Of all kinds made to order. Send for Descriptive Cata 
logue, 17 and 19 Fremont St., San Francisco. 

723 Market Street, 

The History Building, San Francisco. 

A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 

Assaying of Orefl, 825; Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 

$25; Blowpipe AsRay, SIO full course of assaying, $50. 

Send for circular. 


Civil and Mining Engineer, 

Address " Business Box A," office of this paper, San 


Mining and Hydraulic Engineer, 

Ko. 307 Sa^'somb St., Sa^i Francisco. 

Back Piles of the Mining and Scikntific Prr»8) un- 
bound) can be had for §3 per volume of six months. Per 
year (two volumes) S5. Inserted in Dewey's patent bin^i 
er, 50 cents additional per volume. 

July 14, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



NOTICE.— All our plates ftro guaranteed to havo 
the full weight of Bllvor agreed upon, and are tested bo 
fore leaving our worke. thereby avoiding the complaints 
about light weight, inado BO often before we started 
hi thit branch of industry. 






521 & 523 Market St., San Francisco, 


Assayers' and Mining Material. 



Agent tor HOSKINS' 


This Mill, with a weight of less than 9000 pounds, 

has a capacity equal to 30 stamps, reducing 

two and a half to three tons per hour 

of hard quartz to 40 mesh. 




And renewals will not coat over one-half as mnch as for stamps. The attention of parties hav- 
ing Cement Gravel is called to this Mill, as it will run 100 tons per day to No. 8 mesh. 

OUR. DRY MILLS are the most economical ever built, and are extensively used with 
record of several years. No grinding in pans. Mill finishes to any fineness desired. 


GIDEON FRISBEE, Manager, ... 461 Howard St., San Francisco 
HOOKER & LAWRENCE, Gen'l Ag'ts, 145 Broadway. New York. 

We have here the Stamp Mill in a cheap and simple form. The high drop of the old stamp 
is more than compensated for by the great weight {1200 Iba. each) of our stamps, and the ra- 
pidity {300 strokes each per minute) with which they run. There are 4 shoes in each stamp, so 
that there are €^00 strokes of the shoes on the dies per minute. Less power is required than in 
any other mill to do the same amount of work. 

The Mortar has screens at both ends, giving ample discharge. There are no cams or tap- 
pets to wear or be adjusted. The stamps adjust themselves as the shoes wear. 


Goes with each Mill. We also have a suitable 

Several Mills are now in the mines doing excellent work. The **Economin" is not only a 
mill for 8m^Il mines, but we believe it is destined to supersede the old stamp in mills of the 

LARGEST capacity. 



GtANT.S, with levo- attichnicrit, which we mariufficture. All similar styles are infringeraentg upon this form, 
and a jinl'tmeiit stands of record to that tffect, under a decision of Sawyer, Judge of the U. S. Circuit Court, in the 
case '■! 11 jndy and Fisher vs. 11. Hoskin et alg. 

Wc also manufacture the ^ingle-Joiutefl Giants. 

Prices and Cataloyues of Hydraulic Mioinj? Muchinery furniFhcd upon application. 


39 to 51 Premont St., San Francisco, Cal- 



— AND— 

Chrnine Cast Steel for 
Rock Dnllg Etc. 

1I> vniATINF. 

220 Fremont St., San Francisco, 


Special attention given to purchase of 


anteed to prove better and cheaper than any otheiB. 
Orders solicited, subject to above conditions. 



Manufacturers of MiniDg and Sawmill Machinery, Engines, Boilers, Etc. 





Tlie s'tatement of Mr Joshua Heiuly that ant style of machine i3 
infri'igement on any style mtnufa tured by him, he kno\^s to he abso 
lutelv false. The Supreme Court of the United States on March l!>th de- 
cided that the pretenried patent (or infringing, which he has for leara 
heen fleecing miners for royalty, is ausolutelt void, with (;ost3 of suit 
to Bendy & Kisher. I am the inventor of all styles in use, and am pre- 
pared to fill orders to suit customer?. Send for hstof prices of Hydrauhc 
Machinery. R. HO^aKJN, Empire Foundry, Marysville, Cal. 



1, 2, or 4 Drums, with Reversible Link 
Motion or Pat. Innproved Friction. 



96 Liberty St., New York. 





Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 14, 1888 




($575.00) DE'. O. 



OVER 1400 ARK NO^V IN USE. ConceDtrat'oDB are clean from the Srst working. The wear and 
tear are merely Domlnal. A machine can be Been in working order and ready to make teats at 3!i0 Fremont 
Street, San IPrauclsco. 

The Montana Company (Limited), Londok, October S, 1885. 
Dear Sirs : — Having tested three of your Frue Vanners in a competitive trial with other similar machines 
(Triumph), we have satisfied ourselves o( the superiority of your Vanners, as is evidenced hy the fact of our having 
ordoreci twenty more of your machines for immediate delivery. Yours truly, 

N. B.— Since the above was written the 20 Vanners having been started gave such satisfaction that 44 add 
tional Frues and more stamps have been purchased. ADAMS & CARTER. 

Protected by patents May 4, 1869; December 22, 1874; September 2, 1879; April 27, 1880; March 22, 1881; Febr 
ary 20, 1883; September 18, 1SS3. Patents applied for. 

ADAMS & CARTER, Agents Frue Vanning Machine Co., 

Room 7, No. 109 California street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




1 27 First St., San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 

New Xork Office, 145 Broadway. 


embracinff machinery ol LATEST DK-IGN and 
MOST IMPROVED conatruction. We offer our 
customers the BEST RESULTS OP 38 YEARS' 
work, and arc PREPARED to furnish the MOST 
DUCTION MACHINERY, adapted to all grades of 
ores and SUPERIOR to that of any other malce, at 

We are also prepared to CONST KUCT and DE- 
in any locality, MILLS, CONCENTRATION 

The Hazelton Boiler 

Is acknowledged by the most eminent Engineers in the 

country to he the greatest improvement that has 

ever been made in a Steam Generator. 


A Saving in Fuel of at Least 20 per cent Guaranteed 
over any other form of Boiler. 



Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coast, 


WM. H. TAYLOR, President. 

R. S. MOORE, Superintendent. 

L. R. MEAD, Secretary. 


Location of Works. S. E. 

Manufacturers and Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast for 



.Cor. Beale and Howard Sts., San Francisco. 

Has the Following Advantages: 


60,000 Hone Power now in use. 

Boilers can be seen workinjr in San Francisco at Pr,lace Hotel, Spring Valley Water Worffs 
Hueter Bros. & Co., Galiiortiia Jute Mills, and other places. 

Guaranteed OCore Efficient than any other Boiler made. 

:^xtxj:jX>x::ei.j5 os* 

QUARTZ MILLS— Gold and Silver, Copper and Lead Smelting Worka, RoaatiDg Furnaces jf all kinds. 
AIR COMPRESSORS— Rope Power Tranemiasion. 

HYDRAULIC PUMPING and Hoiafcin? Machinery. ' , 

WKOUGHT-IRON WATER PIPE a Specialty. Notb. — Have just completed order lor SB miles of 44-Inch 

pipe of i-inch iron for Spring Valley Water Works Company, San Francisco. 
SAW-MILL MACHINERY of all kinds. 

8TJEAM ENGINES— Corliss, Slide- Valve, Poppet Valve Automatic, Single, and Compound. 
SOLE MANUFACTURERS for Pacific Coast ol the Celebrated "Heine" Patent Safety Boiler (Water Tube); 

60,000 horae power now in use. 
MACBETH PATENT STEEL-RIM PULLEYS— Fifty per cent lighter and 25 per cent cheaper than iJtst- 

iron pulleys; will not break in transportation. 

REFRIGERATING MACHINERY for Steamships, Breweries, and Cellarp. 


STEAM BOILERS of all descriptions. 

SUGAR MACHINERY— Sugar MCls, Vacuum Pans, Olariflera, Double Effects, etc 

STEAMSHIPS— Steam Yachts, Marine Engines and Boilers^ Screw Propellers, Centrifugal Pumps, Steamship 

Pumps, Steam Capstans, Cargo Winches, eta 
i^Buildera of 120-stamp Gold Mill for the Alaska Mill and Mining Company; 60-atamp Mill for Quartz Mountain 

Mining Company. 

Send for Clrcnlar and Price Llstn. 



Silver-Plated Amalgamating Plates 


At reduced rates. Get our prices. Three thousand orders filled. Fifteen medals awarded. Our plates have proved the best, 
and far superior to others in weight of silver and durab'lity. Old mining plates replated. These plates can also be 
purchased of JOHN TAYLOR & CO., cor. First and Mission Sts. 


E. «. DBNNISTON, Proprietor. 653 & 665 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

NOTICE.— Our Silred Plated Plates have always proved as represented. We have been manufacturing them for 20 years, 
and use only the best Lake Supciior Copper and Refined Silver. Comparing our pLtes with those of other manufacturers, 
after repeated tests, wo can safely guarantee much better plates for the same money. Our plates are uacd by all the promin- 
ent milling men on the Pacific Coast. fc.ENl> bOA CIRCULAR. 



CentrUugsl Boiler Qnartz UiU, 

Centrifugal Roller Quartz Mills, 


Mining IVIachlnery of Every Description, 




' . ' . ' . ' . ' n ' » ' " ' « ' '^ « ' • ' ' ' ' ' » ' • ' . ' . ' » ' « ' » ' . ' . ' . ' « ' . ' . > 

An lllustrst$i S&mmsi of Mlalag, P®pwl9F &§l 




Number 3. 

The Cruiser "Charleston." 

A GovernmeDt Vessel Built In California. 
Od thia page is an eograviog of tbe U. S. 
Cruiaer ** Charleston,'* aa she will appear when 
oompleted. Thia ebip is the Brat ateel manof- 
war ever built on thia coast by private enter- 
priae, and her launch occara to-day (Tfauraday) 
from the yard of tbe Union Iron Worha, at the 
Potrero. The hull is completed, but the voBsel 
baa yet to receive her propellera, armament 
and maobinery. She ta laanched now in order 

screws. The stem, etern-post, rudder and shaft 
tabes and brackets are of cast steel. The re- 
mainder of the TCBsel ia of wrought or rolled 
steel. The outiide plating is 7-16 to ^ inch in 
thickness, the inner bottom plating \ to 5 16 of 
an inch, the shear strokes ^ to i inch. 

The conning tower is on the forward ridge, 
and is two inches thick on tbe sides with a 
three-quarter inch top. 

All the steel used in the oonatruotion of the 
hull and all for tbe engines (except the crank 
and line shafts, wbicb were made by Krupp, at 

The propellers are 14 feet diameter, made en- 
tirely of manganese bronze. Tbebuba are held 
to the abaft by big nuts, over which acrew 
pointed bronze caps, giving a very fioisbed ap- 
pearance. Three blades are strongly secured 
to each hub in auch a manner that the required 
pitch, 18^ feet, may be changed if necessary, to 
any desirable pitch. 

Her boilers and machinery will be placed in 
the lower or protected deck, below the water- 
line. The other two decks will be used as store- 
rooms, sleeping-room a and the like. 

one each. Every room in the vessel will be 
ventilated by artificial means. 

The armament will consist of two eight-inch 
breech-loading rifles, one forward and one aft; 
weight, 28,000 pounds. The charge of powder 
will be 125 pounds, the shell will be 250 pounds 
and the range about eight and one-half miles. 
The penetration at 1000 yards is 15.1 inches, 
wrought iron; the penetration at 2000 yards is 
13.6 inches, wrought iron. 

Six six-inch, mounted in broadside; weight, 
11,000 pounds; charge, 50 pounds; shell, 100 


to make room for another cruiser for which the 
same works have a contract. 

This fine specimen of naval architecture is 
no experiment, two vessels of simiUr design hav- 
ing been previously constructed. One of them 
was the Chilian cruiaer Esmeralda, the other 
the Naniwa Kan, built for the Japanese Gov- 
ernment. This latter ship was used for a guide 
when the Charleston was designed. The con- 
tract for building the Charleston was signed 
December 26, 1886, and the cost of the hull 
and machinery was to be §1,017,000. Owing 
to delay in obtaining the steel plates, the keel 
plate was not laid until August 27 th of last 
year, though much of the steel angles, bars, 
etc., were prepared here in readiness for the 

The following are the principal dimensions of 
the Charleston: Length over all, 320 feet; 
length between perpendiculars, 300 feet; ex* 
treme breadth, 46 feet; depth, 34 feet; draught 
of water forward, llh feet, aft, 19\ feet; mean 
draught, 18^ feet; displacement, 3730 tons. 
She is built entirely of steel and has twin 

is of domestic manufacture, known as 
mild steel, made by the open-hearth process. 

The vessel has a steel ram projectipg six feet 
ahead of the perpendicular line of the bow. 
The stem weighs 13,000 pounds, and the steel 
stern-post weighs 11,000 pounds, and were both 
made in this State. 

There are two main engines; they are com- 
pound and direct-acting, with a high -pressure 
cylinder of 44 inches in diameter and & low. 
pressure cylinder of 85 inches in diameter, both 
cylinders being inclined a little from the hor- 
izontal. The engines weigh about 50 tons 
apiece, and are supported by a rigid foundation 
built up from the inner bottom and calculated 
to reduce vibration to a minimum. The stroke 
of the pistons is 36 inches, and the maximum 
power is to be obtained with 90 ponnds of 
steam in the boilers. 

There are six main boilers, three in either 
boiler-room; those in the forward room are 11 
feet in diameter and 19 feet 3 inches long; 
those in the after, 11 feet 6 inches in diameter 
and of the same length. 

For the greater part of the ship's length, 
running parallel with the bottom plaiting up to 
three feet above the bilge-keels, is the inner 
bottom; between the two bottoms is a space 
varying from 36 inches deep in the middle to 27 
inches at the sides, perfectly watsr^tight and 
subdivided into 11 water-tight compartments, 
to which entrance, if necessary, is had through 
manholes closed with brass doors. By a sys- 
tem of piping, as many of these compartments 
a>s desired may be flooded with water, thereby 
sinking the ship further bslow the surface. 

There are 29 different water-tight compart- 
ments on the protective deck, which is also 
made water-tight, so that if in action water is 
let into one, or if several of them are knocked 
into one, the ship will still float. 

The Charleston will be lighted throughout 
with incandescent lamps. Two independent 
dynamos, with a light-producing capacity of 
3200 candle-power each, will be provided, one 
to be used in case of accident to the other. 
There will be about 400 lights, even the Catling 
gun btjitions at the mastheads being fitted with 

pounds; penetration at 1000 yards, 10.8 inches, 
wrought iron. 

Secondary battery — Two Catling guns; four 
six-pounders, Hotchkiss rapid-flring guns, pene- 
tration, ateel plate at point blank, 5,1 inches; 
two three-poundera, Hotchkiss rapid-firing 
guns, three inchee; one one-pounder, Hotchkiss 
rapid-firing guns, 2.87 inches; four 37 mm. {1.45 
inches), revolver cannon, projectile weighs 1.87 

The work done on this vessel by the Union 
Iron Works is greatly to their credit and must 
redound to the benefit of the industrial inter- 
ests of California. It was not thought that facil- 
ities for such work existed on this coast until 
the Union Iron Works put in their bid. The 
proprietors of these works have shown in a 
practical manner that we are able to compete 
with the East in an important branch of indus- 
try. It is expected that in about five months 
the Charleston will be ready to make her trial 
trip. As the launch occurs after we go to 
press, we can give no description of it nntil 
next week. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdlt 21, 1888 


We admit, unindorsed, opinioDS of correspondent3.-EDS. 

Debris Dams. 

Editors Press : — Touching the subject of 
debris dams, it may be that some of your read- 
ers do not quite understand the proposition. 

It is conceded that not the coarse sand and 
finer gravel, and much less the coarse gravel, 
which scarcely reaches the rivers in any case, 
but the fine silt and mud (slickens), constitute 
the chiefly objectionable element of mine debris. 
It is also conceded that a reservoir to retain 
the slickens, so that the water may become as 
clear as is required, would of neceesity be of 
very large area and of great depth, so that it 
would have the dangerous elements of a water 
reservoir; that is to say, an immense volume of 
water and heavy pressure on the dam. It may 
also be allowed that an extensive accumulation 
of any kind of loose material in the channel of 
a mountain river would be objectionable be- 
cause, although such accumulation might be 
confined to the coarser sand and gravel, which 
may be retained without any great or danger- 
ous depth of water, and therefore without great 
hydraulic pressure on the dam, by the simple 
expedient of raising the dam and the outlet only 
as required from time to time, allowing the 
muddy water and suspended silt to pass ofi"; 
yet, in the channel of a river which is exposed 
to heavy freshets, as are all of our mountain 
rivers, the occurrence of such a freshet, which 
no artificial outlet could accommodate, would 
endanger the integrity of any dam which it 
would be feasible to build for the purpose. If 
the dam should give way, although the result 
would not be such a deluge as would occur in 
the case of a large reservoir of water, yet the 
accumulated sand and gravel would be 
*' ground-sluiced " out by the continued torrent, 
and the object and purpose of the dam wou?d 
be defeated. 

But the idea of sensible thinkers on this sub- 
ject is, neither to retain all the slickens by 
means of artificial reservoirs, nor to obstruct 
the channels of mountain rivers by retaining 
the coarser material therein. 

The plan which may be feasible, which is 
surely possible, in some cases at least, and 
which therefore ought to be investigated by 
competent engineers, is to conduct the water 
and tailings into such natural or artificial (as 
worked-out hydraulic mines, etc.) hollows, 
ravines or basins as may be adapted to the pur- 
pose by means of dams and outlets to be raised 
periodically as required, and which are not 
exposed to freshets of sufficient force to endan- 
ger the dams; there to retain the coarser sand 
and the gravel, and then to conduct the over- 
flow, carrying the silt, etc., by means of canals 
and flumes when required to the tule basins or 
other low-lying lands which would be benefit- 
ed by an accretion of from 2 to 20 or more feet 
of material which experience has proved to 
form an excellent quality of arable land. In 
some cases it might be necessary to throw up 
levees on one or more sides of such low tracts, 
but this would not be required for the tule bot- 

Any flames which might be needed for the 
conveyance of the coarser material to a place of 
deposit would, if propeily constructed, pay for 
themselves by retaining a quantity of gold 
which the continued washing would release 
from imperfectly disintegrated cement and 
gravel, and the attrition of auriferous stones. 

There in the valleys are immense tracts of 
veritable, not merely technical, "swamps and 
overflowed land," and other large areas of near- 
ly barren mesa, to which the advent of this 
mud-laden water would be as the annual over- 
flow of the Nile to the otherwise barren regions 
through which that river flows; and here are 
mountains of earth, with money in their pock- 
ets, so to speak, to reward the enterprise which 
shall put them where they will do the most 
good, and with untold and incalculable potency 
for productiveness, locked in their '* molecular 
constitution," which only awaits the advent of 
a favorable environment to develop a fertility 
equal to that of the river bottoms, which are 
nothing but the slickens of Nature's hydraulics. 

Here is an engineering proposition with pay 
at both ends, or at least with probable proflc at 
the first and a certain remuneration at the last. 
And there sits supreme authority (!) and from 
out the folds of the judicial ermine solemnly 
proclaims an impossible impoasibiUty ! 

I say it is impossible that it should be impos- 
sible to do this thing ! 

The engineers of England and France stand 
ready to bridge or tunnel the British channel. 
De Lesseps is cutting the western hemisphere in 
twain; the Suez canal, once declared "impos- 
sible." has long been an accomplished fact. 
Hundreds of triumphs of engineering skill at- 
test the possibility of impossibilities; and 
shall American skill, courage and capital recoil 
from a simple question of ditching ? 

Whether such a work would pay or not is 
not the present question. I believe it would, 
in the long run, it not immediately, but I opine 
it is not within the province of the courts to 
pronounce on this matter, which concerns 
■ rather those who might be willing to take the 
risk, and I feel sure that, if not we, our poster- 
ity will find some way in which to reconcile 
the seemingly antagonistic interests of the 
mountains and the valleys. 

July, 1SS8. 0. H, Aaron. 

Amador County Mines. 

The Zeile Mine. 
Kditors Press: — This mine keeps constantly 
in motion and is the life of Jackson, employing 
a large force of men. The mill of 40 stamps 
puts through about 100 to 125 tons of ore per 
day. Some seven or eight years ago when the 
present superintendent came in there the mine 
was largely in debt and the ore being of so low 
a grade the outlook was almost discouraging 
enough to close down the works. Bat since 
then Mr. Deters has not only made it pay, but 
the indebtedness was all paid up very shortly, 
and now there can be no question as to its 
future permanency. 

The Amador Gold-Mlnicg Compatiy, 
Between Butte City and Jackson, has arranged 
for and is just about starting to build a 40* 
stamp mill. The contract has been given out 
and this company will, ere long, be another to 
add to the wealth of not only the county but 
also the State, as they have some five ledges, 
all of which have been thoroughly prospected, 
justifying them in the large undertaking they 
nave entered upon. This will give employment 
to a large number of men and materially add 
to the output of gold for this district. The 
property, we believe, is owned principally by 
Jno. J. Minear. 

The Amador Reduction Works 
At Sutter Creek are now in full blast, receiving 
sulphurets from not only this county but from 
various other adjoining counties for reduction 
and treatment. They have a complete plant 
quite equal to the best. This company also 
purchases sulphurets from parties who prefer to 
sell by sample and realize ready cash. 

The Boston Mill and Mininflt Company. 

This company having suspended operations 
for a long time past on account of litigation, is, 
we understand, on the eve of an adjustment 
that will shortly, it is to be hoped, plaoe them 
in position to again come to the front and soon 
be numbered among the gold-producers of the 

The Sutter Creek foundry is in full opera- 
tion, turning out mining machinery for the 
mines throughout this and the adjoining conn- 

The Spring Hill mine, under the able man- 
agement of John H. Tregloan, is in full running 
order, 30 Etamps continuously going, water 
abundant, and everything about in a prosperous 
condition. The ore, like most on the lead, is of 
low grade. 

The Keystone mine and mill is running the 
full complement of stamps, 40 in number, and 
employing about 100 men. This is one of the 
permanent mines of the county, and under the 
management of Mr. 0. C. Hernett as superin- 

The "Wlldman Mine 
At Sutter Creek is now down about 500 feet. 
They have just put in a new pump, and are 
running ten stamps. The ore pays from about 
.32.50 to @10 per ton. It is the intention of the 
owners, very shortly, to erect an additional ten 
stamps, making 20 iu all. They have excellent 
hoisting works, and have a water pressure of 
450 feet for power purposes. 

The Bunker Hill Mine, 
Just below Amador City, with Mr. Parker as 
superintendent, is getting out large quantities 
of ore, and transporting it to mill some dis- 
tance below, requiring two mules to bring back 
return cars, which held about three tons each 
when full. This ledge is a very large one, and 
although of very low grade, yet leaves a large 
margin for profit over and above expenses. It 
is surprising how cheaply ores can be mined 
and milled with proper facilities for hand- 
ling. It is now well understood among practi- 
cal mining and millmen that where large bodies 
of regular pay ore occur, with advantageous 
handling and sufficient milling facilities, ores 
that pay only as low as SI per ton can be 
mined and milled to a profit, as not only this 
but other counties adjicent have practically 

The Mahoney Mine 
Is now lying idle, although it is considered a 
most excellent property. The three brothers 
Mahoney all took out a fortune each from this 
mine, and it was perhaps a misfortune that they 
did, for it led them into dissipation, which has 
ended the days of all of theui, the last surviv- 
ing one having been buried only a few days ago. 

The Gover Mine and Mill 
Of 40 stamps is pounding out reck constantly, 
which is paying from $9 to S13 per ton. This, 
considering the size of the ledge, is an exceed- 
ingly valuable mine. We hear that a purchaser 
made an oflfer for it fully equal to the price 
asked only a short time since, but the owners 
refused to sell, thinking its value increased much 
more than double. The 

Potosl Mine, 
Near Drytown, has shut down on account of 
want of water, but we hear they will soon add 
20 stamps to the mill, making 40 in all. They 
will also arrange to bring in a water supply 
for all purposes required. 

Plymouth Mines and Mille. 
This pretty little mountain town, only a 
short time since so flourishing and lively, is now 
almost dead, the cause being the closing 
down of the Empire and Pacific mines and 
mills. _ This was caused by the fire in one of 
the mines some months ago. but which has 
been put out long ere this not only by flooding | 

with water, bat also from the introduction of 
gaees that would smother it. 

Now, there seems to hang a mystery about 
the closing up, for there is no concealing the 
fact that the mines are most excellent paying 
properties and can and will continue to be so 
for an age to come. The question is in every- 
body's mouth: What does it mean? Yet none 
can answer; none can solve the problem. The 
universal dullness caused by this closing down 
is manifested everywhere around the vicinity, 
for money is scarce and credit is at a discount. 
The ranchers around have no money, nor can 
they support the town. What will be the out^ 
come none can tell but the owners, and they 

This brings to memory the famous Seaton 
mine, only about four miles distant, owned also 
by one of the same parties. This property has 
lain idle for some few years past, yet every- 
body knows it is as good as any in the county, 
but the owner will not work it himself or let 
any one else. 

The ditches and reservoirs have been permit- 
ted to go to ruin and become filled up and 
broken down, though they could have been 
utilized by ranchers for irrigating purposes, if 
no other. Yet all seems to have been permit- 
ted to go to destruction together, all cf which 
is as mysterious as the other. 

This shows the great importance of the min- 
ing industry of the State and the fostering of 
the same. Stoppage of the work means ruin to 
the'district. Even when temporary, it takes a 
long time to recover from the effects, and is 
greatly to be deplored, under any circum- 
stances. W. A. K. 

The Stewart ffliniug Bill. 

The Proposed Changes In the Law. 

In the last number of the Press we published 
a letter from Hon. W. M. Stewart of Nevada, 
in which he states that it is not probable that 
the qnining bill will become a law at this session 
of Congress. In answer to our request he has 
sent us a complete copy of the bill as it passed 
the Senate. As the matter is of importance to 
miners, we here republish, from last week's 
Press, Senator Stewart's letter, and append the 
h\\ in full. It should be kept for reference by 
all interested in the subject. 

United States Senate, 

Washington, June 30, 18S8 _ 

Editor " Mining and Scientific Press " — Deah 
Sir :— Oa my return from Chicago I found your 
favor of the 8 th inst. Inclosed I send you a 
copy of the mining bill introduced by me as it 
passed the Senate. It is still pending iu the 
House Committee on Mines and Mining. I do 
not know what action the committee proposes 
to take on it during the present session. It may 
be amended in some particulars. I have rC' 
ceived many letters from mining men suggest 
ing amendments to the bill, and I may submit 
some of them to the House Committee. A sug- 
gestion in a letter I have just received from 
Eureka, Nevada, seems worthy of consideration 
It is to the following effect : If the same per- 
son, corporation or association own several 
claims which combined do not exceed 1500 feet 
in length by 600 feet in width, the owner may 
make a relocation of the same and obtain a 
patent therefor in one application, provided ad' 
verse rights are not affected thereby. 

I have not pressed the bill in any haste; there 
is no difficulty iu passing it when perfected 
My anxiety has baen, and still is, to have the 
bill when passed remedy the defects which have 
been diaoovered by experience under existing 
laws. Any suggestions, therefore, in regard to 
the bill are very welcome. Yours truly, 

Wm. M. Stewart, 
A Bill 

To amend Chapter six of Title thirty-two of the 
Revised Statutes, relating to mineral lands and 
mining resources. 

Bf it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa 
tivesoftlie United States of America i» Congress 
assembled, that section twenty-tkree hundred and 
nineteen of the Revised Statutes be aynended by adding 
thereto the following: 

" But no person shall acquire, by location or 
possession, more than one mining claim on the same 
vein, nor shall any person relocaie a claim which he 
has previously located." 

Sec. 2. fhat section twenty-three hnndrsd and 
twenty four of the Revised Statutes be amended so 
to reaA: 

"Sec. 2324. The miners of each mining district 
may make regulations, not in conflict with the laws 
of the United States, or with tbe laws of the State 
or Territory in which the district is situated, govern- 
ing the location, manner of recording amount of 
work necessary to hold possession ofa miniDgc'aim, 
subject to the following requirements: The location 
must be distinctly marked on the ground so that its 
boundaries can be readily traced. All records of 
mining claims hereafter made shall contain the name 
or names of the locators, the date of the location, 
and such a description of the claim or claims located 
as will identify the claim. On each claim located 
after the tenth day of May, eighteen hundred and 
seveniy-two, and until a certificate of entry has been 
issued therefor, not less than one hundred dollars' 
worth oflabor shall be performed or improvements 
made during each year. On all claims located prior to 
the tenth day of May. eighteen hundred, and seventy- 
two, ten dollars' worth of labor shall be performed 
or improvements made during each yeai;, for each 
one hundred feet in length along the vtin until a 
certificate of entry has &),''en issued therefo^; and for 
each twenty acres <s,\ placer claims, and for each sub- 
division thereof l^&s than twenty acres, fifty dollars' 
worth of !^lQor shall be performed or improvements 
made during each year until a cenifica^te of e.t^trv 

shall be issued therefor. The period within which 
the annual work required to be done by this section 
shall commence at twelve o'clock meridian on the 
first day of August of each year: Provided, That 
upon claims already located previous to the first day 
of March in any year the annual work shall be per- 
formed on such claim for that year prior to twelve 
o'clock meridian of the first day of August next sue* 
ceeding And the time for performing annual work 
on claims heretofore located is hereby extended to 
the first day of August at twelve o'clock meridian. 
When the labor required by this sect'on shall haVe 
been performed or the improvements made, ah 
affidavit shall be filed with the officer '^authorized to 
record deeds in the county in which the mine is 
situated, particularly describing the labor performed 
and improvements made, and the value thereof, 
which affidavit shall be j*/-2W?(2 /(?£:/> evidence of the 
facts therein stated. And upon a failure to comply 
with these conditions, the claim or mine upon which 
such failure occurred shall be open to relocation in 
the same manner as if no location of the same had 
ever been made: Provided, That the original 
locators, their heirs, assigns, or legal representatives, 
do not resume work upon the claim after such failure 
and before such location, and continue the same 
with reasonable diligence until the required amount 
of labor shall have been performed or improvements 
made. Upon the failure of any one of several co- 
owners to contribute his proportion of the expendi" 
tures required hereby, the co-oWners who have per- 
formed the labor or made the improvement may, at 
the e.Vpiration of the year, give such delinquent co- 
owner personal notice in writing or notice by publi- 
cation in the newspaper published nearest the claim, 
forat least once a week for ninety days, and if at the 
expiration of ninety days after such notice in writing 
or by publication, such delinquent shall fail or refuse 
to contribute his proportion of the expenditure re- 
quired by this section, his interest in the claim shall 
become the property of his co-owners who have 
made the required expenditures, and such co-owner 
may relocate such individual interest in his own 
name. When a person or company has or may run 
a tunnel for the purposes of developing a lode, owned 
by said person or company, the money so expended 
in said tunnel sh^ll be tiken and considered as ex- 
pended on said lode, and such person or company 
shall not be required to perform labor or make im- 
provements on the surface of said lode in order to 
hold the same.'" 

Sec. J". Thai section twenty-three hundred and 
iiocntyfivc of the Revised Statutes be amended by add- 
ing thereto the following: 

** But no more than three thousand feet in length 
along the vein of claims located prior to the tenth 
day of May, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, and 
not mors than one claim located after said date shall 
be included in the same application for a patent, 
and not more than one hundred and sixty acres of 
placer ground shall be included in the same appli- 
cation for a patent." 

Sec. 4. That section twenty-three hundred and 
ih irty-five of the Revised Statutes be amended so as to 

"Sec. 2335. All afl^davits required to be made 
under this chapter may be verified before any cfTicet 
authorized to administer oaths in any St-ite or Terri- 
tory of the United States or in the District of Colum- 
bia, and all testimony and p''oofs may be taken be- 
fore any such officer, and, when duly certified by the 
officer taking the same, shall have the same force 
and efF ct an if taken before the register and receiver 
of the land office. In cases of contest as to the 
mineral or agricultural character of land, the testi- 
mony and proofs may be taken, under such regu- 
lations as the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office may prescribe." 

Sec. J. Amend section twenty-three hundred and 
thirty-eight of the Revised Statutes so as to read: 

*' SEC. 2338. As a cond tion of sale, each patent 
shall reserve the right of way throngh or over any 
mining claim for roads, ditches, canals, cuts and 
tunnels, for the purpose of working other mines: 
Provided, That any damages occasioned thereby 
shall be asses*;ed and paid in the m inner provided 
by the laws of the State or Territory in which such 
mine is situated for assessments and pnyments for 
land laken for public use under the right of eminent 
domain. And the rights and easements reserved 
under the provisions of this section in patents here- 
tofore issued shall be regulated and made available 
as herein prescribed,'' 

Quicksilver Ores in Mexico. 

By the courtesy of the officials of the State 
Mining Bureau we are permitted to publish the 
appended letter from Jno. W. C. Maxwell. 
This gentleman has presented to the Bureau 
several interesting specimens of quicksilver 
ores, among which were two specimens of 
Livingstonite {a sulph-antimonide of mer- 
cury) from Mexico, and accompanied the same 
by the letter to the State Mineralogist, which 
tve here publish: 

Wm. Irdan, Jr., Esq., StaU Mineralogist of 
California, San Francisco — Dear Sir : The 
specimens of quicksilver ores herewith pre- 
sented to the State Mining Bureau are selec- 
tions from among a number of samples I had 
occasion to take recently in an examination of 
mines of thia metal in the Republic of Mexico. 

While but two of the specimens differ ma- 
terially from the general character of ores of 
this metal produced by the mines of California,, 
those from the mine of Santa Rosa, located on 
the line dividing the States of Mexico and 
Morelos, possess an especial value from a hie*, 
toric point of view. The mining literature oL 
Mexico accredits this property with having 
be^n the first producer of quicksilver in that 
cDfl,ntry, if not on this continent. Certain it is,' 
however, that as early as the year 171S, it was 
in operation, for by a "Oedula" (an order of the 
Spanish sovereign) dated at San Lorenzo, July 
dth of that year, directed to the **presidente 
and oydores of tbe andiencia of the City of 
Mexico, in the province of New Spain," D. 
Juan Joseph de Veitia was commanded to 
*cloBe and, destroy the works and mines or 

Jdly 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


veiDi of qoicksilTer discovered io the vicinity 
of the city of Caernavaca, diataot '25 leagues 
•oath of the City of Mexico." This is the ooly 
mine of thftt metal in the vioioity meDtioned. 
It is now known as the Sinta Rosa miue, and 
three of the 8[>ecimena sent you came from this 
property. The antiquity of the work done here 
is evidenced by the fact that the old openings 
to the underground workings are overgrown 
with rank vegetable matter* io some oases 
reaching the dignity of tree size. The interior 
mcuonrtf supports of the mine are in an excel- 
lent ooDditiou, though showiog oigoi of age. 

U is donbtleas a well-known f»at that every 
effort was made by the authorities of Spain to 

grevent the development of such industries in 
er colonial provinces as would secure to those 
provinces a measure of independence of the pa- 
rent government. In the case already cited, 
we find the evidence that the production of 
quioksilver was one of the prohibited industries, 
and that evidence was emphasized by a repeti- 
tion of the ** Cedula" of July 5, 17 IS, under date 
of Nov. 24, ll'M. Again in 1745 a similar or- 
der was issued prohibiting the working cf mioes 
of this ore in Tioos. We find, too, in the " Or 
denaozas de Mineria," Article 22 of Title VI, 
that while "the free discovery and denounce' 
meot of quicksilver mines is permitttrd," "the 
sovereign reserves, always the right to work 
them for its own account." In view of such 
prohibitions and reservations, we can, of course, 
find a reasonable apology for the ineigniticant 
interest which ba^, heretofore, found invest 
ment in this branch of the mining iodustry of 
Mexico. It m.iy possibly be ankcd why such 
restrictions were imposed upon the working of 
quicksilver mines, but the answer ia simple 
The Spanish mines of Almaden, the property of 
the Crown, were then, as now, the largest pro 
duoers of this metal in the world, white the 
Spanish provinces in America were the Urgest 
consumers. It was naturally sought to protect 
this field of consumption, and compel labor to 
investment in that channel which promised the 
largest return io royalty. This was obtained 
from the working of gold and silver mines. 
The revenue derived from this colonial iodastry, 
as is well known, was for a long period the 
main Snanoial support of Spanish grandeur and 

In view of the hostile rfotrictions imposed 
npoD quicksilver mining in Mexico during the 
period cf its colonial condition, it is not sur- 
prising that this iodoBtry was finally absolutely 
suppressed and abandoned. 

Interest in this direction was not again re- 
vived until some time after Mexico had in the 
early part of the present century freed herself 
of the yoke of Spanish domination; then some 
feeble effort was made to develop mines cf 
qnicksilver. How successful these efforts 
proved we may infer from the fact that the new 
Government sought to foster them by offers of 
special rewards, even as late as the year 1S43. 
A " decree " was issued that year by the 
** Minister of KeUciones" bestowing a reward 
of $25,000 upon each of the first four producers 
of 2000 quintals (equal to 200,000 poundu) of 
quicksilver in any one year from any mine io 
Mexico — freeing the works and product from 
taxes of every kind and exempting the oper- 
atives and workmen from the performance of 
military service and the payment of personal 
taxes. The records of the "D^pirtment ot 
Fomento " show that the mines of QaadalcaZir, 
in the State of San Luis Potosi, tell heir to 
$25,000, but are silent as to any other. These 
mines are still in operation, but it is stated that 
their output of metal at this time does not ex- 
ceed 50 quintals per month, and that their con- 
dition and prospects are most unsatisfactory. 

The mines of Huitzuco, in the State of 
Guerrero, are to-day undoubtedly the largest 
producers of quicksilver in the Republic of 
Mexico, and I was informed by their owner, D. 
MeRomero Rubio, Secretary of State of the 
Mexican Government, that the yield for the 
month of May last was 500 fiiaks. The ores 
from this mine, of which you have specimens, 
are marked by many peculiarities of mechanical 
structure and chemical combination. One of 
the specimens is practically an ore of antimony, 
but as it yields largely in quicksilver it is 
treated exclusively for the latter metal. Youis 
truly, Jxo. W. C. Maxwell. 

The Russell Process. 

[Continued Jrom our Last ) 

O.— The Beet Aneay Office Leaohlns Meth- 
ods by the Bxtra Solution for Varloue 
Roanted Ores, and the Reeulta Obtained. 
1*abte III gives the results obtained by aasay- 
cflice leaching tests by extra solution on aver* 
age samples of IH roasted ores, of which four 
were roa«t«d in Stetefuldt, six in Howell, three 
in reverberatory and five in Bruckner furnaces. 
The table gives also for each ore the two best 
methods of leaohlog tette by extra solutiou in 
the assay office. 



The Lick Observatory. — The actual work 
of observing has begun, and the purpose for 
which the observatory was founded — to be 
**asefuliD promoting science "—is in the way 
of being accomplished. Prof. Schatberle, late 
of Ann Arbor, hae commenced the long task 
which has been assigned to him, namely, to 
fix, with the very highest degree of precision 
possible to modern science, the position of the 
*' fundamental stars " with the Repsold merid- 
ian circle. The time service for railway use 
is now conducted by Mr. Hill (late assistant to 
Prof. Davidson), which leaves Mr. Keeler free 
to make the necessary studies of the great star 
spectroscope, which is one of the most impor 
taut accessories of the 36 inch Equatorial, Mr. 
Barnard is assiduously observing comets and 
nebulae with the fine 12-inch Equatorial, and 
getting the photographic appliances in readi- 
ness to be used with the great telescope. He 
has already discovered 20 new nebulae found in 
.the coarse of his sweeps for new comets. 

The United States produced 160,700 tons (rf 
lead in 1SS7, as compared with 135,629 tone the 
previous year. 

Thk St. Joe Co., Missouri, is turning out 
lead at the rate of 14.000 tons per annum. 
















Hesh of 

(- * • 

Per cflnt « f 
Salt Used. 



SS.6 90.7 91.3 06.6 
Per cent. Pr ct Per cent Per ct. 

Per cent of 
Silver Ex- 

6 or 7 

2 or 1 
8 or 6 
1 or 3 

7 or 1 

5 or 7 
7 or'O 
1 or 8 
1 or 3 

4 or 2 

6 or 3 

3 or * 
3 or 1 
1 or 2 
6 or 8 
6 or 1 
or 7 

L e aoh log 

Moat Appli- 
cable, j 

The reasons for employing eight different 
methods in the first teiting of an ore are as 
follows : 

Ist. The assay-offioe extraction, which serves 
as a standard for millwork, should always b3 
the highest attainable by any use of .hyposul* 
phite and blueatone. 

21. Collecting all the resnlts by various 
methods on many samples of roasted ores, it i^ 
found that in the eight methods given are com> 
prised all those which give the higtieet results 
on one or more samples of the ore investigated, 
these samples representing the ores treated in 
the principal mills of the United States and 

3i. If the best one of only two or three 
methodti is used in the assay office, the extrac- 
tion in the mill may be greater than in the as- 
say office. Examples of this may be pfen in 
Table IV, in the cases of Ontario, Like Vdlley 
and Sombrerete ores. At Lake V<il<ey (and also 
at the Rabio mill in Parral) the extraction in the 
mill was sometimes six to ten per cent above 
the extraction in the a<i8ay office. 





= a- 

105 COOO « 

■J CO cn IO oo.'j 


o bs to to to to to 

ri GO S to oi 00 CD oo (yn (S to ro <0 CD to <o 

i-1 '— 1 (O w IO w w to CI ■.© o w y o o - 

D » ^ ^ ?"j '^ C 

ra O *- to 31 OS i< 

- + + -I-H-+I I 1-1-1111^1+ a3-5g- 

n 1-. b> iK -I io ~J M ^ en -J CO bi «■ o en ^- I n; g gj o. 3_ 

r ^3 5- 

4th, If the best one of only two or tjirep 

methods Ib used in testing a new ore, the ap- 
plicability of the process to that ore is not de- 

Usually there is not much difference io the 
results obtained by the eight methods, but 
sometimes, as in the case of the Yedras roasted 
ore, the difference is considerable. On that ore 
a strong hot extra solution io the assay office, 
as io method 6 or 7, gave ooly 36 per cent ex- 
traction. The mill results on the same ore with 
a strong hot solution were S6 per cent. If 
ooly methods 6 or 7 had beeo employed io the 
preliminary testing of Vedras ore, the process 
might have been supposed inapplicable to that 
ore. On that ore the highest percentage in the 
assay office was obtained by a cold weak extra 
solution, the result of which agreed with the 
results of a strong hot extra solution in the 

It should be observed that' the terms 
*' strong " and *' weak " do not mean the same 
in the mill as in the assay office, the weakest 
extra used in the assay office being stronger 
than the stroogost in tbe mill. 

In general, the method most applicable in 
the assay oUice ia not the most applicable in the 
mill, and frequently, as in the case of the Yed> 
ras ore, they are directly opposita. As pointed 
oat further on, the proper methods for mill- 
work on roasted ores are very accurately indi- 
cated by the alkalinity or acidity of tbe first 
wash'water. For all raw ores the manipula- 
tioos are simpler and the methods very much 
more uniform. 

D.— Determination of the Percentage of Sol- 
uble Salts In Roasted Ore. 

In calculating the apparent percentage of sil- 
ver < xtracted in the mill from roasted ores, it 
is necessary to know the percentage of salts 
which have beeo extracted from it by the first 
wash-water and tbe leaching solutions. 

If tbe ore contains no hydrate or sulphate of 
lime, or other salts of about the same solubility 
in water, the determioation of the solubility is 
a simple operation: 10 or 20 grammes of the ore 
ia placed on a weighed filter aod leached with 
500 to 600 0. c. of hot water. The residue and 
filter are then weighed. This method will give 
the amount of soluble salts extracted from tbe 
ore in the mill, usually within one-half and 
nearly always within three-quarters of one per 
cent, the amount of gold, silver, copper aod 
lead salts which are extracted by the regular 
leaching solutions rarely exceeding one half of 
one per cent. 

But if the roasted ore contains hydrate or 
sulphate of lime, tbe above method gives too 
high a solubility, owing to the solubility of 
these salts in a large amount of water. For in- 
etance, at Vedras, the solubility as determined 
by the above method was over three times as 
great as it actually was io the mill. In such 
cases the determination of tbe solubility is as 
follows: 10 or 20 grammes of the roasted ore is 
placed on a weighed filter and the same amount 
of the mill tailings correspondmg to that ore is 
placed on another weighed filter. 

Eich is leached first with 300 to 500 c. c. of 
cold water and then with 2000 to 2500 c. c, of 
a strong (8 to 12 per cent) hot hyposulphite 
solution. These volumes will be sufficient to 
diesolve all the salts which are in the least de- 
gree soluble in water or hyposulphite. The 
two residues and filters are then dried and 
weighed. The difference between the percent- 
age of solubility of the ore and that of the tail- 
ings gives, with sufficient exactoess, the per- 
ceotage of salts which has beeo extracted in 
the mill by both water and solutions. The 
slight error is due to fact that the ore and tail- 
ings are not of the same nature — the latter 
having baen concentrated previously to the 
weighing, by an amount equal to the solubility 
in the mill. But the determination is sufficient- 
ly exact for practical purposes, as an error of 
one per cent in the solubility makes very little 
difference in the apparent extraction, as shown 
in the following table, which also illustrates 
the mode of determining the apparent extrac- 
tion. The two aolubilities are assumed as being 
9 and 10 per cent respectively: 

Example I, Exarop'e 11. 

Value of roasttrj ore 25.0 oz. 25.0 uz. 

P'r c'tof solubility in assay office. 9. 10. 

Calculated value of ore 27 47 oz. 27.78 oz. 

Value of mill tailings 25 ox, 2.5 oz. 

Apparent mill extraction 90.9 % ^l-^ '(■ 

The determioation of the percentage of solu- 
bility should be made each day, or if tbe leach- 
ing-tanks have a capacity of 20 to 50 tons, it 
should be determined for each charge of ore. 
B.— Determination of the Strength of the 
Hyposulphite of Stoct Solution. 

As it is important that the proper relation 
should be observed between the amount of hy- 
posulphite and that of blueatone in the extra 
solution, the strength of the hyposulphite or 
stock solution should be determined whenever 
the extra solution is to be made up for a large 
charge of ore. For small charges, say of ten 
tons each, a determination of the strength for 
each charge would be inconvenient; hence the 
strength is tested only once each day. 

The beat method of determining the strength 
of the hyposulphite solution is by starch and 
iodine. The reactions for this method are 
given in works on chemistry, but a description 
of the practical application of this method to 
the leaching process cannot safely be omitted 
here. If a small quantity of starch ia present 
in a hyposulphite solution, aod a solution of 
iodine is added, drop by drop, tbe sensitive 
blue color of iodide of starch will continue to 
be destroyed as fast aa it is produced, aa long 
as any hyposulphite exists. As soon as the 

hyposulphite hae been converted into tethrath- 
ionate, the least excess of iodine will act upon 
the staich, and the blue color will be perma- 
nent. This method will give the total amount 
of hyposulphite, no matter in what form it 
exists, whether as sodium, calcium or silver 
hypusolphite, except as it exists in the extra 
solution, or in the presence of caustic alkali. 
In the latter case, the method will indicate the 
presence of more hyposulphite than actually 
exists. Consequently, the hyposulphite solu- 
tion used for the test should be neatralized (if 
alkaline), particularly in treating roasted lime 
ores, by the addition of a few drops of dilute 
sulphuric acid, before adding tbe iodine solu* 
tioo. No hnrm is done if the solution is slight- 
ly acid, provided the iodine and starch are im- 
mediately added. As just stated, the method 
is not applicable for tbe determination of tbe 
hyposulphite in the extra solution, so that the 
sample of stock solution must be taken from 
the solution which is to be used for the extra 
solution before the bluestone is added to it. 

The standard iodine solntioo for a volume of 
ooe liter is made up as follows : The iodine is 
such as can be obtained at any drug-store, no re* 
subliming being necessary; 5.11 grammes of the 
iodine is placed in a beaker of at least 200 or 
300 o. o. capacity, which is set io a moderately 
warm place on the sand-bath at an angle of 20 
or 30 degrees from the perpendicular. The 
iodine is then covered with about its own 
weight of iodide of potassium and about 15 c. c. 
of water. In about 20 minutes the iodine will 
be nearly or quite dissolved. About 200 c. c. of 
cold water is then added and the clear liquid 
decanted off. If any iodine still remains undis- 
solved, about three or four more grammes of 
iodide of potassium is added. As a little water 
has probably been left in the beaker from the 
decantation, no more need be used. The beaker 
is placed as before in an ioolioed position io a 
warm place. Usually this second addition of 
iodide of potassium will result io the complete 
eolutioD of tbe iodioe. If not, the second op- 
eration should be repeated. The whole solution 
is then diluted to 1000 c. c. with cold water and 
placed in a glass-stoppered bottle; 100 c. c. 
of this solution should correspond to one gramme 
of hyposulphite of soda (Naa §2 O3 +5aq). 
But, as the solution may slightly decompose 
during the first few days after its preparation, 
it is best to use 5.5 grammes of iodine instead 
of 5 11 grammes in making up the standard so- 
lution. After a few days, the solution may 
then, if necessary, be diluted by the addition of 
a small amount of water, so that 100 c. c. shall 
correspond to one gramme of bypoeutphite. This 
exact proportion is only necessary for the con- 
venience of the man in charge of the leaching 
in the mill, by whom the solution is used. 

The preparation of the starch solution is as 
follows: About 10 grammes of common starch 
ia boiled or heated io about 500 to 1000 c. c. of 
water. Euough salt ia theo added to this so- 
lution to completely saturate it. The clear or 
turbid liquid ia then decanted into a stoppered 
bottle, leaving the undissolved salt behind. The 
object of the addition of salt is to preserve the 
starch solution, which would otherwise decern* 
pose, and have to be made fresh every few days. 

To atandardize the iodine solution, about .1 
to .2 of a gram of a clear crystal of commer- 
cial hyposulphite of soda is weighed out in the 
fine asaay balances used for weighing gold and 
silver buttons. It ia placed in a beaker with 
about 20 c. c. of water and 2 to 4 drops of 
starch solution. The iodine solution is then 
run in from a burette until the bine color of 
iodide of starch is permanent. 

The determination of the strength of the 
stock solution is made in the mill by the man 
in charge of the leaching at the time the extra 
solution is to he prepared. The reagents re- 
quired are tbe iodioe solution, the starch ao- 
lution, and, if the ore is alkaline roasted, 
some very dilute sulphuric acid. Tbe ap- 
paratus consists of a 10 0. c, pipette, a 100 
c. c. burette graduated to one fifth or one- 
tenth of a c. c, a glass beaker or tumbler 
and a glass stirring-rod. These are kept 
in a small closet oear the leachiog-tanks. As 
each charge of ore weighs nearly the same, each 
charge of extra solution is always of the same 
volume. Consequently, a table can be prepared 
showing the number of pounds of hyposulphite 
present in tbe solution, to which the bluestone 
is to be added, corresponding to any percentage 
of hyposulphite as shown by the test. In mak- 
ing up the extra solution, therefore, the man in 
charge measures out 10 c. c. of the stock solu- 
tion, adds a few drops of starch solution, runs in 
the iodine solution from the burette and reads 
off the percentage of hyposulphite. By referring 
to the table, he finds opposite this percentage, 
the amount of hyposulphite, say 390 pounds 
present in the volume of stock solution which 
is to be uaed for the preparation of the extra. 
As the amount of bluestone for a 50-ton charge 
at the rate of, say, 5 pounds per ton, woald be 
250 pounds, and as tbe amount of hyposulphite 
for the extra solution must be twice as great as 
the weight of bluestone, the amount of hypo- 
sulphite to be added with the blueatooe is 110 

(7^0 be Continued.) 

It is Raid that a mill will probably be erected 
on the Truckee for the purpose of grinding gyp- 
sum from the immense deposit of that mineral 
discovered a few months ago at a point near 

It cost the Con. California and Virginia mine 
last month $47,497 for labor and $91,210 for re- 
duction of ore. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[JnLT 21, 1888 

A. T. DBWET. W. B. EV'EB. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

fice, 220 Market St.y J^. E. cor. Front St.^S. F, 
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W. B. EWER Senior Editor 

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Saturday Morning, July 21, 1888. 


EDITORIALS.— The Cruiser "CharlestoD," 37. Pass- 
ing Events; Reese Ri'-er; Diamond Mining, 44. The 
Copper Syndicate and its Workings; The Australian 
Stock Boom; Irving M. Scott, 45. 

ILbtrSTRATIONS.— The Cruiser "Charleston," 37. 
Irving M. Scott, 45. 

CORBESPONDENOB. — Debris Dams; Amador 
County Mines, 38. Calaveras County Mining Notes; 
Tuolumne County ISIines, 43- 

MISOELL.ANEOUS.— The Stewart Mining Bill; 
Quicksilver Ores in Mexico, 38. The Russell Process, 

Fencing; A Curious German Nail; Iron or Steel for 
Ship Building— Which; Softening Cast Iron; Long 
Tramway Cables, 42- 

SOIBNTIFIO PROGRESS.- Illusions of Sight 
and Motion; Cohesion of Lead; Echo Maker; The Age 
of the Stars; Scientific and Mechanical Progress; In- 
teresting Discoveries in Spain; A Curious Phenome- 
non; Experiments with Soap Bubbles; Origin of Elec- 
tricity in Thunder Storms; To Find the Sun in a Fog, 

GOOD HEALTH.- Care of the Finger Nails; Whis- 
ky Not a Cure for Snake Bite; Salt the Great Regulat- 
ing Agent of Life; To Remove Tartar from the Teeth; 
Diseases and the Seasons; Cause of Color Blindness; 
The Nose; A New Remedv for Night Sweats, '13. 

The Birds U> Have a Respite; The Rabbit's Leap; The 
Secret of Painting Chioaware; New Method of Secur- 
ing the Flap of an Envelope; To Make Platinum Ad- 
here to Gold; New Process of Drawing; To Remove 
Oil Spots on Paper; Firecrackers; Curing a Smoking 
Chimney; Renovating Picture Frames; New Method 
of Destroying Insects; The Corn Canning Busioess; 
California Newspapers, 43. 

MINING SUMMARY— From the various counties 
of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Mon- 
tana. New Mexico. Oregon, Utali, Wyoming, 44-5. 

MINING STOCK MARKET— Sales at the San 
Francisco Stock Board, Notices of Meetings, Assess- 
ments, Drvidends, and Bullion Shipments, 48. 

Business Annoancements. 


Diuble Acting Cylinder— Kelly Bros., East Oakland, 
Electric Power— N. S. Keith. 

tS'See Advertising Columns^ 

Passing Events. 

The launch of the steel crniser Charleston 
from the yard of the Union Iron Works is 
quite an important event in connection with the 
industrial interests of this coast. This is the 
first man-of-war built here at any private yard, 
and another one is to be commenced immedi- 
ately. The enterprise of the Union Iron Works 
ia greatly to be commended. 

The collapse of the great mining-stock excite- 
ment in Australia was anticipated by all who 
had passed through similar experiences here. 
Inflation of values is seldom attended with 
worse effects than in connection with mining 

The great Educational Convention now in 
session in this city has brought many thousand 
intelligent visitors to this State. Gatherings 
of this kind are sure to bring good results to 
California, since these visitors will advertise its 
advantages all over the United States. 

There is nothing that ia new in the mining 
situation aside from what we give in our "sum- 
mary" on another page. All over the coast 
the miners are engaged in development work, 
and the general results are very gratifying. 

The Idaho gold mine, Grass Valley, this 
State, has to date paid $1,500,000 in divi- 

Reese River— What It is Like and 
What Becomes of it. 

The following paragraph is going the round 
of the newspaper press, quoted, we suppose, be- 
caase it is thought to show the extent to which 
irrigation is being practiced in the locality des- 
ignated, which, however, it fails to do: 

"Although Reese river in Nevada is 
bank full near the head, its waters never reach 
the Humboldt. All the water is turned aside 
for irrigation." 

As stated, Reese river, near its head, is now 
running bank full, that is, as full as they usual- 
ly get, this being the time of year when, owing 
to the melting of the snow on the adjacent 
mountains, it reaches its highest stage. In this 
particular the paragraph quoted is right enough, 
though in one or two others it is open to cor- 

And first let it be premised that Reese river, 
while marked by certain peculiarities and cov- 
ering a good deal of linear space, is no river at 
all; though nearly a hundred miles long, it is 
not, as regards the volume of water it carries, 
even a good-sized creek. Thereis hardly a place 
throQghout its entire length but what an ath- 
lete could leap across or ford it without swim- 
ming, la width it varies from 12 to 15 feet 
and in depth from 2 to 3 feet, these measure- 
ments being quite uniform. 

It runs with few sinuosities and a rather 
brisk current through a broad sagebrush plain 
— Reese River valley. Its immediate banks, 
though low, are never overflowed except when 
a " cloudburst " may happen to break within its 
water-shed, a thing of rare occurrence. Grad- 
ually, as the snow on the mountains melts, the 
water flow increases until early in July, when, 
having reached its highest stage, it as gradual- 
ly subsides without ever overflowing the river- 
banks or filling them quite full. The mount- 
ains that hem in this valley consist of the 
Shoshone on the west and the Toiyabe on the 
east, the two uniting at its head. The Toiyabe 
is a high and precipitous range, some of its 
deeper canyons, of which it has many, holding 
snow until late in the summer. 

After pursuing its course for 35 miles, Reese 
river disappears, its water for the next three 
or four miles being lost in a broad expanse of 
meadow land which absorbs it so completely 
that there is here no surface channel or sign of 
there ever having been any. Why at this point 
the stream should have been so arrested and 
swallowed up, or why at the lower margin of 
this oasis it should have gathered itself up and 
resumed its course, is ^ puzzle to those who 
have studied this phenomenon. 

The restored rivulet, after journeying north 
another 50 miles or more, makes its final exit, 
but here not quite so abruptly as at the mea- 
dows above. Having gotten thus far, it disap- 
pears in a succession of pools standing along 
its well-marked bed, dies, not suddenly, but in 
convulsions, as it were. Its objective point is 
evidently the Humboldt, but it seldom reaches 
that river, at least above ground, though some 
of its water no doubt gets there through sub- 
terranean channels or by percolating through 
the porous soil. Not more than two or three 
times during the past 30 years, that is, since 
this section of Nevada has been settled or much 
traversed by the whites, has this rivulet been 
known to flow above ground all the way to 
the Humboldt, That it fails to do so is, how- 
ever, not because its water is diverted for land 
irrigation, though the most of it is now used 
for that purpose. 

When this stream happens to reach an un- 
usually high stage these stagnant ponda fill up 
and becoming united form one of those broad, 
shallow and often evanescent lakes known as 
" sinks " in the hydrography of the great Utah 
basin, this being laid down on the maps as the 
"sink of Rsese river." Not elsewhere in all the 
arid interior do so many considerable streams 
give out and die in these sedge-bound " sinks " 
as here in Nevada. Neither in this State, in 
the Territory of Utah nor in Trans-Sierra 
California does more than a small proportion of 
the water flow to the ocean. The most of it is 
gathered into lakes and "sinks," whence it 
escapes by evaporation, a process that, in the 
desiccated and rarified air, goes on rapidly. 
Having no outlet, these bodies of water become 
intensely saline. 

That such a petty stream as this we are 
speaking about should have been called a river 
by the man who first came upon it ia not at all ' 

strange, considering the circumstances under 
which it was discovered. Prior to about 1850, 
the overland immigration, including the Mor- 
mon colonists moving west from Salt Lake City, 
keeping to the north of Great Salt Lake and 
striking across to the headwaters of the Hum- 
boldt, had followed down that river. This be- 
ing a very circuitous route. Col. Reese, who 
had already made several trips from Salt Lake 
City to the Mormon settlements in Western 
Utah, conceived the idea of finding a shorter 
one between these two points. In pursuance 
of this purpose, on leaving the former place, he 
kept to the south of Great Salt Lake, following 
what became afterward the Overland Stage and 
the Pony Express route. Having encountered 
but few springs and no large creeks, this desert 
stream, when he came upon it, seemed to Col. 
Reese, we can well believe, a veritable river, 
being much the largest running water he had 
seen since leaving the Jordan. Perceiving by 
the osier willows that fringe its banks that it 
extended a long way up and down the valley, 
the " path-finder " is to be excused if in his im- 
agination the proportions of the brooklet 
seemed unduly great. 

While Reese river ia thus marked by certain 
strange features, it is neither a picturesque nor 
an eccentric stream. Though small compared 
with most California rivers, it does not, like 
some of them, become a raging torrent in the 
winter and dry up in the summer. Keeping 
within its low banks, it flows quietly but quick- 
ly along and with little meandering. It mur- 
murs and ripples, but does not break into vio- 
lent rapids, nor does it anywhere throw itself 
over precipices creating falls, cascades or other 
notable object. Stopping short of its goal some 
25 miles, it forms the marshes and fens about 
which the wild rye and the bunch grass contest 
with the omnipresent sage for supremacy. 
Though it presents little of interest to the 
sightseer, it ia of great service to the cultivator 
of the anil, aince neither fruit, grain nor vege- 
tables can be raiaed here without irrigation. 

Diamond Mining. 

We have received from Gardner F. Williams, 
formerly of California, but now general man- 
ager of the Da Beers Diamond Mining Co., 
South Africa, the report of the operations there 
during the past year. During the year, 873,178 
loads of "blue ground" have been hauled by 
the De Beers Co., and 857,906 washed, yielding 
919j7Z2h carats of diamonds, realizing £984,085, 
143. 6d. The expenditure connected herewith 
was £415,188 la. lid., leaving a profit of £508,- 
897 12a. 7d. on the actual working. The aver- 
age yield per load was 1142 carata. This year's 
working has been solely underground, and the 
heavy expenditure incurred in previous years 
for reef work has been done away with. The 
Working expenses, however, will be largely re- 
duced, now that the underground works and 
machinery are approaching completion. The 
company was fully justified in its anticipa- 
tion of the output from the sloping shaft, as the 
average of the current year has been 2540 loads 
per day. A second sloping shaft at the west 
end of the mine will enable them to double the 

Convict labor has continued to prove satis- 
factory. Complete success continues to attend 
the system of "compounding" the free native 
laborers. The buildings accommodate 2500 

The balance-sheet and statement of profit and 
loss of this company show a balance of profit 
for the year after payment of dividends {§508,- 
042) of £237,772, being an increase on the year 
of £58,686. The Oriental and Victoria Com- 
panies' properties have been amalgamated with 
the De Beers mine, and the company has pur- 
chased the French Company's property on the 
Kimberley mine. 

Since 1881 this company has paid in divi- 
dends £1,013,299, and 41 per cent has been dis- 
tributed in bonus shares. , 

When Mr. Williams took charge of the prop- 
erty a year ago the only available means of ex- 
tracting diamond-bearing ground ("blue") from 
underground works was through a west end 
incline shaft. This was originally constructed 
to haul 1200 or 150O loads of 16 cubic feet per 
day of 24 hours, but thia capacity haa been in- 
creased to 2540 loads. 

To increase the output, a tunnel was made 
380 feet from surface and an aerial tram con- 
structed. A vertical shaft was sunk in the blue 

from the 380 to the 505 level, from which blue 
was hoisted to supply the aerial gear. While the 
aerial gear was running they hoisted 111,394 
loads of 10 cubic feet. 

A new shaft was started at the west end of 
the mine. It has an incline of 66 degrees. 
Thia ia a two-compartment shaft, is completed 
to the 685-foot level, and will be an important 
addition to the workings. The mine was usual- 
ly worked as an open quarry down to 400 feet, 
aerial trams being used. But this method was 
ruinously expensive, and tunnels and galleries 
were cut. These galleries are worked out 18 
feet wide, IS feet high, leaving a roof of 12 
feet of aolid blue which forms the floor of the 
level above, and a solid pillar 18 feet thick be- 
tween galleries. By the first working of the 
galleries, 30 per cent of blue is taken out. 
The tops of galleries or highest levels are then 
taken out, and the galleries filled with debris 
from above; lastly, the pillars are removed, and 
thus nearly the whole of the blue ia extracted. 
This method of working is repeated from level 
to level. 

Mr. Williams estimates that he has "in 
sight" 7,150,000 loads of blue. During the 
year, among other work, they drove 21,621 feet 
of main tunnels. Mechanical haulage will soon 
be used, consisting of an endless wire rope 
driven by engine, the same as the cable railway 
system in use here. 

Nearly all underground labor is done on the 
contract system at set prices per foot or load. 
The average number of white men employed 
in the mine is 214 and of natives 1350. To in- 
sure a constant supply of laborers, they have 
increased the accommodation of the " com- 
pound " so that they now have 2300 natives in 
the West End compound, which covers about 
five acres of ground. Within this area the 
natives are confined during their term of serv- 
ice and closely guarded, so aa to reduce the 
stealing of diamonds. No alcoholic liquors are 
allowed inaide the " compound." 

The company haa 11 waahing machines and 
four more are being built. To these machines 
safety-pans will be attached for the further pre- 
vention of loss of diamonds in the washing proc- 
ess. A dam capable of holding 13,000,000 
gallons of water has been constructed. On the 
"washing floors " they have 180 white men and 
1400 natives at work, including 300 convicts 
hired from the Government. Eioh convict 
costs £58 per year. 

The convict labor is the best native labor, for 
they are obliged to work some time, while free 
natives only work about two months at a time. 
Aa soon as mechanical haulage is completed all 
the natives will be placed in compounds, as 
there will then be no communication between 
the laborers on the floors and the outside world 
as there is at present through the truck-drivers. 
The natives on the floors have to be strictly 

The working of the mine has been suddenly 
changed (when Mr. Williams took charge) from 
a huge open-quarry to the underground system. 
The mine will soon be in a position to furnish 
blue ground equal to any demands that can be 

Mr. Williams says : " That the * blue ' will 
continue to be diamond -bearing to an unlimited 
depth there can be no doubt, and to my mind 
the best proof of thia is that we constantly find 
fragments of broken diamonds imbedded in the 
blue, and the corresponding pieces are not found 
in the same neighborhood. The inference ia 
that the diamonds were crystallized at a great 
depth and were thrown up with the blue ground 
aud were not formed in situ." 

The employes of the Oro Fino Mining Co., 
Idaho, have formed themselves into a library 
association, and propose to employ their leiaure 
hours more profitably than is commonly done 
in mining camps. Nearly every one connected 
with the mine haa joined, in this moat praise- 
worthy movement; subscribing liberally to the 
fund raised to procure books, magazines and 

The Tacoma Ledger says: The bridge at 
Pasco over the Columbia river, which is 2700 
feet long, is completed. It was built by Prin- 
cipal Assistant Engineer Huson of the North- 
ern Pacific, and the superintendent was En- 
gineer A. S. Rifl^le. 

A Great deal of ore and concentrates is now 
coming to the Selby Smelting and Lead Co. of 
this city. 

JoLY 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The Aastralian Stock Boom. 

There appeared in these columns not long 
since some cautionary remarks addressed to 
the people of Australia warning them against 
the probable effeota of the speouUtion in silver 
mines and shares then raging in that country. 
In .those remarks we counseled these people to 
beware of the fatal consequences that always 
and inevitably attend speculations of this kind, 
citing our own experience as evidt^noing the 
aoundness of our advice, which latest acconnts 
from that country demonstrate was more than 

Tbe Copper Syndicate and Its Under-; 

The operations and prospects of the Anglo- 
French Oopper Syndicate are getting to be 
something of a puzzle to ontaideri, if, indeed, 
the managers of the great " trust " are not 
themselves beginning to entertain some doobts 
as to the final outcome of their gigantic specu- 
lation; evidently things have not gone quittf as 

This syndicate was formed toward tbe end of 
last year for the purpose of controlling the cop- 
per markets of tbe world, to which end, as a warranted by the situation. This wild and 
tirat movement, they contracted for the entire \ widespread excitement had already, before the 
product of the leading copper mines on both con- ^ ingd Bteamer sailed from Melbourne, met with a 
tinents, the quantity to be delivered, and the I collapse more sudden and disastrous than any 
price being Hxed in the contract. This 
done, the price of oopper was at once ad- 
vanced, going up within the next 99 
days from 10 to 17 cents per pound — 
$140 per ton. 

For the accomplishment of their pur- 
pose the conditions existing at the time 
were extremely favorable. Stocks were 
limited and prices were tow. The winter 
being at hand, it was imposaible for the 
big companies of Montana and Michi- 
gan to increase their output without 
some delay, as their plant could not at 
that season of the year well be enlarged. 
The destrnotive fire that a few months 
before had broken out in the Calumet 
and Heels, largely diminishing produc- 
tion there, also worked to their advant- 

Up to the middle of June last, the 
stocks of copper in Eagland and France 
amounted, with cargoes afloat, to 70,000 
tons, the largest ever accumulated; nor 
is there any reason to believe this accu- 
mulation will soon be checked. On 
the consammation of their scheme this 
syndicate caloolated that production 
would be curtailed. But in this they 
have been disappointed. Encouraged 
by the high prices ruling for copper, 
new mines have everywhere been 
opened. Companies already operating 
have increased their output, while others 
that had long been idld have again gone 
to work. 

As a result, the product: of this metal 
has not only been largely augmented, 
but these outsiders are entering the 
market and underselling tbe syndicate. 
Thus far the latter has, by buying much 
of the copper offering, succeeded in keep- 
ing prices up to their standard, thereby 
averting a break in the marbet. Bat 
the question is, how long can they con- 
tinue to do this ? How long will it be 
undek* such a fioancial strain before 
something gives way ? It is said that 
the syndicate and their friends cannot 
afford to let go; but, all the same, can 
they afford to hold on ? The probabil- 
ities are that they will allow prices to 
gradually give way, and thus avoid 
any sudden crash. By reason of tbe 
prevailing high prices, manufacturers 
have bought oopper sparingly, hoping 
all the while to see a drop in the mar- 
ket. Holding off in this manner for six 
or eight months, consumers' supplies as well 
as stocks in second hands are low and roust 
soon be replenished. Well advised of tbe 
situation, the manipulators of the ** trust," 
taking advantage of the exigencies of buy- 
ers, count on keeping np prices for some 
time to come. 

Meantime, the copper-mining interest flour- 
ishes, the late advance in price having proved 
of especial benefit to this class of properties in 
California. Our copper-ore deposits are not 
apt to be large nor generally of high grade. 
Operated in the rather limited way here prac- 
ticed, they have not, except in a few instances, 
paid much profit. Lately, however, they have 
been doing much better, and this under largely 
increased ore extraction. That the business 
has elsewhere experienced a like impetus it is 
needless to say. While copper mining is at 
present so prosperous, the immediate future of 
the industry may be said to be encouraging. 
While the price of this metal may at an early 
day be expected to suffer some decline, it ^ill 
not very soon be likely to drop to former low 
figures, the great indnitrial activity prevailing 
the world over, forbidding such result. 

IrvlDg M. Scott. 

Probably no ooe individual has been more 
prominently identified with the industrial in- 
terests of this coast than Irving M, Saottof the 
Union Iron Works. Commencing as a draughts- 
man in these works as far back as ISGS, he has 
seen them rise to the first position among simi- 
lar enterprises in California, and has himself 
advanced from a humble emplcye to an owner 
and manager. A man of exceptional enter- 
prise and public spirit, he has imbued others 
with his ideas until an establishment has been 
built up which is a credit to the coast, 

Irving M. Scott was born at Hebron Mills, 
Baltimore county, Maryland, in December, 
1837, and received tbe rudiments of his eduoa- 




thing which has ever occurred on this coast. 
The nominal value of mining shares has, dur- 
ing the past six months, been depreciated to the 
extent of $40,000,000 in the Broken Hill dis- 
trict alone, the drop during the two weeks pre- 
ceding the sailing of the steamer having 
amounted to §7.500,000. 

The bursting of this miniog-share bubble 
seems to have been followed by a business and 
financial panic, which, becoming general, in- 
volved thousands in rnin, besides those who 
had been crushed by their unfortunate stock 
speculations; and now the mourners go about 
the streets of Melbourne, Sydney and other 
cities on the far-off insular continent cursing 
the tricksters that robbed them of their pounds 
and shillings and bewailing their own cupidity 
and folly. 

We knew weeks ago when the article alluded 
to was penned, as well as we know now, what 
was to be the outcome of this Australian stock 
boom, though we hardly looked for the catas- 
trophe quite so soon. That the denouement has 
come thus early is to be accounted for, we sup- 
pose, on the theory that a short horse is soon 
carried and a spring gosling is easily picked I 

tion in the Baltimore public schools, and after- 
ward pursued an academic course at the Milton 
Academy in the same city. After completing 
his course of study, he in June, 1854, entered 
the manufactory of Obed Hussey, the cele- 
brated inventor of the first reaping machine, 
where he learned a great deal of vood and iron- 
working details. As he was ambitious to be- 
come an expert mechanic, in 1857 he obtained 
a position in the extensive iron works of Mur- 
ray & Hazelhurst, Baltimore, He soon became 
an expert draughtsman, and his employers 
transferred him from the department of ma- 
chinery to that of design, and placed him in 
charge of the construction of stationary and fire 

When he came to California ** to grow up 
with the country," he was employed by the 
late Peter Donahue, then owner of the Union 
Iron Works. He remained there as draughts- 
man until 1862, when he took charge of the 
drawing department of the Miners' Iron Works, 
returning, however, to the Union Works in 
1863. On his return he was made superintend- 
ent. When Col. Donahue retired from active 
connection with the works Mr. Scott became a 

partner in the new firm of II. J. Booth & Co., 
the firm consisting of H.J, Booth, Ceo. W, 
Prescott and Irving M. Scott. In 1875 Mr. 
Booth retired and a new partnership was or- 
ganized under the title of Prescott, Scott & Co., 
the younger brother of Mr, Scott, Henry T. 
Scott, joining tbe firm. Later on the firm was 
reorganized under the title of the Union Iron 
Works, an incorporated company. 

The old premises on Mission, Fremont and 
First streets became too small for the operations, 
and extensive works were erected on the 
Potrero. New machinery of the latest designs 
was purchased, splendid brick buildings put 
op, a large dry-dock was built, and an iron and 
steel shipbuilding plant was added to the 
works, which are now the most extensive on 
this coast, and among the largest of the United 

When it was found that the Government 
was to start in to build a new navy, and that 
cruisers were to be constructed, an effort was 
made to obtain the work on one or more of 
these cruisers for this coast. The Union Iron 
works was prepared to do any of this work, 
and put in bids. Mr. Irving Scott went to 
Washington, conferred with the Secretary of 
the Navy and those in authority, and convinced 
them that the work could be done here. In 
the face of great ditUculties he finally succeeded 
in getting the work. It was mainly due to his 
persistent and intelligent efforts that this was 
accomplished, and contracts for two cruisers 
secured. One of these vessels, the Charleston, 
was launched this week, and the other will 
shortly be commenced, 

Mr. Scott is a fine public speaker, and a 
writer of more than ordinary ability. His pub- 
lished addresses and articles always attract at- 
tention. He is known to be a thinker, and one 
who expresses bis ideas clearly, whether from 
the platform or on the printed page. His abil- 
ity as a mechanical engineer is widely recog- 
nized. He has been engaged in tbe design and 
construction of all sorts of machinery for gen- 
eral and special purposes. In mining and 
pumping machinery he has had wide experi- 
ence incident to the peculiar conditions exist- 
ing on this coast. 

While Mr. Scott is known as a practical, 
'* self-made " man, he has found time to inform 
himself on many topics not immediately con- 
nected with his business. He is a man of tal- 
ent, education and refinement, fond of art and 
literature, and fostering them in every way. 
There is no better posted man on industrial 
matters in the State. He is connected with 
many organizations in this city, and in all has 
taken an active interest, so that he has been 
called upon to serve as director and president 
of most of those he has joined. The industrial 
clasBes of this coast owe to Mr. Scott and his 
partners in the Union Iron Works a debt of 
gratitude for building up and maintaining the 
magnificent enterprise at the Potrero, where be- 
tween 1000 and 2000 mechanics are constantly 
employed. Large as these works were when first 
designed, their scope has gradually been 
broadened and the interests extended, and it is 
proper to suppose that when further extensions 
are deeirable, they will be made. 

For the portrait on this page of Mr. Scott, 
we are indebted to the Resources of California. 
It was made direct from a photograph a couple 
of years since, and is a good picture of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. 

The Gila Monstek. — At the last meeting of 
the California Academy of Sciences, Prof. Ward 
of Rochester, N, 5^., described a museum con- 
nected with the Coronado Beach hotel, San 
Diego county. This brought up the subject of 
the Gila monster, which people thought poison- 
ous, but Dr. Behr stated it was ^harmless. 
Prof. Ward agreed with the doctor. His little 
daughter had one for a plaything for three 
months^ before its reputation for fatal biting 
reached the family. Since then his son has had 
three healthy Gilas bite pigs, chickens, doge, 
chipmunks, squirrels, etc., but with the ex- 
ception of one sick chicken all recovered with- 
out any manifestations of distress or inconven- 
ience from the bite. 

Mr. John L. Doyle left San Francisco this 
week for a trip through Oregon, Idaho and 
Montana in the interests of tbe Mining and 
Scientific Press. We hope that our friends 
whom he meets will assist him in his mission 
and give him such information as he desires, 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 21, 1888 


Wire Netting and Fencing, 

The UBC of wire netting and fencing, embrac- 
ing all kinda of woven fabric made by twisting 
wire into meehes, has grown with wonderful 
rapidity in this country in the past five yeara. 
It is by no means a new article of manufactare. 
It has been in use in Europe for many years. 
Anstralia eonaumes it annually by the thousand 
miles for sheep ranches and kangaroo fencing. 
Prior to 1S83 it was imported in considerable 
quantities into this country from Europe, and 
atrennoua attempta were made to popularize it. 
At that time it waa being manufactured here to 
a limited extent, the Gilbert & Bennett Manu- 
facturing Company of Georgetown, Connecti- 
cut, having embarked in the businesa some 15 
years previously, with machinery for the pro- 
duction of all sizes. The Clinton Wire Cloth 
Company of Clinton, Mass., and Sedgwick 
Broa. of Richmond, Ind., also made netting 
with coarse meahea for a few years prior to 
1883, but the development of the business was 
very slow, owing to the low rate of duty on 
wire producta, which enabled foreign manu- 
facturers to control the trade. In 1883 this 
duty was changed to harmonize with the tariff 
on other manufactured products of a sim- 
ilar character, and the whole aspect of the 
trade was almost immediately altered. 

As a result of the enlarged opportunity thus 
afiforded to waiting capital, the number of man- 
ufacturers of wire netting has more than 
doubled within the last ten years. There are 
now six large eatabliabments in the Atlantic 
States and one in this city, while the home 
product has increased fully ten-fold within the 
past five yeara. The consumption of such goods 
has largely broadened, being now used for pur- 
poses wholly unanticipated but a short time 

Moreover, under the sharp competition, the 
improvements introduced and the fostering in- 
fluence of an increased tariff, the importation 
has fallen off, practically to nothing, while the 
price haa been reduced fully one-third. la the 
manufacture of netting aome establiahments use 
galvanized wire, while others galvanize the wire 
after the fabric is woven, some advantage be- 
ing claimed by those who uec the latter proc- 
ess. The gauges of wire used range from No. 
20 to Ko. 13. The aize of the meshes varies 
according to the use to which the netting is to 
be put, ranging from one-half inch to five 
inches. The width of the netting nnually made 
runs from 6 inches to 6 feet. When wider 
netting is needed for a special purpose, two 
widths are taken. 

The multiplied uaea of wire netting ia stated 
by the Iron Age as foUowa: Tfle netting with 
meahes up to one inch in size is used for mak- 
ing a perforated or open aurface on which to 
spread articles for drying, auch as glue, card- 
board, printed matter, tobacco, etc. Wire glue 
netting has completely revolutionized the mode 
of drying glue. The fine meah netting ia alao 
uaed for divisions in fish ponds, fish weirs and 
traps, and to keep birds from building nesta 
around cupolas and the tops of buildings. The 
netting with 1| to 1^ inch meshes is used for 
labbit fencing, game-mclosures, pigeon -houses, 
aviaries, park cages, wire partitions between 
parts of a room, etc. Two-inch meshes are a 
suitable size for poultry yards, coops, wire 
trellises, lawn borders, pea or other vine sup- 
ports, and for inclosing lawn tennis grounds. 
Coarser meshes are adapted to lawn and garden 
fencing, and even stock and farm and railroad 
fencing, being sufficiently strong to turn cattle. 
The manufacturera of netting for fencing have 
thoroughly developed its capabilities in this 
line, and are furnishing gates to correspond 
with the netting uaed, together with metal 
posta. Among the miscellaneous uses to which 
the various kinda of netting are put can be 
mentioned office railinga, desk railings, wire 
signs, tree guards, borders for flower beds, 
croquet ground borders, ornamental summer- 
houses, etc. It has been used with good effect 
in large public buildings to prevent an echo, 
being hung from the ceiling and almost invisi- 

So rapidly are the uses multiplying to which 
netting aeema specially adapted, that the manu- 
facturers are excusable for their enthusiasm 
over it. They look forward to the expansion 
of their industry to much larger proportions 
than it has yet attained. In many portions of 
the county its use haa just begun. It is not an 
article that ia used only by farmers and owners 
of extensive grounds, but its consumption ia 
greatest in thickly-settled districts, and will 
increase with the growth of the country. 

tern-makers, who cannot agree as to the way 
they should be driven with relation to the 
grain of the wood. One shrewd old fellow, 
after looking one of these nails over very care- 
fully, remarked that he could not see aa it made 
much more difference about the direction of the 
grain than it would in cutting; a barrel>head out 
of a board." 

A Curious German Nail haa recently made 
its appearance. It very much reeemblea a wire 
nail, with the exception that it is square. Like 
the wire nail, it ia of uniform size from head to 
foot. A correspondent of the Iron Age speaks 
of this nail as follows: *' A few days ago I re- 
ceived from Germany a large case of goods. It 
was rather a serious matter to open it. Crow- 
bars were necessary, and the only way to get the 
goods out was by breaking the case into small 
pieces. The nails were different from any which 
I have ever seen, and I can bear testimony 
to their tenacity in holding wood. I send you a 
handful of these nails as a contribution to your 
museum of hardware curios. From their pe- 
culiar shape one might imagine they were made 
from old bayonets. They have been a source 
of much speculation to our carpenters and pat- 

Iron or Sleel for Ship-BuildiDg— 

We clip the following from a letter of the 
regular Eoglish correspondent of the American 
Manufacturer : 

Evidences are increasing to the minds of our 
steel-makers and ship-builders and constructive 
engineers that the more rapid corrosion of "steel, 
aa compared with iron, is a fully established 
fact which is likely to have a more important 
bearing upon the steel trade than haa hitherto 
been generally supposed. To such a degree is 
this evidence growing that some of our iron- 
masters are now putting on more courage re- 
garding the future of their industry in branches 
where steel has threatened to become supreme 
than has previously been apparent. 

W^hich Is the Best ? 
It might be fancied that this question had 
long ago received its answer. But there are 
those among us who contend that iron ia not yet 
60 entirely auperaeded aa had in aome circles 
been imagined. Although almost all the ves- 
sels now built are nominally of steel, they yet 
contain a considerable quantity of iron. The 
floors, engines and boiler seatings, bulkheads, 
bunkers, and even deck-plates, are increaaingly 
being composed of the older material. A 
"atetlahip" may, consequently, now contain 
from one-fifth to one-half of all the metal-work 
of iron. The more iron ia used under the ex- 
isting conditions the more saving can be effected 
in the cost of a vessel. 

Iron Not Yet Done For. 
The thickening of the scantlings, as ordered 
by the Lloyds Register, has aho to aome extent 
diminished one of the chief advantages claimed 
for steel ships, namely, their superior lightness 
and carrying capacity. Certain of the steel- 
maaters on the northeast coast contend that the 
time is approaching when the shell alone will 
be of steel, all the other metal-work being of 
iron. In this expression of opinion my readers 
must not assume that I am pledging my own 
view. I am merely recording the views which 
are finding exponents in circles where ahip- 
bnilding is prominently to the front. 


Nature-Smelted Ikon. — On the North 
Saskatchawan river in the Northwest Territory 
of Canada, about 70 miles above the town of 
Edmonton, Alberta, there is an interesting ex- 
ample of naturally-reduced iron. Along the 
river bank a lignite formation crops out for 
several miles, overlaid by clay shales and soft 
argillaceous sandstones containing nodules of 
clay ironstone. These nodules are similar to 
others fonnd at Edmondton, and proved by 
analysis to be carbonates of iron, containing 
34.98 per cent of metallic iron. The Saskatcha- 
wan seam of lignite has at some time or other 
been burnt, leaving a bed of ashes, clinkers 
and burnt clay, in places 20 feet thick, and 
now covered by a dense growth of grass and 
Underwood. From this mass of burnt clay 
pieces of metallic iron can be picked out, 
weighing in aome caaea 15 or 20 pounds. 
They have evidently been reduced from the 
nodulea above mentioned by the heat of the 
burning lignite. Most of the pieces of iron are 
much rusted; but when scratched with a file 
they show a bright surface. The observation 
is interesting, and to acme may help to explain 
how primitive man originally diacovered the re- 
duction of iron ore. 

Softening Cast Iron. — A correspondent of 
the American Machinist suggests the following 
for softening cast iron: *' Heat the cast iron to 
a red heat and quench in water about the aame 
heat, and use the eame judgment as you would 
in quenching a piece of steel, then heat again 
to a red heat, and allow to cool slowly, the 
same as you would anneal steel. The above 
method has given me perfect satisfaction. There 
may be a difficulty in large pieces, from their 
liability to crack in quenching, but it will 
soften them." 

Illusions of Sight and Motion. — The 
senses are subject to illusions in proportion to 
the remoteness of the information that they 
give from the immediate neceesitiea of the or- 
ganism. Touch, the most immediate and least 
inferential of the senses, is least subject to il- 
lusions, while sight is so very mnch so that the 
blind often say they have an advantage over 
the seeing in being free from visual illusions. 
The illusions of bodily motion are mnch nearer 
to those of touch than to those of sight, and yet 
they can under certain conditions be induced 
through visual impressions. Of this the writer 
has recently had two interesting examples. He 
was standing upon the fioor of a railroad depot, 
the boards of which were laid with a consider- 
able open space between them; and the shadow 
of an electric light was moving up and down by 
the swinging of the light in the wind. Looking 
at the floor, it seemed as though the shadow 
were stationary, and the floor-boards moving. 
From this it followed that the person on it was 
moving, too, and the writer distinctly felt the 
swinging sensation; in fact, his attention was 
called to the phenomena by the feeling of mo- 
tion. The other observation was as follows: 
While riding in the cars and looking out of the 
window, the trees and all are seen to move in 
the opposite direction. If, now, one looks in a 
mirror so situated that it reflects the passing 
landscape, which, however, must not be visible 
except in the mirror, one has the illusion of 
moving in the opposite to the real direction of 
motion, owing to the reversal of the image in 
the glass. In both these cases an immediate 
bodily sensation is induced by a more or less 
unconscious inference through visual sensa- 
tions. — Science. 

Long Tramway Cables. — A rope just finished 
for the Edinburgh Cable Tramway is 17,000 
feet long. This is the longest unapliced cable 
in uae in Great Britain, but for the Melbourne 
(Australia) tramways ropes 20.000 and 26,000 
feet in length, and without splicing, have been 
supplied. The latter weighs 24 tons. 

Boats Made of Iron and Steel are gradu- 
ally coming" into use on our Western rivers. 
The largest steel hull boat for the Western riv- 
er trade waa launched a few days ago at Du- 
buque, and the large iron coal boat recently 
built at Ptttsburg is giving a good account of 

Cast Iron will expand and contract between 
the extreme ranges of temperature in this coun- 
try with a force equal to 4^ tons per equare 
inch of surface exposed. 

^VHAT is said to be the only locomotive engin 
ever constructed wholly in the South, so far 
as can be learned, has been bu ilt in Anniaton 

Cohesion of Lead. — It has long been known 
that perfectly clean surfaces of lead, when 
pressed together, would adhere to each other 
with some force. The experiment ranks as one 
of the classics in simple science. A very good 
way to show it is with bullets. Small surfaces, 
flat and clean, are prepared on two bullets by 
cutting off a little alice with a knife. When 
preased together with a wrenching motion, the 
two will remain attached. A third bullet may 
now be fastened to one of the pair, and in this 
way a string of bullets, six or more in length, 
can be built up. As the phenomenon depends 
on the absolute cleanness of the surfaces, and 
as it is a case of adherence of like to like, it is 
often invoked aa an illustration of cohesion. 
Pure India rubber shows the same tendency, 
but in a far stronger degree relatively speaking. 
Whether it is true cohesion or not is uncertain, 
especially in the case of lead. The method of 
obtaining this cohesion by employing mechan- 
ically prepared surfaces is a far less attractive 
method than the one which Faraday used in his 
lectures. He melted the lead and poured it out 
in two pieces upon a flat stone. After they 
had cooled, he pressed together the smooth 
lower surfaces of the lead, and thus obtained 
atrong attachment. The flat plane on which 
the lead rested gave the essential true aurface, 
while during the cooling it was perfectly pro- 
tected from oxidation or dust. When lead is 
thus treated, even the upper surfaces which 
have been exposed to the air will answer for 
the experiment. 

Echo-Maker. — The Popular Science Month 
Z.ydt scribes a curious and ingenious device 
called the *' Echo-maker," to be used on ships 
at sea. A fliring funnel is screwed to the muz- 
zle of a rifle. When a supposed obstacle is 
near the vessel the rifle ia fired in its direction, 
and if the obstacle ia there the beam of aound 
projected through the funnel strikes the obata- 
cle and rebounda, and as the echo is more or 
leaa perfect in proportion as the obstacle is 
more or less paralleled to the ship from which 
the gun is fired, and as it is near or remote, 
the position of the obstacle may be inferred. 
The inventor claims that a sharp sound pro- 
jected at or nearly at an object, and only when 
so directed, will in every case return some of 
the sound sent, so that, theoretically, there 
will always be an echo, and the difference in 
the time between the sound sent and the echo 
will indicate the remoteness of the object. The 
naval board tried the echo-maker and fonnd 
that a return sound could be heard from the 
aide of a fort one-half mile away; from pasaing 
steamers one-quarter mile off it broadside to; 
from bluffs and sails of vessels at about the 
aame distance, and from spar buoys 200 (yards 

The Age of the Stars. — A very interest- 
ing address delivered at the annual public ses- 
sion of the five academies of France, October 
25, 1887, by M. Jannsen, the director of the 
obaervatory at Meudon, France, ia published in 
the December number of Citl et Terre and the 
January and February numbers of L^Aatron- 
omie. The principal thought is that the idea of 
evolution may be applied to the stars as well as 
to terrestrial things. The stars are not fixed 
and eternal, but are subject to change and 
time. They have a beginning, a period of activ- 
ity, a decline, and an end. By recent advancea 
in the atudy of celeatial physics, especially with 
the spectroscope, we are enabled to know some- 
thing of the actual condition and relative age of 
some of the stars. We may assume that the 
age of stars, other things being equal, will de- 
pend upon their temperature, and that their 
temperatures are higher in proportion as their 
spectra are richer in violet rays. The majority 

of the stars which are visible to the naked eye 
are white or bluish, and therefore at a high 
temperature; but many are yellow or orange, 
like our sun, showing that they have passed 
their youth; while others are from dark orange 
to dark red, showing that their sidereal evolu- 
tion ia far advanced. 

Scientific and Mechanical Progress. — A 
Toronto, Canada, paper truthfully says: *' After 
the moral and religioaa inatruction of the family 
ia secured, we know of nothing more interest- 
ing and instructive than a record of the prog- 
ress of modern science and its marvelous 
achievements." The eatablishment of journals 
in all our leading cities of an educational char- 
acter, devoted to acientific, mechanical and in- 
dustrial progreas, is one of the most hopeful 
signs of the times. Such journals promote in- 
dustry, progress, thrift and intelligence wher- 
ever they are read, and exert a good, healthy, 
moral influence in any community which ex- 
tends to them a liberal patronage. We present 
this and its sister journal, the Pacific Rural 
Press, as two publications of this character, 
which are eminently deserving of patronage 
and of special value to every machinist, me- 
chanic, manufacturer, engineer, and to the 
farming and mercantile community aa well. 

Interesting Discoveries in Spain. — Recent 
explorations in Spain by two Belgian aoientista 
have resulted in aome very interesting diacov- 
eriea. Relics of a prehiatorio race have been 
found in great abundance, ranging from the 
atone age to that of bronze and metals. These 
people buried their dead not only in stone 
gravea or cells, but also in great jars of burnt 
clay, accompanied by pieces of pottery and oth- 
er articles of use and value. This form of jar 
burial is very widespread, and examples have 
been found from Japan to Peru. These relics 
are supposed to belong to that ancient race 
which lived in Europe previous to the Aryan 
immigration, the various branches of which are 
known as Iberians, Pelasgian, Ligurians, etc., 
according to the conntry in which they lived. 
Several skeletons were found adorned with sil- 
ver and gold ornaments. One of the moat re- 
markable relics is a female skull encircled by a 
band of silver, to which ia attached a thin plate 
of the same metal. 

A Curious Phenomenon. — A cnrions illasion 
of vision has been made the subject of investi- 
gation by a French scientist, the result of 
which, it is thought, may account for the ap- 
parent oscillations or swinging of stars some- 
times observed; that is, on the eye looking con- 
stantly for a considerable period of time at a 
small, feebly lighted body, itself being in com- 
plete darkneaa, the body appears to oscillate or 
to describe certain curves. A atudy of tbia 
phenomenon haa led to the conclusion that it is 
of the subjective order, appearing to be, in 
fact, of the aame nature aa the movement of a 
star observed when a person leans his hand 
against a wall and fixes his eye upon the star, 
the star appearing to be agitated in its place 
and to oscillate rapidly. In order that the mo- 
tion be noticed, there should be no moon, and 
the sky should be clear. 

Experiments with Soap-Bubbles.— At a 
recent meeting of the Physical Society, London, 
0. V. Boys described and performed aome ex- 
periments on soap-bubbles, and by their, aid 
demonstrated in a remarkable manner the phe- 
nomena of surface tension, diffusion, and the 
magnetic properties of gases. By blowing one 
bubble inside another he showed that there ia 
no electrical force iuaide a closed conductor. A 
peculiar property of soap-bubblea ia their re- 
fusal to come into contact when knocked against 
each other; they may receive violent shocks and 
still remain separate. If, however, an electrical 
body be brought in the vicinity they immedi- 
ately coalesce. So aensitive are they to electri- 
cal attraction that a potential difference due to 
one Leclanche cell between the two bubbles 
calisea them to unite. 

Origin of Electricity in Thunder Storms. 
Investigations made by Sohneke have led to the 
conclusion that the electricity which ia die- 
charged during a thunder-storm is produced by 
the friction of water and ice — that is, the ice 
iselectrifitd by friction with water; just before 
a thunder-storm, water clouds (cumuli) and ice 
clouda (cirri, cirrosrati) appear simultaneously 
in the aky« and the friction of these particlea 
of ice and water ia, according to this theory, a 
sufficient cause of the electricity which ia gen- 

To Find the Sun in a Fog — A coi-respond- 
ent writes to the Boston Journal : ''Reading 
accounts of ao many being lost in the snow and 
fog, I would call your attention to a simple 
means of determining the position of the sun at 
any time of the day, which is by placing the 
point of a knife-blade or sharp lead pencil on 
the thumb nail, which will cast a shadow di- 
rectly from the sun, no matter bow thick the 
anow or fog ia. Try it." 

A PHOsrHORESCEMTGLOw ia observed upon 
cutting into brown sugar which has been caked 
in its receptacle, which haa been suppoaed by 
some to depend upon the phoaphorus contained 
in the boneblack uaed in refining it. The actual 
cause of the phosphorescence is, however, un- 
known, bat is an inherent qualify of the sugar. 
Upon breaking the large sugar lozenges sold by 
druggists the same phenomenon is observed. 

JoLY 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific fress. 


SooD He::Alth. 

Care of the FiDger-Nails, 

Ooe ooneidcntion that makee the care of the 
oaila of high importaooe U the fact that every 
person who labors with the hands is li^ible to 
gather, aoder their free margin, matter which 
may be very poiaonous. Many cases have oc* 
corred in which slight scratches of the skin by 
roeans of finger*nails have resulted in malignant 
and even fatal intlimmatlons. 

If, from any cause, the nail becomes thick 
and inelastic, it soon becomes rough and as- 
sumes the appearance of an excrescence rather 
than an ornament. In this condition it is much 
more ditlicult to keep clean. To avoid this the 
hand should not be subjected to the action of 
strong alkalies, snoh as (|uickUme, etc.; neither 
should foreign subataoces be removed from the 
surface by aurapiog, as this will usually cause 
the uail to thicken. 

To cleanse the surface and the margin ad- 
joining the skin, a soft nailbrush, mild soap, 
and soft water should be applied once each day; 
while the foreign matter accuroalated under the 
margin should be removed as often as the hands 
are washed, with the use of a hard wood or 
ivory nail-cleaner. 

This being done while the nail is wet, one 
movement will generally be sutticient to remove 
the substance completely. A knife-bUde is ob- 
jectionable for this purpose becaase it scratobes 
or roughens the nail surface. 

The paring should also be done while the nail 
is soft from washing, with an instrument which 
will make a perfectly smooth edge, and suffi- 
ciently often to limit the breadth of the free 
margin to about one-twelfth of an inch. This 
breadth is best, especially in the case of persons 
who have to do rough work with the hands, for 
two reasons: It prevents the breaking of the 
nail and also the accnmulation of much foreign 
substance. The corners should not be very 
closely cut, or the troublesome condition known 
as an ingrown nail may be produced. To pre- 
vent the breaking of the skin near the root of 
the nail (uotnmonly called ** hanging-nail") the 
skin should be pressed, not scraped, by a dull 
instrument, back from the nail, once a week. 

maximum in October and November. Diph* 
tberia is more evenly distributed through the 
year, and is most dangerous a little later than 
scarlet fever. Measles and whooping-cough 
seem to be somewhat aggravated by cold weath- 
er, but are most fatal in May and June. Hot 
weather is adverse to smallpox, and favorable 
to disorders of the bowels, particulaily in chiU 

Cacsb of Col<jr Bli.vl»nkss.— An article 
in the Medical Preiu advances the idea that 
the particular defect which gives rise to color- 
blindness ties not in the eye itself, but in the 
brain. Certain persons cannot distinguish be- 
tween two musical tones; yet, as they hear 
both, the defect is not deafness, or any fault of 
bearing. Prof. Kimsay, the advocate of the 
idea, therefore argues that in people who have 
no musical "car," the brain is at fault, and as- 
sumes that it may be equally true that the in- 
ability to perceive certain colors is not due to 
any defect of sight, but to the mental lack of 
power in interpreting the impressions conveyed 
to the brain by the optic nerve. If this be 
true, the question of color-blindness ceases to 
be a physical problem, and may be classed 
among oases for the mental physiologist to deal 

The Nose.— It is said by M. Le Bee, a French 
savant, that "the nose is gradually losing its 
power to discharge its traditional function in 
the case of civiliited people; when the sense 
of smell vanishes altogether, as will infallibly 
be the case some day, the organ itself will fol- 
low its example sooner or later, ae nature never 
conserves useless organs and the nose must go." 
The olfactory sense is keener in the savage than 
in the civilized man. Somebody else declares 
that the nose is the source of most of our 
physical woes, this organ being largely responsi- 
ble for headache, cough, dyspepsia, earache, 
neuralgia, hay fever, etc. It may also be added 
that it is the source of many social troubles, by 
poking into other people's business. Will the 
coming man be noseless ? Who knows 'i 

Whisky Not a Cure kor Snake Bite.— Dr. 
Henry 0. Yarrow, whose name is juat now 
prominently before the public as one of the 
physicians attending General Sheridan, con- 
tributes to the ForfM and Slrftam a detailed 
and extremely intereeciog account of the recent 
series nf experiments conducted by him at the 
National Museum to discover an antidote for 
rattlesnake venom. Alcohol in various forms 
is probably to-day the agent in which the great 
portion of the people of the world have the ut- 
most confi'lence aa an antidote, a faith unfort- 
unately not well founded if we may believe 
the many experiments which have been tried, 
Acoordiog to Mitchell, it is merely a counter- 
active agent, a stimulus simply, which may 
buoy the patient over the prostration produced 
by the venom, but as a direct antidote It fails, 
and this is proved by the fact that a mixture of 
alcohol and venom is no less deadly than the 
venom itself. It has been claimed that persons 
in an intoxicated condition, or those habitually 
indulging in alcoholic liquor, cannot be 
poisoned by venomous snakes, but abundant 
proof to the contrary exists, notably in the case 
of Adam Like, reported by Dr. Horner in the 
North American Medical and Surgical Journal, 
1831, XI, 227. This man had been in the habit 
of taking from half a pint to a pint of alcoholic 
liquor daily, and was intoxicated when bitten 
by a rattlesnake. Notwithstanding the serv- 
ices of excellent physicians, a number of reput- 
ed antidotes being used, he died in less than 24 

Salt the Great Regulating Agent of 
Life. — In a recent work by Prof. Burggraeve 
of Ghent, the prominent theory maintained is 
that salt is the great regulating agent of life, 
and on the proper use of which human lon- 
gevity largely depends. Among the interesting 
facts recited by Prof. B. is that about the end 
of the last century a terrible epidemic, bearing 
some analogy to scurvy, broke out in Saxony, 
making such rapid progress among the poorer 
classes that the Government ordered an inquiry 
into its nature and course. The result was the 
establishment of a singular fact, viz., that min- 
ers, although reduced to the same misery as 
other workmen, remained with their families 
completely exempt from the malady. The diet 
of the miners differed from the others only in 
one point, viz., that being employed by the 
State they were supplied with salt gratuitous- 
ly. Salt was then prescribed as a curative 
measure, and the epidemic disappeared. 

To Remove Tartar from the Teeth. 
Should any little incrustation (tartar) appear 
on the sides or at the back of the teeth, which 
illness and very often the constant eating of 
sweetmeats, fruit, and made dishes containing 
acids will cause, put a little magnesia on your 
brush, and after a few applications it will re- 
move it. 

Diseases and the Seasons, — While it ap- 
pears from the records of Eogliab health officers 
that some diseases have special seasons in which 
they are most likely to prevail, it is not shown 
that occasional variations in temperature have 
much influence in the matter. Scarlet fever is 
at its minimum from January to May, and at its 

A New Remedy for Night-Sweats. — Dr. 
Sampson Pope, in a communication to the Thera- 
peuiic Gazette, calls the attention of the pro- 
teseion to an indigenous drug for the relief of 
night-sweats. He says: " The remedy is one 
indigenous to the whole country; it is, there- 
fore, within reach of us all. It is the cinque- 
foil, potentilla eanadensia^ called by some 
botanists, potentilla earmentosa. I have stopped 
night-sweats with it when atropine failed to re- 
lieve. It is pleasant to take; when drawn it 
baa an agreeable odor much like table tea. The 
manner of preparation is to pour boiling water 
on a handful of the vine, leaves and root. Lst 
the patient drink ad libitum." 

hare when running in the snow, and found the 
first two leaps equaled 12 feet each, and the 
third more than IS feet, but he never saw that 
distance exceeded by that species. Ilesaysthe 
common rabbit will, when frightened, leap six 
feet, and on one occasion he measured a jump 
Chat was more than seven feet. When moviug 
at an ordinary rate the rabbit jumps about two 
feet, and the hare rather more than four feet at 
a single leap. 

The Secret or Painting Cuj.vaware. — 
Jenny June, in the American Mayazine, says 
that the present manufacture of porcelain is a 
comparatively recent industry, and is constant- 
ly reaching fresh results. The underglize treat- 
ment of china, for example, was not known here 25 
years ago; it was a secret guarded most carefully 
and coofined to a few European and Kistern fac- 
tories and workers. It was a girl who disjov- 
ered it — Miss McLaughlin — and now it has be- 
come the property of all china decorators. Her 
success was not alone important to china 
painting as an art; it was specially valuable in 
raising the estimate put upon the work of her 
own sex, and has perhaps done more than 
aught else to stimulate to good results the work 
of women in this branch of industrial art. 

Useful Infori^iatiojm. 

HoWto Use Glce. — For glue to be properly 
effective, remarks the Scientific American, it 
requires to penetrate the pores of the wood; 
and the more a body of glue penetrates the 
wood, the more substantial the joint will re- 
main. Glues that take the longest to dry are 
to be preferred to those that dry quickly, the 
slow drying being always the strongest, other 
things being equal. For general use, no method 
givea such good results as the following: Break 
the glue up small, put it into an iron kettle, 
cover the glue with water, and allow it to soak 
12 hours. After soaking, boil until done. 
Then pour it into an air-tight box, leave the 
cover off until cold, then cover up tight. Aa 
glue is required, cut out a portion and melt in 
the usual way. Expose no more of the made 
glue to the atmosphere for any length of time 
than is necessary, as the atmosphere is very de- 
structive to made glue. Never heat made glue 
in a pot that is subject to the direct heat of the 
fire or of a lamp. All such methods of heating 
cannot be condemned in terms too severe. Do 
not use thick glue for joints or veneering. In 
all cases work it well into the wood, in a sim- 
ilar manner to what painters do with paint. 
Glue both surfaces of your work, except in 
cases of veneering. Never glue hot wood, as 
the hot wood will absorb all the water in the 
glue too suddenly and leave only a small resi- 

The Birds to Have a Respite,— Ladies are 
no longer to wear birds on their bonnets and 
hats. Thus, saya London Queen, has it been de- 
creed by fashion. The benevolent edict comes 
juat in time to save the last remaining mem- 
bers of the race of hummingbirds and birds of 
paradise. The great forests of India, Brazil, 
and the banks of the Mississippi have been ran- 
sacked, and have yielded up their treasures of 
winged jewels to adorn the feminine headgear. 
Now at last there is to be a truce to the mas- 
sacre, and the pretty denizens of the woods 
may sing and fly awhile in peace. To estimate 
the extent of slaughter perpetrated for the aake 
of womankind's adornment, we may take the 
statement of a London dealer, who admitted 
last year he sold 2,000,000 email birds of every 
possible kind and color, from the soft gray of 
the wood pigeon to the gem-like splendor of the 
tropical bird. Even the friendly robin has 
been immolated to adorn the fashionable bonnet. 

The Rabbit's Leap. — When speaking of the 
distance a rabbit can cover in a single leap, a 
sportsman writing on the subject says he once 
measured the spaces cleared by an old Mexican 

New Method of Securing the Flap of an 
Envelope. — To secure the flip of an envelope 
80 that it may not be readily opened without 
betraying the fact that it had been tampered 
with, has been the ambition of a good many in- 
ventors. An envelope constructed aa follows 
is the subject of a recent Eagliah patent: The 
flap is so cut and shaped as to bring the point 
ofittothetop right hand corner of the front 
side of the envelope, where the gammed sur- 
face of the flip secures it to the front of the 
envelope. The postage atampiethen fixed over 
the flap so that the envelope cannot possibly 
be unfastened without destroying the stamp. 

To Make Platinum Adhere to Gold. — 
Platinum can be made to adhere to gold by 
soldering in the following manner: A small 
quantity of fine or 18 carat gold should be 
sweated into the surface of the platinum at 
nearly a white heat, ao that the gold shall aoak 
into the face of the platinum. Ordinary solder 
will then adhere firmly to the face obtained in 
this manner. Hard solder acta by partially f ua- 
iog and combining with the surfaces to be 
joined, and platinum alone will not fuse or com- 
bine with any solder at a temperature anything 
like the fusing point of ordinary gold solder. 

New Process of Drawing. — A process baa 
been perfected and patented for drawing upon 
wood by means of a fine metallic point kept 
redhot, so that the lines are actually burned 
into the surface. A powerful oxy-hydrogen or 
other flame keeps the point always at a high 
temperature, and yet the apparatus is so com- 
pact that it may be used with the ease and 
freedom of a pencil. It is, furthermore, ao ad- 
justed as to produce at will all shades of 
brown, from the lightest to that verging on 

To Remove Oil Spots on Paper. — Oil spots 
on wallpaper caused by persona leaning their 
heads against the walla may be removed by 
makiog a paste of fullers' earth and cold water, 
and laying some gently on the surface to be 
cleaned, leaving it until dry, when it may be 
brushed off, and the spot will have disappeared. 
It works best on plain paper, but it does not 
succeed ao well on thoroughly colored. 

Firecrackers.— It ia curious that all at- 
tempts to produce firecrackers in this country 
have failed to secure a home-made article that 
can compete with the firecrackers from Japan 
and China. The importation from these two 
countries this year will amount to 300,000 
boxes, an increase of 100,000 over last year's 

Curing a Smoking Chimney. — A profound 
aoientiat of the nineteenth century living in 
Boston had a smoking chimney in his house. 
After he had spent $400 for various devices to 
cnre it, a ragged tramp came along and sug- 
gested that he build it six inches higher, which 
was done and the evil eradicated. — Detroit Free 

Renovating Picture Frames. — You may 
improve dingy or rusty gilt picture frames by 
simply washing them with a small sponge 
moistened with spirits of wine, or oil of turpen- 
tine, the apoDge only to be sufficiently wet to 
take off the dirt and fly marks. They should 
not be wiped afterward, but left to dry of them- 
selves. _^.^ 

New Method of Destroying Insects. — 
Moths or any summer-flying insects may be en- 
ticed to destruction by a bright tin pan half 
filled with kerosene aet in a dark corner of the 
room. Attracted by the bright pan, the moth 
will meet his death in the kerosene. 

The Corn Canning Business. — Eighty corn- 
canning factories have baen in operation this 
year in Maine, and over 14,000,000 cana of sweet 
corn have been put up, besides large quantities 
of apples, beana, tomatoea and other vegetables 
and fruits. 

California Newspapers. — California has 
520 newspapers and periodicals published with 
in her borders. This is an average of exactly 
10 to each county in the State. Pretty good 
showing for a young State, 

Calaveras Coanly Mining Notes. 

EoiTdRs I're.-^s:— The Albany Flat quarts 
mine and mill has within the past week changed 
hands, two of the partners having aold out to 
Measra. Hay ward v't llobart. These gentle- 
men are now investing largely in mines and 
mills both in Tuolumne aud Calaveras counties. 

This mine has a good strong- vein of 8 to 20 
feet of high-grade ore which pays from $25 to 
$500 per ton. Some of the rock which the 
writer saw would go away up in the thousands. 
As to the permanency of the lead there can be 
no question, and ere long new works will go up 
which will give employment to large numbers 
of men, greatly helping Angels, and adding to 
the permanent prosperity of the pUoe. New 
buildings are now in process of construction on 
the ground. 

The Tryon Mine, 

At Albany Flat, is now being prospected with 
moat flattering results, the ledge showing aim* 
ilar black spots of ore to the mine just aold to 
Hayward & Hobart, and which has proved so 
exceedingly rich. 

The Smyth Mine. 

At Angels, is now down only 24 feet with the 
shafc, yet the ore or vein-matter shows solid 
for six feet in width. This not only shows up 
a body of high-grade sulphuret, but also con- 
tains visible free gold. Very shortly this wilt 
prove a most valuable mine; it is not for sale. 
The owner having stuck to his prospecting for 
12 years past, now backs up his judgment by 
hanging to it and working it -himself. He has 
100 tons of ore in mill from the Whittell mine, 
to crush which promises to pay very well. 
Angela is having an unusual mining boom, the 
claims all around there paying handsomely. 
Claims which Ave years ago could be bought for 
a few hundred dollars now cannot be touched 
for as many thousands. Improvements of a 
permanent character are going up in tbejtown, 
and it is not presumption to say that within 
the next Ave yeara it will lead any other in the 
State aa a gold-producer. 

New milla are going up, and buildinga are be- 
ing built, all pointing to prosperity and auc- 
ceas. Such general pay, from low-grade ores 
with immense ledges to the higher class of small 
ledges, or those of say three to five feet, the 
writer haa not seen or heard of for years past. 

The Union Mine, 

Near San Andreas, has again started up the 
mill under the management of Mr. Rioketts. 
Twenty atampa out of the .30 are now running. 
Like moat of the minea in thia part of the coun- 
ty, the ore is low grade, but with good and am- 
ple mi ling facilities pays expenaea with a good 
margin for profit. 

The Irez Mine, 

At Rich Gulch, six miles above Mokelumne 
Hill, has just completed building a new mill of 
20 stamps, which is one of the finest and beat 
arranged of any in the Sliate. They expect to 
be in runniog order on the 15th of the present 
month, turning out bullion thereafter. 

W. A. K. 

Tuolumne County Mines. 

Editors Press :— The Keltz mine has been 
closed down for some time past owing to lack 
of funds for needed improvementa and proper 
development. Meantime some vandal (in the 
abaence of a keeper at the mill) broke in and 
stole a quantity of ailver-plated plates. The 
superintendent, Mr. Sharwood, has offered $100 
reward for the capture of the thief. 
The Hyde. 

This fine piece of property has been under 
lease for some time past, but the lease has 
about expired, and unless some further un- 
derstanding can be arrived at is likely to close 
down for awhile. The mine is without doubt 
a moat excellent aa well as large one, and can 
easily be made a large-producing property un- 
der good management. 

North Star Mine and Mill (Somerville). 

Thia property is in charge of and managed 
by Dr. F. J. Corbatt. The mill is now run- 
ning in good order, and the grade of the ore, 
we understand, is of a very satisfactory char- 
acter, yielding an average of about S15 to $20 
per ton, with ten stamps running. 

Experimental Gulch Mine (Columbia). 

Thia mine haa been banded to Valentine & 
Co. of San Francisco, who erected thereon a 
ten-stamp milt, and after making several runs 
found it did not pay. Consequently they have 
given it up. Since then some of the men work- 
ing for them got out a small lot of rock and put 
it through the mill, realizing aatiafactory re- 
aults, but the future is not assured. 

The Shanghae and Morgan Mines 
Above Columbia are still dormant, although the 
owner is considering the placing of a mill on 
the property in the near future. Mr. Morgan 
haa stuck to these mines for about 20 years 
past. Such ia his confidence in them that he 
haa not only done the work, but also put 
thousands of dollars in them. The rock cer- 
tainly shows up exceedingly rich in free gold,and 
I being situated aa they are, where abundance of 
water-power can be obtained easily, should 
I make a valuable property at small coat, W, 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 21, 1888 


The following Is mostly condensed from joumalfl published 
io tbe interior, in proximity to the nunea mentioned. 



Cleveland.— Amador Ledger, July 14: Six min- 
ers from Colorado have taken this mine on trial for 
a montb, with the intention of purchasing it at the 
expiration of that time should tbe developments 
prove satisfactory. 

Miscellaneous.— The Dane mill is running on 
some rock from Pioneer district. The Grass Valley 
gravel claim is proceeding with cleaning up. The 
water supply is failing fast, and will be barely suffi- 
cient to enable ihem to finish the season's work. 
An effort is to be mad^ to incorporate the Doyle 
claim, and to sell enough of the stock to provide 
working capital to develop the mine. The prevail- 
ing opinion is that there is every prospect of this 
turning out a good mine, and it is hoped the scheme 
to place it on a working basis will prove successful. 

WiLDMAN. — Sinking has commenced at the 
Wildman mine. The sump has been cleaned out 
and work has been commenced on the solid ground. 
The calculation is to sink 100 feet and start a drift. 
As there is a nice little ledge at the bottom now, 
strong hopes are entertained of an improvement in 
the new sinking, that will make it one of the best 
paying mines in the county. The mill will in all 
probability be kept running during the sinking. 

Drytown. — Cor. Amador Ledger^ July 14: They 
are still sinking at the Cosmopolitan and everything 
wears a busy outlook around the property. Teams 
are engaged in hauling sulphurets from the Key- 
stone and Gover to the reduction works here. They 
will be able to start up in a couple of weeks. The 
wood teams are numerous around here hauling 
wood to the Keysione and Bunker Hill. Mr, Geo. 
Gates of New Chicago has just completed his new 
concentrator and got it into successful operation. 
It promises to surpass anything of the kind now in 
use for doing rapid and clean work. The sulphur- 
ets saved thus far look to be nearly pure. 

Cleanup. — Amador Dispatch, July 14: The 
Goat Shed mine at Pine Grove made a cleanup of 
14 tons last week that averaged about S27 per ton. 
They are down about 36 feet with the prospect shaft 
and the ore is improving both in richness and width 
of ledge as they go down. 


Star of India. — Mountain Echo, July it: It is 
currently reported that the noted Star of India, 
a quartz mine situated near Smith's Flat, and owned 
by Courtis & Co., is about to pass into the hands of 
capitalists. There is an immense body of good mill- 
ing ore in sight. 

Angels. — Former residents of Angels who have 
removed to other parts, and have not seen the old 
camp for the past three or four years, would be 
greatly astonished at the wonderlul strides it has 
made in improvements and progress within thit 
period. They would scarcely know the place now. 
The fact is, however, the town has just commenced 
to grow, and will, in all probability, loom high above 
all other mining towns in the mountains within the 
next three years. 

Confidence. — The furnace at the Confidence 
mine is completed and the boiler has been placed in 
position, and the work of putting up the engine will 
be commenced in a few days. Everything is look- 
ing well in the mine and is proving quite satisfactory 
to the owners. 

Plenty OF Mines. — That many of our valuable 
mines have already passed into the hands of capital- 
ists is very true, but it is not true— as has been said 
by some of our wiseacres and would-be mining ex- 
perts — that there are no mines worthy of notice save 
those located on what they term the mother lode, 
which runs through the town. In fact, there was 
never a greater mistake made, as there are other 
quartz lodes both east and west of this town, which, 
if properly developed, are as rich, if not richer, than 
any of the mines now being worked on this lead. 
Besides, there are the Carson Hill mines, which are 
not on this mining belt, and yet they have produced 
more gold for the amount of labor expended than 
any other quartz mines in the county. Capitalists 
who desire to invest their money in mining property, 
cannot find, anywhere in the country, more desir- 
able sections for that purpose than Angels, Carson 
Hill, Smith's Flat and Murphys, all ot which are 
situated within a few miles of tnis town. 


A Silver Mine.— riV/77j'.r, July 10: Less than 
two years ago Nevada City mining men were crazy 
about a reported strike in silver on a property situ- 
ated I % miles south of Banner mountain and owned 
by the Central Gold and Silver Mill and Mining Co. 
One " Capt."' Channell obtained a 30-day bond 
of the property and endeavored to enlist Comstock 
capital in the enterprise, a project Channell did not 
possess sufficient influence to carry through. Then 
he claimed that his bond was to endure for a year, 
and, as the owners had fatuously neglected to keep 
a copy of the bond, he by bis representations kept 
the property tied up, so at least declared one of 
the owners to us to-day. Mr. Cooptr, who former- 
ly owned a smelting works on Hill's Flat, has a lease 
of the Central Co.'s properly and has shipped sev- 
eral lots of ore to Nevada City and San Francisco 
for reduction. Thirty dollars a ton— a profitable 
yield— has been the average return. This ore came 
from the croppings. A tunnel can be run which 
will tap the ledge at a point which will furnish sev- 
eral years' work in ore extracting. Below the wa- 
ter level ruby silver is found; above, the metil is car- 
ried in black sulphurets. A reduction plant is want- 
ed, for profits are now eaten up by extracting, trans- 
portation and other charges, including the working 
of the ore. 

A New Enterprise.— ^(7;-fl/d?, Jalv g: On the 
Selby Flat side of Manzaniia Hilt, Jerry Blake has 
commenced operations for a drift mine. He has 
started a double compartment shaft, and is now 
down in the neighborhood of 40 feet. He suspend- 
ed sinking by hand a few days since for the purpose 
of putting in pumping and hoisting works. We un- 
derstand the company doing this work is well fixed 
financially and is starting for extensive develop- 
ments. He is now engaged in putting in the ma- 

chinery. The pipe to conduct the water is already 
laid and the water tank is finished. Years ago this 
ground was rich and there is no doubt much of the 
same kind yet untouched. These drift mines will 
yet make this section flourish. 

Omega.— The owners of the Omega mine have 
been for some time working the claim by a hydraulic 
elevator similar to that used at the North Bloomfield 
mine. As soon as Scotchman's creek is worked out, 
the Omega Co. proposes puttingin adam which will 
hold the tailings from several years' washing. The 
location is admirably adapted for a dam, which can 
be built cheaply and so strong that there will be no 
question about its safety and permanence. 

Good Mines. — Mr. Aaron, who was in this sea 
tion a few days since, making observations of the 
mines in this district, after a visit to the North Ban- 
ner and Union mines, at Banner Hill, gave it as his 
opinion that those claims bid fair to make first-class 
mines. They possess all the requisites, and the for- 
mation surrounding tbem is such that there is al- 
most a certainty of being rich and extensive deposits 

The Emancipation Mis'E.— Herald, July 10: 
The mine known as the Emancipation is located in 
Willow Valley, near the Deadwood mill. It is 
owned by Edward Gegan. It consists of three 
ledges. The one which is now being worked was 
discovered a few months ago while running a tunnel 
to strike one of the other ledges. When struck, the 
owner took out 17 tons of ore which yielded $495.30, 
exclusive of sulphurets. There has been another 
crushing taken out since and it was crushed last 
week. There were about 20 tons and it yielded 
$1623.30, exclusive ot sulphurets. The work has all 
been done within tbe past two months and mostly 
by the proprietor himself. By driving from this 
ledge across to the next, a distance of 153 feel, the 
owner will strike another ledge in the location , on 
the croppings of which, ig years ago, the rock paid 
$9 per ton, the ledge being about 18 inches on the 
surface. The third ledge embraced in this location 
crosses the second one, and the rock from that paid 
$22 per ton 18 years ago, and $3660 was taken out 
at that time. The tunnel, when in at that point, 
will have 140 feet backs. This is a pretty good 
showing for Nevada district, and shows what is still 
in store for the energetic prospector. 

No QtJfCKSiLVER.— Nevada City Herald. July 
12: Wnen passing the Tilton camp, on the Bloom- 
field road, Mr. Aaron asked for a specimen of the 
rock being taken out there, and it was given to him 
by Mr. 'iilton. He sent the piece to the State 
Mining Bureau to see if there were any traces of 
quicksilver in it. The answer received yesterday 
was to the effect that it is a very hard quartz, con- 
taining oxide of iron, but no quicksilver in any form. 
Mr. Aaron says if Tilton has quicksilver up there he 
does not know the kind of rock that contains it, for 
he selected the piece assayed himself. 

The Rainbow. — Tbe reported rich strike at the 
Rainbow mine, at Alleghany, must be correct, as 
H. K, Noble, one of the plucky owners, who has 
staid by it through thick and thin, went up this 
morning in response to a telegram announcing the 
strike. When Noble got busted in stocks he went 
to the mine and with drill and hammer went to 
work with his own hands. He has put up money 
for development work ever since. His persistence is 
deserving of reward. 

Omaha Consolidated. — Tidings, July 12: In 
addition to 20 tributers and contractors, 40 miners 
are employed at the Omaha Consolidated at day's 
pay. The ten-stamp mill is now running on com- 
pany rock of fair grade and it is believed the run will 
be continuous. This applies to the ore from the 
Omaha shaft. In Lone Jack shaft the water is being 
steadily lowered and of course more or less timbering 
being done. At a point 320 feet from surface two 
shafts were discovered, but these were found to con- 
solidate at a depth of 420 feet. The water is at pres- 
ent just below this point and the shaft is in very good 
condition. A week ago a drift to connect the Oma- 
ha and Lone Jack shafts was started from the Omaha. 
This will be 150 feet in length and is calculated to 
penetrate the Lone Jack at a depth of 400 feet. 

Development Work. — Greenville Bulletin. July 
11: The Crescent mine is being worked steadily, 
and it is reported that satisfactory results are obtiin- 
ed. The Indian Valley runs regularly. Mr, Prentiss 
gives it his personal supervision. It is understood 
that the ore is yielding a good profit Work con- 
tinues on the Drury, the ore being crushed at the 
Arcadia mill. The ore body in the mine is simply 
immense, and is paying. Geo, Standart cont'nujs 
working the Pacific, Fifteen stamps of the Kettle 
mill have been kept busy, and the ore is supposed to 
be paying well. At Wolf Creek, development work 
is progressing. It is intended to put up a mill this 
fall. The Sunnyside mine is said to be paying well 
at present, and quite a number of men are employed. 
On a bar in the river below the Sunnyside mine, a 
company of Chinese, a few days ago, obtained a 
nugget weighing S300. The claim is rich. The 
Glazier drift mine on the North Fork is paying hand- 
somely. Wm. Roedde and August Goeble are report- 
ed to have a rich surface claim on Rush Creek. 

San Dleso. 

Sinking.— Julian Sentinel, July 13; On Mon- 
day morning work was commenced sinking a shaft 
at the new Magazine mine, the property of Messrs. 
J. Marks and S. L. and Duncan Ferguson. At 
present they have gone down about ir feet, and 
good prospects are reported. 

HiddenTreasure.— F. M. Carrell, J. M. Parks, 
G. R. Moore and E, H. Lee are working the Hid- 
den Treasure mine at Banner under lease. They 
are taking out some very fine rock. 


^ New Mills.— Sierra Tribune, July 14: At 
Scotts Flat, about six miles below Alleghany, parties 
are engaged in building a 40-stamp mill upon what 
is known as the Red Chief mine. In the same 
vicinity another party is putting up two Hunting- 
ton mills. 

Strike at the Rainbow,— Nevada Transa-ipt, 
July 14: The town of Alleghany, Sierra county, 
was wild with excitement Thursday over a strike in 
the Rainbow mine at Chips Flat. The richest kind 
of ore is said to have been developed by the new 
tunnel, which taps the ledge at a much greater 
depth than it has ever before been worked. The 
Rainbow has in years gone by produced some of the 
richest quartz ever extracted from any mine in Cali- 

fornia, but before attaining a great depth the pay- 
chute was lost and subsequent operations have been 
confined to prospecting for it. 

Martin Mine.— Nevada City Herald, July 9; 
W. G. Benalleck & Co. own a very promising quartz 
ledge about two miles east of Sierra City. It is a 
north and south ledge; is about seven feet in width 
and the rock shows free gold throughout. It is 
heavily charged with iron sulphurets, which bear 
gold. There is 100 tons of good ore on the dumps. 
The developments thus far are a shaft no feet deep 
and a tunnel 75 feet in length. The ledge lies be- 
tween porphyry and slate. Free water for power is 
abundant, and timber enough for all purposes be- 
longs to the property. Mr. Benalleck is superin- 
tendent. The location of the mine is such that it 
can be worked by tunnel for years. 

Tunnel. — Mountain Messenger^ July 14: H. 
Laferie was down from the Pliocene shaft, Tues- 
day, and reported the pumps in good running or- 
der, and the boys blasting merrily away at the new 
Extension air-line tunnel, in near 2000 feet, with rath 
er tough rock in the face. 

Alaska. — North San Juan Times, July 13: The 
Alaska mine at Pike City is steadily increasing its 
crew of workmen. Monday last several men passed 
through our town en route to Pike, from Nevada 
City and down the ridge. Who said the Alaska was 
no good ? 


River Claims. — Yreka Jovrnal, July 14: The 
McConnell claim at Klamath river is now being 
worked with good success, rich pay gravel having 
been found at both derricks. We hear that gravel 
hoisted by one of the derricks paid 19 ounces in one 
day lately. The Centennial Co. has an open cut 
down nearly 40 feet, or within 15 feet of bedrock, 
and expect to realize big pay when ready to bottom 
up. The claim is being worked in the most system- 
atic manner by Marsena Mott, one of the best river 
miners on the coast. The Chinese Co. working the 
claim near the Fort Jones claim is taking out big 
money this season. Another Chinese claim just be- 
low the above is also paying well. They took out 
100 ounces in a very short time after reaching bed 
rock lately, a distance of 70 feet from surface of 
river. This claim pays from 20 feet below surface Io 
bedrock, hence open cuts are more successful than 
drift mining. The Phil Mott claim, further down 
on the Klamath, is also being worked with good 
success. Other river claims are being industriously 
worked both below and above Humbug creek, on 
Klamath river, and considerable dust is brought to 
Yreka every week for general circulation. 

Quartz. — Messrs. Mallow and Allison of Scott 
valley have discovered a rich ledge of quartz beyond 
the summit of Humbug mountain, above the old 
Eliza ledge, which prospects exceedingly well, all the 
quartz pounded out in a mortar yielding rich pay. 
Ihe Hamilton Brothers & Humphrey, of Fort Jones, 
have also discovered a ledge at summit of Humbug, 
on north fork, which prospects very rich. We learn 
that a party ot prospectors discovered an exceedingly 
rich quartz ledge in the Siskiyou foothills, last week, 
between Empire creek, on Klamath river, and Hun^ 
gry creek. 


New River.— Humboldt Standatdy July 7: We 
have received a visit from John S, Thomson of New 
River. He tells us that there is a steady flow, ex- 
ceeding $10,000 in gold bullion monthly, from this 
camp, which is handled mostly at the Selbv Smelt- 
ing and Refining Works and Price's assay office, San 
Francisco. The Uncle Sam mill is running on ore 
from the mine of the same name and doing custom 
work. Colgrove & Clement's mill — three stamps — 
is kept busy on ore from the Excelsior and Mount- 
ain Boomer mines. The Thomson & Smith mill — 
six stimps, double battery— keeps three stamps busy 
crushing ore from the Carrie mine, and three run- 
ning on custom work. Sherwood's arastra is kept 
at work on ore from the Sherwood mine. The 
Mountain Boomer mine has cleared up over $10,000 
thus far this season. The ore averages $So to the 
ton. Six men are kept busy working in the mine 
and an f qual number about the mill. The Excelsior 
has produced over 200 tons of ore this season which 
averaged $30 to the ton. The mine has six men em- 
ployed getting out rock, and there is a good dump 
now ready for crushing — the mill not being able to 
work up the rock as fast as it is taken out. Besides 
these regular producers of bullion, much ore is 
brought from mines in course of development, Al 
Campton of Rohnerville has a mine on Pony creek, 
and has been getting some rich rock worked up at 
the Thomson-Smith mill. His mine prospects well, 
A. Yocum of Areata has been having ore from the 
Little Gem mine worked at the same mill, and it 
shows well. The Hunter mine, belonging to Cle- 
ment & Co., has been getting good rock worked at 
this niilL The mines owned by Billy Mills, Capt. 
Buhne, D. R. Jones, all Eurekans, have also had good 
rock worked at the mill. Several other mines are 
showing splendid prospects, but as yet are only 
spoken of as outside mines. It is not only New 
River, but for miles in all directions new prospects 
are being opened up. Especially is this true on 
Knownothing creek, 12 miles northwest of New Riv- 
er, where Hansen & Raddelfinger have opened up a 
mine, and the day our informant left New River, it 
was reported that Bennett and his partner had found 
a rich ledge on the opposite side of Knownothing 
creek, from the mines of Raddelfinger & Hansen. 
Twenty miles east of New River, on East Fork, 
Pearson of Junction City is putting :n a five-stamp 
mill to work ore from his mine. Many capitalists 
and mining experts are in this section looking up 
good gold prospects. Mr. Thomson says that a 
careful estimate of the output of bullion from the 
New River mines shows that over $2 has been taken 
out for every $1 invested in the camp. This is no 
idle assertion; it can be substantiated by figures, 
Closed. — Sonora Democrat, July 14: The Hyde 
mine is closed down for a time, owing to some dis- 
agreement respecting the conditions of the bond, 
held by Messrs. Spencer and Green. It is expected 
that the mine will rSsume work shortly. 

Great Western,— Messrs. Paul Morf, Eugene 
Abbott and F. Cullers are opening their mine, the 
Great Western. It is situated about 15 miles from 
Sonora in a northeasterly direction and about six 
miles from Confidence in a westerly direction. The 
parties are running a tunnel on the lead, and by 
those who are judges of quartz we are told that it is 
not at all refractory and that it will yield readily to 
simple amalgamation process. It is thought the lead 

will pay from $20 to $25 per ton. It runs obliquely 
across the country rock, which is slate, and its course 
will necessarily bring it in contact with ojher quartz 
lodes and with feeders. 

Dutch.— Messrs, D. Lucas. Geo, Katf^an, James 
and Chas. Fitzgerald purchased this week a most 
valuable piece of property at Quartz mountain. It 
is known as the Dutch mine and is the north end of 
the Heslep and App mines. Both of these mines 
converge until at last they unite in the above lode. 

Mill.— Although the Stanislaus Tunnel & Min 
ing Co. intend erecting large works on the Stanislaus 
river in the near future, yet they are not going to 
hastily conclude on the details of machinery. Mr. 
McCann thinks of furnishing the mill with the new 
Blanding rock breaker which is giving such general 
and signal satisfaction. 

Leased,— Messrs. D. W. Cameron and A. A, 
Grant have leased the lead belonging to Mark 
Hughes in the southern part of Sonora and are go- 
ing vigorously at work. The lead is considered one 
of the best in this district. The lode is, consider- 
ing its pocket nature, a large one, and is attended 
with all of the favorable conditions. 

Placers. — The company which last year made 
arrangements to work extensive placers below Rey- 
nolds' Ferry on the Stmislaus river is now following 
up the preparations with all possible dispatch. They 
are building a large wheel, and as soon as the river 
subsides, which it is now doing rapidly, it will be 
turned into the long tunnel. 

Tuttletown. — Tuolumne Independent, July 14: 
Mr. Fischer is sinking a new shaft on the Leonard 
mine; it is down 60 feet, and shows a ledge 6 feet 
wide, prospecting well in free gold. He is using the 
Ritchie mill to crush the ore. Fred Sutton is work- 
ing the Grass vein of the Ames mine, crushing the 
rock at the Patterson. The men who bonded the 
Long Gulch claim are well satisfied with the fine ore 
that is coming out. 


Central District. 
Millionaire O^^.— Silver State, July 16: A. 
H. Ruse sent out about nine tons of second-class ore 
from the Millionaire mine to J. F. Clark's concen- 
trating works on the Humboldt. It produced nearly 
half a ton of concentrates which assay $702 to the 
ton. The ore carries $58 per ton in chlorides, which 
is saved by pan process, besides the concentrates. 

Surefca District. 

Silver. — 'E.MTQka. Sentinel, July 14: A streak of 
rich silver ore has been found in the Alturas mine, 
on the northern ridge of Prospect mountain, near 
the Eureka Con. mine. It is said to go 284 ounces 
per ton. The discovery was made in a shaft about 
70 feet below the surface. 

Hawtborne District. 
The Evening Star.— Walker Lake Bulletin, 
July 1 1 : The present lease of the Evening Star mine 
will expire on the i8th inst., and the lessees are de- 
termined to "make hay while the sun shines." They 
expect to have between 1200 and 1300 sacks of ore 
ready for shipment before the lease expires. This 
will amount to about 70 tons. Frank Thorne, one 
of the lessees and part owner in the mine, estimates 
that the rock will mill over $200 to the ton. This is 
no wild estimate, but is based upon frequent assays 
and daily hornings. When it is taken into consider- 
ation that less than $iooo has been expended on the 
mine so lar, the result is most cheerful. Six cars 
have been engaged to transport the rock to the 
Briggs mill, near Silver City. A representative of 
Caiitornia capitalists made a tour of inspection 
through the mine on Saturday, with a view of pur- 
chasing. The owners are not over-anxious to let go, 
however, as they are satisfied they have one of the 
best mines in the district. 

Lodi District. 

Good Results. — Belmont Courier, July 14: 
Alfred Welsh continues to work the Illinois mine* 
Lodi, Nye county, with very flattering results. At 
a distance of 200 feet from the mouth of the tunnel 
a winze has been sunk 80 feet which has developed 
an immense body of high-grade ore that will work 
over $400 per ton. Four men take out a ton of ore 
very easily per day. It is smelting ore — carbonate 
and galena — and is shipped to Reno for treatment. 
The Silver King — an extension of the lUinois — is 
being worked .by James Graham and A. Farrington. 
A shaft has been sunk on the ledge to a depth of 
114 feet and shows ore in its bottom that assays $128 
in silver and $19 in gold per ton. A tunnel is being 
run which will tap the ledge at a depth of over 200 
feet. This tunnel is now in -200 feet and the ledge 
will be cut when it is run about 50 feet further. 
The indications are considered favorable for a big 
body of ore. Streaks of mineral are coming in. 
The chances for a live camp at Lodi are remarkably 

Sellgman District. 

Progress, — Eureka Sentinel, July 14: W^e learn 
that the concentrating works at Seligman are run- 
ning constantly and successfully, except as to the 
du;t, the separation of the metal from the gangue 
of which is somewhat tardy. This is merely one of 
the contingencies that are seldom avoided at the 
commencement of a new enterprise. Several wells 
have been sunk at Seligman and the supply of water 
has been considerably increased. A Frue vanner 
concentrator will be set up in the machine-shop for 
the purpose of treating the dust and handling it with 
greater expediency. If it proves successful, several 
more will be added. In the meantime the work of 
exploration in the Pursell series of mines continues 
with unabated energy. A large amount of ore is ex- 
posed in tbe tunnels and inclines, those on the Pursell 
No. 2 mine looking the best at present. Sloping 
has commenced in good earnest. The working 
force has been increased to 177 men, besides 22 
Chinamen that are employed, 

Morey District. 
iMPROVENfENT IN THE VEINS. — Eureka Sentinel, 
July r4: We learn that a number of tribulers are at 
work in the mines of Morey district, Nye county, 
and we are reliably informed that they never looked 
better than they do at present. The veins are true 
fissure?, which cross the country in an east and west 
course, at a distance of about 1000 feet apart. The 
mountain in which they are situated is very steep and 
rises precipitously from the foothills. The mines 
have been opened principally by tunnels entering 
the foothills and following the veins. The country 

Jolt 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


rock IS graoiie, which, (or .-» considerable distance 
along the line of Ihest tunnels, ii very much broken 
up and the veins arc displaced at several points, but 
the tunnels, gaining great depth as they arc driven 
westward into the heart of the mounlain, arc now 
entering a more permanent formation, where the 
veins being consequently undislurtx-d arc I.kewisc 
showing a more permanent condition as greater 
depth is attained, Messrr;. Moore Sc Shendel have 
lately been working the Magnolia mine under tease, 
and Are developing a line ledge of ore, a part of 
whtLh is high grade and easy of reduction. They 
have just completed a shipment of 36 tons to Salt 
L^kc, which, by careful sampling on the dump, 
shows a value of $300 to the ton, about $10 of which 
is in gold. 'I'he low-grade ore, which contains 
blackjack and is of a rebellious character, is not 
touched, but the mine, under the conditions of the 
lease, is kept open, in order that this material can 
be utilized by (he owners at a future day, when it 
can be mined profitably to them under improved 
facilities. As the saying goes, "blackjack rides a 
good horse," and the pfpsence of this nuterial is re- 
garded as a good augury. 

Taylor District. 

Closed Down.— White Pine AVi.j, July 14: 
!..ast Saturday morning, under orders from Supt. 
Carothcrs, the Argus series of mines were closed 
down and al! hands discharged The following day 
Mr. Underbill came up and paid ofT. The order 
came unexpected, even to Mr. L'ndcrhill, who rep- 
resents the l:^stem owners, or five-eighths of the 
property. Since the company commenced opera- 
tions here lour years ago ihey have taken out near- 
ly a million dollars gross, with crudest of working 
appliances and a management more fickle and 
changeable than the lunar phases. It is true that 
this vast amount of money was spent in working the 
property and paying for it, and little, if any, found 
its way into the owners' pockets. As it is a private 
company, that always promptly met its obligations, 
neither the press nor public had any right to criti- 
cise its mode of operation, ajd we have refrained 
from doing so. The Argus mines after four years' 
work have been barely scratched, certainly not pros- 
pected, and all the indications piint to extensive 
mineral deposits that when economically extracted 
will keep their mill running for a score of years to 

Tuscarora District. 

r^AVAjO QUEF.N. —Tuscarora Timts-J^eviciu. 
July 14: Northeast drift, 200-foot level, continues to 
look favorable. 

Belle Isle.— The slopes are yitlding about as 

Navajo.— The 350-fool level stbpes produce their 
usual amount of ore. 

FoundTreasure.— Small shipments of ore are 
being made 10 reduction works. 

Del Monte.— No. 2 crosscut north from tunnel 
drift extended 30 feet, passing through seams of 
high-grade ore. 

North Belle Isle.— North drift, 400-fooi level, 
extended 10 feet; the vein in the face is increasing 
In width and the ore is very high grade. Everything 
is running smoothly in and about the mine. The 
grade for the conceniraiors is finished and the me- 
chanics have begun on the buildings. 

(iRAND PRtZE.— Preparations for the extraction 
of ore, such as timbermg, starting chutes, etc., on 
the 2oo-foot level drifts, are being pushed as much 
as possible. Slopes above the 300-foot level are 
looking and yielding belter. A night crew has been 
put on at the hoisting works to lower the water, and 
as soon as the winze on the west vein, 300(001 level, 
is drained, the rich ore left showing in the bottom 
will be followed on down, (jood progress is being 
made on repairs at the mill. 

Commonwealth. — East crosscut from south 
drift, 100-foot level, has bten extended eight feet, 
passing through a good grade of ore; have not 
reached the footwall. Intermediate drift from top 
of No. 8 upraise has been extended six feet, all in 
high-grade ore assaying $556 per ion. North inter- 
mediate, west of the shaft, is showing extremely rich 
ore. The east lateral drift, from main south drift, 
has been extended eight feel, there being four feel 
of $200 ore in the face. 1 he mill was started Mon- 
day and is doing good work. BatKry pulp assay, 
$474 per ton. 

Nevada QiTEEN.— The 400-fool level of North 
Belle Isle is within six feel of Queen line. The ore 
is improving in width, very high grade and carrying 
a large percent of gold. The work on Ihe slopes in 
the 350-foot level is progressing nicely, Ihe ore open- 
ing up well — even better and larger than was ex- 
pected. South drift from bottom of the winze, 90 
feel below the 200-fcol level, is being cleaned out 
and put in shape for sloping. The ore is looking 
well all along the drift and is high grade. The 150- 
foot level drill from Commonwealth has been ex- 
tended five feet; the ore is improving. Average as- 
say from car sample of ihe week— 125 Ions dumped 
m North Belle Isle orehouse — $212 per ton; 200 
tons on concentrating dump, $30,23 per ton. 
Washington District. 

DeLong Mine.— Belmont Courier^ July 14: It 
is expected that considerable work will be done in 
the DcLong mine» San Juan canyon, Nye county, 
this summer. The ore is of a smelting character 
and can be profitably reduced near to the mine, as 
wood and water are plentiful and cheap. 


The Silver King Co.— Silver Bel/. July 7: We 
learn from a reliable source that the affairs of the 
Silver King Mining Co. are in a serious plight The 
company's checks were allowed to go to protest for 
two successive months, and an arrangement was 
finally effected whereby the Bank of California lakes 
up the King Co. 's paper and issues its own notes 
payable several months hence. An assessment, the 
first, has been levied upon the slock, and shares have 
declined to $t. We hope the company's affairs are 
not so bad as these reports indicate. The Silver 
King mine is famous, has paid 69 dividends aggre- 
gating $2,000,000, and has always been honestly and 
intelligently managed, although the management 
has not escaped the charge of extravagance. The 
last annual report of the superintendent was very 
favorable, suggesting large ore reserves. The com- 
pany has been at heavy expense during the past 
year for additions toils plant and in exploiting its 
mine, and it is not improbable— and we certainly 

hope such will be the case — that increased ore pro- 
duction and the resumpijon of dividends will soon 
follow. 'ITie comp.iny is now promptly meeting its 

The Oi.n CiUARiJ.— Toml)ston'- Efiif.iph, July r4: 
Ihe financial emUirrassment of iht company has 
been caused in England, where slock subscribed has 
not been paid for. and is not lrace.»blc to the man- 
agement of Ihe property here nor to the directors, 
who have ably discharged their duties. We have 
the assurance of Mr. Williams that every dolUir of 
indebtedness will be paid in a few days and work re- 
sumed as per agreement made with him while in 
lx>ndon. More than that, when the mill starts up 
custom ore will be purchased at living prices, and if 
the business justifies additional stamps ihcy will be 
immediately added. 

A Grand Coi'PEr Property.- Horcnce Enier- 
pri%e. July 7: A representative of the Enterprise 
visited the l^ke Shore copper mines in Casa Grande 
district, and he places his views of it in the following 
language: "Cochise county has her Bisbce and 
Copper Queen; Gila county has her Old Dominion; 
but Pinal county can well bo.isi of a copper proper- 
ty that is destined to keep lit her smelter fires for 
years to come. The Lake Shore is 23 miles from 
Casa Grande on the Southern Pacific railroad. 
This property has a large amount of work done on it, 
and in no instance has a shaft or drift been run but 
what large bodies of ore have been encountered. 
The <_>ld Dominion under ilie greatest disadvantages 
has proved the life of Gila county, ihe Copper Queen 
of Bisbce is upon a career and basis so prosperous 
that they have raised ihcir workmen's wages from $3 
to $3.50 and informed their employes that their 
money could be drawn upon any day that they 
needed it, and now the mine itself is building a 
branch railroad to connect with the Southern Pacific 
road. This iLself is a standing manifest to the de- 
gree of prosperity which our copper properties will 
yet advance us. That smelter fires will be kept 
ablaze by the Lake Shore for years to come is a fore- 
gone conclusion; that they have not been ablaze be- 
fore this must be attributed to the modesty and in- 
diflfereiice of the owners, Messrs, Aitchison & Traut, 
who have seemed indiflTerent whether the outside 
world were cognizant of this great wealth being in 
their possession. During the year 1883 $100,000 
cash was asked for this properly. There are 1000 
tons on the dump and 300,000 tons in sight." 


Ore, — Georgetown Courier, July 12: Sixty-seven 
cars of ore were shipped from Georgetown during 
the month of June. A contract has been let for the 
remainder of the machinery at the Florence tunnel. 
The entire plant, with buildings, will cost neatly 
$15,000. It is expected to have the machinery in 
operation by the first of August. Mr. Colburn fig- 
ured up the development on the Sporting limes 
property a few days ago, and found he had 1362 feet 
of adiis, drills, winzes, etc., which, together with 
the patents on the several lodes, has cost him $14.- 
346. He intends to commence a 60-foot shaft 
shortly on an eight-inch vein of $60 ore. 


Lookout. — Deadwood Pioneer, July 13: As was 
staled a few days ago in the columns ot a Rapid City 
paper, a fortunate discovery has recently been made 
in the Lookout, one of the best developed claims in 
the group owned by the company. The discovery, 
due in a measure to accident, was made by cutting 
through some eight or ten feet of barren rock, before 
supposed to be a wall, but which proved to be a 
horse, and finding not only that the ore body is 
much larger than the owners believed, but that this 
portion of it al least is of much belter grade than 
that on which the mill has been running. Twenty 
stamps have been dropping for ten days; the other 
20 stamps, making 40 in all, were set in motion 
Tuesday. The mill is run by water-power, and the 
ore brought to it by a chute, so arranged titai a 
loaded car descending to the mill furnishes motive- 
power to haul the empty car up the incline to the 
mine. Everything is conducted on principles of the 
strictest economy. The totdl cost for mining ami 
milling is rather under than over $1 per ton. The 
ore is said to average, milling lest, $2.12^ per ton. 
An apparently inexhaustible body is in sight, and 
the mine promises lo prove a bullion-producer for 
many years to come. 

Reduction Works.— Plans and specifications, 
expected several days since for llie leaching plant, 
have not yel been received. The reason assigned 
was unavoidable delay in execution of them, owing 
lo the absence from New York, at the lime Messrs. 
Hickok & Clark reached there, of the pattern-maker 
at the foundry from which machinery has been or- 
dered. President Franklin, yesterday, however, re- 
ceived a telegram announcing the drawings were at 
length complete, and that Mr. Hickok would last 
evening start from New York with them. 


Oro Fino, — Idaho Avalanclie, July 7: The Oro 
Fino Mining Co. is not only pushing work under 
the superintendency of Mr. M, F, Leech on the Oro 
Fino and Sinker mines, but also the grading for the 
50-stamp mill which will be erected on the east side 
of town as soon as the grading is completed. A 
survey for the tramway lo run from the Oro Fino 
mine to the mill al this place is being made. When 
the tramway shall have been completed, it will be 
about I J^ miles long. While excavating is being 
done, and the mill is being built, the company will 
be developing the mines and extracting ore. At the 
present lime work is progressing rapidly, and good 
ore is being extracted from the Sinker lode. The 
Oro Fino Co. has enterprise, and money lo back 
its undertakings, and before the year shall have 
passed will be shipping bullion weekly from its 
valuable properties. 

Struck it Rich. — The upper crosscut struck the 
Sullivan & Philips lode on Tuesday last, and although 
a sufficient amount of work has not been performed 
to fully develop the extent of the ore body, it is 
known to be rich, as specimens shown us fully verify. 
Drifts will be started each way from where the cross- 
cut intersects the vein, and the mine opened as 
rapidly as possible. 

Ore AND Bullion Shipments.— Ketchum Key- 
stone, July 14: The Ramshorn Mining and Smelting 
Co., at Bayhorse» has shipped through the Ketchum 
Fast Freight Line, since May 7lh, 18 carloads of 

baso bullion, weight 438.24; pounds, and one car- 
load of kamshorn ore, 27,252 pounds, consigned to 
the Pennsylvania I-ead (.0. at Mansfield, Pa. A. J. 
Crook \ to., of Clayton, have shipped during the 
same lime 11 airloadi of bullion, weighing 249,463 
pounds, and 9 carloads o( Skylark ore, 236,805 
pounds. Thus the base bullion shipments from 
Custer county, via Ketchum, in 60 days, were 29 
carbads weighing 687.710 pounds, and the total ore 
shipments, 264.057; total ore and bullion. 951.767 
[X)unds, or about 106,000 pounds per week, all of 
which has been promptly ddivered to the railroad at 
this |>oini in about that amount weekly. Most of 
this bullion was on hand when shipping began and 
consequentiv the shipments to date have been great- 
ly in excess of the current yield of the works, espe- 
cially In the case of the Ramshorn ( o. 


Helena Smelter. —Billings Gazette, July 7: The 
work on the Helena smelier is progressing with all 
rapidity, and it is hopefully expecti d that the great 
works will be prrpired to receive ores by the first of 
December. About 40 men are now employed on the 
siie and on the various necessary outbuildings, be- 
sides 18 teamsters who operate 2-horir teams. Prof. 
Raht is .superintending the work, but James L. 
McKay has the operations under his immediate 
direction. The men are at present engaged in level- 
ing off the ground for the site of the buildingsand in 
the tilling and culling of ground for the hne of rail- 
road which is to be used to carry the material to the 
buildings, and the appearance of the place is one of 
bustle and business. As soon as the work is far 
enough advanced, the Northern P.tcific proposes to 
lay an elaborate system of tracks, which will run to 
and through the buildings. 

West Granite.— Phillipsburg Mail, July 7: In 
the Butte crosscut the condition is unchanged from 
last week, wiih the one exception of there being a 
liille more water than heretofore. The contractors 
are making a iiiile better progress than lor the last 
two weeks. The tunnel header is now in 795 feel, 
with the f,ice of the working showing a hard, flinty 
granite country rock. Work in the east drift on the 
400-foot level of the Rattlesnake still continues, with 
no further indications to report, A crosscut north 
and south in the drift in the Fraction ground is be- 
ing talked of in order to thoroughly prospect the 

Hatta.— From E. D. Holland, who returned lasl 
Saturday from Dunkleberg, we learn that the incline 
shaft on the Hatta will be completed to the old 
workings in about three weeks. The old drift on 
the vein will be continued and sloping will follow. 
The ore is to be shipped to Omaha immediately on 
extraction. From the same gentleman it is learned 
that work has been suspended on the Little Joe and 
Silver Bell claims, lately worked by Scott ik Hower. 

jEi-KERSON County Mines.— Butte /«/tfr-;1^(?«/7/- 
ain, July 14: In the vicinity of Wickes a large 
amount of activity in mining is being shown. Three 
new steam hoists are being erected al the present 
lime— one on ihe Bluebird, owned by Maulspagen 
& Co.; one on the Overland, owned by Gunnersole 
& Co ; and one by the Boulder Chief Mining Co. 
The Evening Star, owned by Briscoe & Co., will 
start up in a short lime, as they are now busy get- 
ting things in shape. A St. Louis Co. is placing a 
6o-ton concentrator close by to work custom ores, 
and this, in connection with having two railroads 
near, is encouraging the owners of prospects to 
make a struggle to do something for themselves. 
The Placer companies at Radersburg are running 
their giants, while the water season lasts, and from 
previous records will net good results. In quartz 
the Keating mine is being worked steadily by two 
companies. The Toston Co. has the portion owned 
in former years by Blacker, and John Keating is 
running his own interest. The ore is mostly shipped 
to the Tosion smelter. A lo-stamp gold-mill is run- 
ning on some of the ore from near the surface. 
There is quite a number of very promising prospects 
on Uncle Johnnie's gulch, some three miles from 
Radersburg, and considerable development has 
been done here during the past winter. In the Dog- 
town mines things are just now at a standstill. The 
Blackhawk mine has a large amount of high-grade 
ore sacked and ready for shipment. In the Indian 
creek district a few men are working in the placers. 
Wheeler Kimberlaod and partner have lately struck 
some very fair pay; $25 to $30 to a six-foot set 
ot timbers is not bad. The Liule Giant mine that 
has been worked for the past iB or 20 years is yel 
panning out belter than wages to ihe owners. This 
is certainly one of the most continuous of Montana 
gold quartz mines. It was always small (from four 
to eight inches of ore is all they have), but they work 
it right along year alter year. It runs about $503 
ton. John Murray has a mine on the right-hand 
fork of Indian creek, called the Iron Mask. He has 
shipped some very fair ore from it, running about 
$100, He hasa shaft down 200 feet on this proper- 
ty, and it promises well. Frank Wells of Raders- 
burg has an extension on this same lead called the 
Lookout, with a shaft 50 feet deep and showing 
some good ore. A large amount of prospeciing is 
now going on in this vicinity. A Helena company 
has 12 men at work on a prospect that is not far 
from the Old Jaw-Bone mill (one of the old-lime 
failures) that shows some very handsome ore. John 
Murray is cleaning up a very handsome amount 
from his old Hog 'Em hydraulic mines. The con- 
tinued wet weather will give him a good season's 
water lo operate with. The old I'-on Age mill on 
Beaver creek is stamping away on ore averaging $10. 
This, with its facilities lor working, will net the own- 
ers a handsome monthly dividend, and they have 
quantities of ore in sight. 

Rich Copper Samples. — Helena Herald^ July 
7: Some rich specimens of copper ore are exhibited 
in the city by Col, Hawkins, an experienced Cali- 
fornia miner, whose recent explorations have ex- 
tended to newly developing mineral districts in 
Western Montana. The ore samples referred to 
come from the Home mine in the Bitter Root coun- 
try. The discovery claim is said to show a vein nine 
feet in width. Col. Hawkins, in his discoveries, has 
also uncovered very promising veins of galena and 
gold ores. He is in Helena, having assays made of 
the samples he bears with him. 

Sydney Con. — The work of pumping out the 
mine is still going on with success. SupL Gable 
gives it as his opinion that by the first of the week 
three shifts of men will be employed and at work 
sinking the shaft. 

List of D. S. Patents for Paoifio Coast 

Reported by Dewey 2i Co.. Pioneer Patent 
Sollcltora for Pacific States. 

Fioni the offlcljkl report of U. 8. Pfttents In DiwiT A 
Ca'a Pfttent Office Llbrftry, 220 Ibrket St., 8. F. 


385,985.— Station Indicator— Mark Anthony. 
S. F. 
385,696.— Cmurn- J. C. Cole, Brents, W. T. 

385.793-— I-*TME Chuck Attachment— Flndlay 
Cumniing, S. F. 

385.701.— Railway Rail-K. Euphrat. S. F. 
385.8S9-<-»iMKNT— I. C. Hatch, Santa Cruz, 


385,812.— DREDGEk— Knight & Lambing. Sutter 
Crrek, C^l. 

385 936.— Dental Engine- W. .-V. Knowles. 
AUmeda, Cal. 

386,024 —Cak Brake— I, Nichohon, S F. 

385,780.— Instrument i-oK Plotting Contours 
ot- Ground— M, Sti.vrud, Sejutle. W. T. 

38O 046.— Lamp Shade — Genevieve Watson, 
Seiit le, U. T. 

386,049. — Railway Signal — G. H. Wright, 
S. K. 

NoTi.— CopfBB ol U. 3. and Foroljfn patents furnlahed 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortoBt time poeslble (by mall 
or teleirraphic order). American and Foreign pateD».B 
obtained, aoJ ^'crieral patent business for PaclBo Coa jt 
Inventors transacted with perfect acourity, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortcat possible time. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained throngb 
Dewey & Co.'b Suientific Press U. S. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the foUowiDg are 
worthy of special mention: 

Dredojno MachIxVE.— Satnuel N. Koigbt, 
Sutter Creek, and Isaac F. Lambing. lone, 
Amador county. No. 385,759. Dated July 10, 
1888. This patent covers an improved dredg- 
ing bnoket and meohaniam for opening and olos- 
ing the same. It is intended to be applied tu 
the machine illustrated in the Miniko ani> 
ScrENTiFia Press of July 14, 1888, for deep- 
creek and river-bed mining. This bucket is 
very strong and is operated by steam. When 
closed the bucket forme a nearly tight and per- 
fect hemisphere, and the whole apparatus, with 
its load, is lifted by the crane and transported 
over the dump. By constructing the bucket- 
sections of the hemispherical form and with 
the sharp points, their effectiveness in digging 
the material is very great. 

Lathe-Chuck and Attachment for Turn- 
ing Treenails, — Findlay Camming, S. F. No. 
385,793, Dated July 10, 1888. In the turn- 
ing of treenails or similar articles in which it is 
deoirablo to do the work speedily, considerable 
delay occurs because it is necessary to stop the 
lathe after eaoh one is fiuisbed and remove it 
and place a new one in to be turned, after 
which the lathe must be started. This inven- 
tion consists of a chuck by which the square 
pieces from which the treenails are turned can 
be instantly seized and released while the lathe 
is in motion, and an adjustable traveling cutter 
by which the square strips are turned into 
cylindrical form, with the exception of tbe 
head, which is held in the chuck, said cutter 
being eelf-adjuatiug, so as to adapt itself to 
strips, which may be warped or not, perfectly 

Ballion Shipments, 

We quote shipments since our last, and ahall 
be pleased to receive further reports: 

Confidence, 16, S18,183, total to date on 
July account, $36 282; Oest, 15, $12,000; Iron 
Mountain, 6, $16,000; Mt. Diablo, 14, $8347; 
Blue Bird, 14, $46,.S36; Pollock, 14, $8896; 
Lexington, 14, $24 .336; Moulton, 14, $11,120; 
Hanauer. 12, $2500; Germania, 12. $2279; 
Hanauer. 13, $1800; Pollack. 10, $9040; Cons. 
California and Virginia, 14, $68,806; Richmond 
Cons., 14, $17,739; Eureka Cons., 14, $12,730; 
Hale and Norcross, total for June, $149,365. 
List week tbe shipments from Salt Lake were 
as follows: Wells, Fargo & Co., $82,140; Me- 
Cornick&Co., $34,780; T. R. Jonts & Co., 

New Incorporations. 

The following companies have been incor- 
porated, and papers filed in the office of the 
Superior Court, Department 10, San Francisco: 

Occidental Construction Co., July 14. 
Object, to build, maintain and operate gas, 
electrical and water works. Directors — L. L. 
Bromwell, General W. Lynch, John D. Yost, 
H. Wadsworth aud M. S. Newell. 

Mussel Slouoh Canal Co., July 14, Capi- 
tal stock, $200,000. Object, acquiring and 
selling water rights and operating canals for ir- 
rigation Durposes. Directors — Charles L. Lind, 
George H. Malter, William H. Jordan, Frank- 
lin P, Bull and Lee W. Mix. 

The Educational Convention.— San Fran- 
cisco has received several thousand visitors this 
week, who are in attendance on the National 
Educational Convention. These teachers come 
from all parts of the United States, and many 
of them will spend several weeks in California 
yiBiting the different points of interest. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 21, 1888 


Centrifugal Roller Quartz Mills, 


Mining Machinery of Every Description, 


Centrifugal Roller Qaartz Mill. 





The prinoiplo of pulverization consists in the employment of two 


Of dry inper-lieated steam, so arranged that they continuously charge themselves with crushed or granulated material, and by 
the yrbat force and velocity of the steam currents the minerals are dashed against each other with such power of concus- 
flioii as to cause the hardest ores to be pulverized to any degree of fineness desired. The high temperature of the saper- 
lieated steam currents employed, through which every minute particle of ore mupt pass, causes them to become very 
hot and dry, wiiich produces a beneficial efifect upon Sulphurets and ores containing maty Gold. The light weight 
and simplicity of conatruction of the Pulverizer, the extremely small and inexpensive wearing parts, are the WONDER 
and SURPRISE of all who witness its operation. The Company is prepared to furnish complete plants for p^^lve^izing 

10 TO 200 TONS PER DAY, 

Including a Sectional Steam Boiler supplying all the power required. 


View of Pulverizer. 

L. F. HOLMAN, Pres't. 


2 and 4 Stone Street, NEW YORK. 

T^^rlto for I*«, 



EUI.DA BROS., Proprietors, 

30 to 40 Spear St., San Francleco. 


tS'Suip, MiNiNQ, and Water Tanks a Specialty.*^ 


Cor. Fremont and Mission Sts., • - San Francisco, Cal, 







































and BOILERS, 300 Sizes 


San Francisco Cal. 


Liberty St. 

New York. 

We have here the Stamp Mill in a cheap and simple form. The high drop of the old stamp 
is more than compensated for by the great weight (1200 lbs. each) of our stamps, and the ra- 
pidity (300 strokes each per minute) with which they run. There are 4 shoes in each stamp, so 
that there are 4800 strokes of the shoes on the dies per minute. Less power is required than in 
any other mill to do the same amount of work. 

The Mortar has screens at both ends, giving ample discharge. There are no cams or tap- 
pets to wear or be adjusted. The stamps adjust themselves as the shoes wear. 


Goes with each Mill. We also have a suitable 

Several Mills are now in the mines doing excellent work. The "Economic" is not only a 
mill for small mines, but we believe it is destined to soperskde the old stamp in mills of the 

LARGEST capacity. 


Manufacturers of Mining and Sawmill Machinery, Engines, Boilers, Etc. 



— AND— 

Cbrome Cast Steel for 
Rock Drills, £tc. 


220 Fremont St., San Francisco, 


Special attention given to purchase of 


aoteed to prove better and cheaper than any others. 
Orders solicited, subject to above conditions. 

H..D. M0RBI3. 

DEWEY & CO.,{^B°ielS?o??i1.*F^?n^tlt^} PATENT AGENTS. 

July 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



This Mill as a Cruaher and Pul- 
verizer ifl withoat rival. 
la in operation in e«d* 
ing amelting wor<a 
and mills. 



Bnntlngton Centrifngal 











FultoQ and Union Streets, Obicaso, HI. 

Boom 48, No. 2 Wall Street. 







No. 248 ElKbteenth Street, Denver, Colorado. 

No. 11 Calle do Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. 


Mining Turbine Water Wheel. 

These Wheels are iIoBigncd for all purposes where limited quantitlce of water and 
high heads are utilized, and are guaranteed to give more power with leas water than 
any other wheel made. Being placed on horizontal shaft, the power is transmitted 
direct to shafting by belts, dispensing with gearing. 

Estimates furnished on application for wheels specially built and adapted in 
capacity to suit any particular case. 

Further information can be obtained of this form of construction, as well as the 
ordinary Vertical Turbines for Wooden Penstocks and in Iron Globe Cases, free of cost, 
by applying to the manufacturers. 

Springfield, Ohio, 


or 110 Liberty St., New York. 

FRASER & CHALMERS, General Agents, 

Chicago, 111., and Denver, Col. 

PARKE St LACY, General Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 

C. H. EVANS & CO., 

(Sucoeflfcors to THOMSON &. EVANS), 

110 & lis Beale Street, S. F. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an. ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxxu'ies or the 
necessities of life. "We 
can olothe you and furnish you "with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
styles and quantities. Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will bo sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 


111-114 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 


44 Third Street, 

San Francisco, Cal, 

Thie Fire-proof Brick Building la centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 


Tbls paper is printed with Tnte- Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 600 
South loth St., Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
ce8-47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St, Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Josepb E. Dorety, 639 Oommerclal St., S. F- 


First Premium Awarded at Mechanics' Pair, 1884. 

Sole Liiensed Manufacturers of the 

Medart Patent 'Wronglit Rim Pnlley 

For the States of California, Oregon and Nevada, and the Territories of Idaho, Washington 

Montana, Wyoming, Utah and Arizona. Lightest, Strongest, Cheap'^nt and 

Best Balanced Pulley in the World. Also Manufacturers of 



Noa. 129 & 131 Fremont Street. - - ' - - San Francisco. Cal. 


Are you going to make any change in machinery? Are you freighting by team or packing on 
mules? Do you want Pulleys on Shafting already up? If so, don't fail to look into the 
merits of 



They are flie I^ightest, Strongest, Best Ba1ance<1 and Most 
Convenient Pulleys Made in the World. 

Entirely new and original. Adapted to any power required. Time, trouble and money saved by using these pulleys. 
Also Apent for the DODGE SYSTEM OF KOPE TRANSMISSION. Estimates furnished, 
^r Price List and Catalogues mailed free. 

JOHN SIMONDS. Pacific Coast Ag:ent, 509-G13 Mission St., S. I<\ 

New Almaden Quicksilver. 

Room 22, 320 Sansome St., 


_ devolving. Jetting, Hydraulic, Dia- 
■mond. Prospecting Well Tools, Wind 
■Engines and Deep Well Pumps. Trea- 
Stise on Katural Ga.s, or our Encyclo 
^liedia, mailed for 
Ijiijc. jj,Q American 
JWell Works, 

Aurora, 111 




524 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Ores Received on Oousignment, Sampled, Assayed, and Disposed 
of in the Open Market to the Highest Bidder. 

I^etalliirgy apd Ore3. 



416 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

And Assay Office. 

Highest Prices Paid for Gold, Silver and 
Lead Ores and Sulphorets. 





SHOT, Etc., Etc. 


Standard Shot-Gun Cartridges, 

Under Chamberlin FatenL 





63 & 05 First St., cor. Mission, San Francisco. 

We would call the attention of Assayers, Chemlstfa' 
Mining Companies, Milling Companies, Prospectors, etc., 
to our full stock of Balances, Furnaces, Muffles, Cruci- 
bles, Scoriflers, etc, including, also, a full stock of 

Having been engaged In furnishing these supplies sinoc 
the first discovery of mines on the Pacific Coast, we fee 
confident from our experience we can well duit the do 
mand for these goods, both as to quality and price, Oui 
New Illustrated Catalogue, with prices, will be sent oe 

i^Our Gold and Silver Tables, showing the value pei 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for computation of assays in grains and grammes, 
will be sent free upon application. Agents for the Patent 
Plumbatro Crucible Co., London, England. Also for E. 
G. Dbnniston'b Silver Plated Amalgam Plates. The 
plates of this well-known manufacturer are thoroughly 
reliable, and full weight of Silver guaranteed. Orders 
taken at his lowest prices. 


Nevada Metallurgical Works. 


Near First and Market Streets, S. F, 

C. A- Ldgkhardt, Manager. Bbtabushrd 1868 

Ores worked by any Frooesa. 
Ores Sampled, 

Assaying in all its Branches. 
Analyses of Ores, Minerals, WaterS| eto. 
Working Tests (practical) Made. 
Flans and Specifications furnished for the 
most suitable Frocess for Working Ores. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Mines; Flans ajid Reports furnished, 

(Formerly Huhn Sl Luckhardt, 
Mlnltur EnKineers and MetallurarlstH. 



818 Pin© St. (Basement,, 

Corner ol Letdesdorfl Street, 


Ores Sampled and Assayed, and Tests made by my 
Assaying and Analysis of Ores, Minerals and Waters. 
Mines Examined and Reported on. 

Practical Instruction given Treating Ores by m- 
proved prooeises. 

G. KUSTEIi & CO., 
Mining Engineers and MetaUurgists. 

€3rO TO 

American Exchange Hotel. 

The above Hotel is situated In thef midst of the Bank- 
ing and Commercial Houses of the city, and is by far the 
most home-like and desirable Hotel to stop at. 


C. A. STETEFEIDT, President. 

Boom 709. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 21, 1888 

Mining Sliare Market. 

Mining stocks have been inactive, the only 
topic of interest being the contest at the Sav- 
age election on Thursday afternoon. This 
takea place too near the hour of going to press 
for us to report the result. Up on the Com- 
Btocb changes are being made at the California 
battery and pan mill in the manner of transmit- 
ting power from the Pelton wheels in the Con. 
C. shaft. The surface wheel, which was at the 
mouth of the shaft, has been taken down, and 
is being set up at the bittery-mill. The water- 
pipe which supplies it with propelling power 
will now course from the side of the mountain 
and course around direct to the battery-mill. 
After the water passes the wheel it will pass to 
a winze and he caught in a tank. It will then 
be taken by a large pipe, led down the winze 
660 feet through the Litroba to the shaft, and 
then go to the 500-level as formerly, and then 
to the 1000 and 500 levels. The changes in the 
shaft are insignifieant, being only that the 
power from each wheel will be aggregated on 
the surface-shaft independently of one another. 

Placing a Pelton wheel at the mill, lands 95 
per cent of its power on the tools and does away 
with wire ropes. It will also enable the mill to 
run when cleaning-up is going on at the pan- 
mill — a big advantage. 

On the surface, transmission of power will be 
exactly as formerly, but its distribution at the 
mill will be quite different. 

San Franoisoo Metal Market. 


Thursday, July 19, 188 

Antimony— French Star y (^ 

Borax— Kefincd — 'f^ 

Powdered 1 p 

OouceDtrated 6i(ff 

Copper— „„ „ 

Bolt 26 @ 

Sbeathiug 26 @ 

Ingot — @ 

Fire Box Sheets ~ ^ 

Iron— Gleugamock ton — («28 

EgliDton, ton — @27 

American Bott, No, 1, ton — @31 

Oregon Pig, ton • 21 &2'i 

CUy Lane White — @23 

Shotta, No. 1 -- <a29 

Bar Iron (base price) ^Mb 2|,@ — 

Lkaj>— Pig 5 0" ^~ 

Ear 5 23 @- 

Sheet 8 & 

Pipe , 7 (((' 

Hhoc, discount 10% on 500 bag l>rop, W bag. 1 55 ^ 

Buck, ^bag H^ @ 

Chilled, do 1 95 @ 

Stebi. — Englisb, lb lb & 

Black Diamond tool... ^^ ^ 

Pick and Hammer 8 (S 

Machinery 4 @ 

Toe Calk ^ja 

TiNPLATE— Coke 5 75 @ C 

Charcoal G 75 ® 7 

UiCKaiLVEK— By the flask. 38 50 @40 

Flasks, new 1 t)5 @ 

Plaska, old 85 @ 

New York Metal Market. 

Telegraphic advices dated July 19th g^ive the following 
New York prices: 

Uar SiLVKR— 91Jc per oz. 

Borax— 9c. 

Copper- Lake — Si G. 75 

Iron— No. l, S22 00. 

Lb4,d— s3.92i(a)— 

Tin— SIS.SOO* . 

The foUowing is the latest hy mail from the " New 
York Metal Exchange Market Report": 

Copper — Easier, soot closine at Sl6.5n@16.80. Trans- 
ferable Notices (Lake) issued at §1C.50(<6 . 

Lkau — Firm, at $4.02i@4,07 spot. Traiiaferable Notices 
issued at S3.97(r(-1 05 

Tin— Dull at SIS.40@18.50. 

Prices Kcnerally ruling for metals not regularly dealt 
in on call at the N. Y. Exchange, covering extremes of 
buyers' and sellers' views. All prompt delivery. Aus- 
tralian Tin, @ : Billituu Tin, (3) ; 

Banea Tin, @ Baltimore Copper, Sll.75@15.00; 

Orford Copper, S15.50@17.75; P. S. C. Copper, @ 

; Foreign Lead, S4.6i@5 00; Foreign Spelter, 

S5.10(&'5.15. Antimony, S10.12(5ll3.30. 

Oar Agents. 

Ona PRIENDB can do much in aid of oar paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents Id their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

G. W. iNGAbiiS- Arizona Territory. 

A. F. Jewett— Tulare Co. 

C. E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Cn.'a. 

John L. Doyle — Oregon, Montana and Idaho. 

E. B. Grbrnodqu— Humboldt Co. 

W. W. TiiROBALDS — Sonomfi, Napa and YoIo Go.'s. 

P. E, Logan- Lake Co and Nevada State. 

S. J. LiT'iLFFiELD— Santa Eirbara, Los Ans^eles and 
San Diego Co.'s. 

Sampling Works for Sale. 

The works are s'luated on A. & P, R. R., Calico 
Mining District, Daggelt, Cal., and contiin a first- 
class Engine and Boiler with Ore Crusher and other 
machinery, Plaf^orm Scales, Mill Scales, Assaying 
Outfit, etc., all nearly new. Also upon the prem- 
ises an office building and a comfortable dwelling 
house (portable). The above can be had at a bar- 
gain. Apply to Gtllespv & Childs 123 Cali- 
fornia street, San Francisco. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should thiB paper be received by any B"bacriber who 
does not want it, or beyond Ou time he intends to pay 
for it, let bim not rail to write ub direct to stop it, A pos^l 
card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will not know- 
inglv send the paper to auyoue who doea not- wish it, but 
If it is continued, through the failure of tbe subscriber to 
notify UB to discontinue it, or Bome irresponsible party re- 
quested to stop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time it is sent. Look oarefullt at the labsllon 


R. J. Elam, a mining operator well known 
in Utah and Nevada, waa drowned in SAi, Lake 
OD Wednesday, while bathing. 

The mining town of Calico, San Bernardino 
coanty, has again been vieited by a serious fire. 



IiocATioN. Ko. Am't. Levied. Delinq'nt. Sale. Seobetabv. Place op Business 

25., June 5. .July 10....,Tuly 31..L08boni 309 Montgomery St 

25.. June 5. .July 9. ...July 31. C C Harvey 303 Califomia St 

25. .June 30.. Aug l....Aug 22..W W Tenney 402 Montgomery St 

50..July 18..Aug 22 " -^ , ^ , .. ..-a^ ... „. 

10. .Apr 18. .May 24, 


EestA: Eelcber M Co Nevada.. 40.. 

Bodie Tunnel M Co California. .15.. 

Baltimore M Co Nevada.. 2.. 

Belcher M Co Nevada.. 3>.. 

California Slate Co California . . 1 . . 

Diana G&; S M Co Nevada.. 7.. 

Eldred M Co Oa iforuia.. 2.. 

Fouod Treasure M Co ....Nevada.. 3.. 

Gould & Curry S M Go Nevada. .59.. 

Gray Eagle M Co Califo'-nia.. 8,. 

Great We.stero Q M Co Cal foru a.. 1.. 

Loue Jack M Co California,. 2.. 

Live Oak Drift G M Co California.. 9.. 

Nye M Co Nevada. , 1. . 

Occidental Con M Co Nev da.. 2.. 

Potosi M Go Nevada.. 20.. 

RuBsell Reduction fit M Co.. California.. 2.. 

Silver Kjug MCo Arizona.. 1.. 

Summit M Co Califi mia..lO.. 

Seg Belcher & Mides Con M Co... .Nev.. a. 

62.-. July 12.. Aug 17.. 
50.. June 22.. July 26.. 
05.. July 7.. Aug 11.. 

.Sept 12.. J Crockett 327 Pine St 

June 25. .J O Hanacom 10 Cabftrnia St 

iO..Jilne5..Jury 10.... July 31..J WPew 310 Pine St 

01.. May 28.. June ;8... July 30.. N A Eldred 15-3 California St 

"~ "" Sept 7..J Stadfdd Jr 3i.9 Montgomery St 

, Aug 16. .A K Durbrow 309 Montgomery St 

„ AuB 31.. T Wetzel 322 Montgomery St 

10. .July 17.. Aug 24.... Sept 14.. A Halsey 328 Montgomery St 

10.. July 11.. Aug l(!....Sept 7.. J J ScoviUe 309 Montgomery St 

■" ^ --.-.- Aug 6. J Morizio 328 Montgomery St 

July 24.. W JDorlon 40' California St 

.July 25.. A K Durbrow 309 Mi ntgomery St 

.Sept 5..C EEIli.ttt 309 Moi.tgomery St 

July 3l..JMorizio 328 Montgomery St 

-Aug 23.. J Nash 328 Montgomery St 

July 31.. G W Session 319 Montgomery St 

15. .June 13. .July 17.. 

05. . May 2S.. July 5.. 

20.. May 29.. July 2.. 

50,. July 13.. Aug 16.. 

10.. June 6.. July 9... 

50..June23..July 30. 

10. .Junes. .July 11., 

25. .June 5. .July 9.... July 30 E B Holmes 309 Monrgomery St 

SoTitbern Cal Coal & Clay Co Cal.. 1.. 10. 00.. May 26. Jute 26.... July 26. .W G Mugau 10 California St 

Sierra Nevada M Co Nevada.. 92.. 2S..JuIy 10.. Aug 14.... Sept 1..E L Parker 309 Moutaomery St 

Union M Co California.. 35.. 05.. July 5.. Aug 7 Aug 25.. R Hancock Grass Vulley 

Venus M Co California.. 3.. 35.. July 3. . Juiy 31.... Aug 20.. J Calver 152 Fourth St 

Western Mineral Co CaUforuia.. 2.. 1. 00.. June 2t.. July 30. ...Aug 20..A Cbemerant 328 Montgomery 3t 

Nabte of Company. Looation. Seobetaby, Office in S. F. Mebtino Datf 

Benton Con MCo California.. V B Allen 330 Pine St Annual July 27 

Lady Washington MCo Nevada. ,WH Wat'jon 3J2 Montgomery St Annual July 25 

Mountain Tunnel G M Co California.. E C Landes 216 Sansome 3t Annual July 26 

Maryland M Co Calif ornia.,L V Dorsey Grass Valley Annual Aug 28 

Mayflower Gravel M Co California. .J Morizio 328 Montgomery St Special July 21 

North Be'le Isle M Co Nevada. J W Pew .-.. ..310 Pine St Annual July 27 

New York HiU M Co Cabfornia..J B Leigh ton 313 Montgomery St Annual July 30 

Name of Company. Location. Secbetart. Office in S. F. Amount. Payable 

Con California & Va M Co Nevada.. A W Havens 309 Montgomery St 50 July 12 

ConfideueeSM Co Nevada.. A S Groth 2.00 July 10 

Eureka Con MCo Nevada.. H K P Hutton .306 Pine St 25 July 9 

North Belle Isle M Co Nevada. .J W Pew 310 Pine St 50 May 7 

North Star M Co California.. D A Jennings 401 California St 50 July 11 

Halefi; Norcross 3 M Co Nevada.. J F Lightner 309 Mo ' tg->mery St 50 July 9 

Idaho MCo California Grtsa Valley 50 July 11 

Pacific Borax. Salt & Soda Co.. California.. A H Clnugh 230 Montgomery St l.tO July 10 

Standard Con M Co California.. J W Pew 310 Pine St (5 June 12 

Table of Lowest and Highest Sales in 
S. F. Stock Exoiiange. 

Name of 







Best& Belcher... 



Belle Isle 

Bodie Cou 


Bodie Tunnel,,,, 


Con. Va. &Cal... 


Champion ^ 



Con. Imperial.,.. 


Oon. PacLtic 

Crown Point 






Exchequer ; 

Grand Prize 

Gould & Curry..., 
Hale S Norcross., 







Lady Wash 

Martin White 



Mt. Diablo 

Northern Belle..,. 


North BeUelale... 


Nev. Queen 

North G. & C 







P. Sheridan 

Silver Star 


June 28. 








3 35 



Sierra Nevada. . . 

Silver Hill 

Silver King 



Union Con 


Vellow Jacket.., 


July 5. 

3. £5 3 95 

1.15 1.25 

.75 .80 

.50 .65 

2.25 2. 

July 12. 

1.75 2 10 
1.55 1.65 
1.25 1, 

3.90 4.50 
1.25 1.30 

.80 .85 .R5 1.00 
9i l"i 9S 11 
4.00 5i 5.i5 6.50 

3 65 3.95 
39i £0 
.45 .bt 

4.604.2') 4.9i 

1.25 .90 1.00 

.45 ,40 .45 

I. 00 1.05 

2 10 2.70 


4 10 




2 75 

3 60 


1 15 1.25 
2.25 2.4! 
3.05 3.2i 
7.23 7.50 

2.25 2.50 
3 05 3.20 
6.25 7.50 


.75 .95 

1.45 1.50 
,60 3.90 

3.S5 4.00 

4.?0 4,85 

1.30 1.35 
6; 7.25 
1.75 1.90 
3 30 3, 

2 P5 

3.55 3.90 
19i 21 

4.30 4.95 

1. 00 1.10 


July 19. 

1.70 1.95 
1.50 1.60 
1.10 1.25 


3.65 4.30 

3!55 4^20 
1.10 1.25 
,40 .70 
,50 .50 
2.i5 2.6J 


2^70 3!i5 
- ISJ 


Ores, MiDiDg, and Goimission, 

420 Montgomery St., S. F. 


UNION COPPER MINE, Calaveras Co., 

Correepoadent as Agent for Pmeltera in LoodoD, Liver- 
pool, New Yorit, Boston and Baltimore. 

Twenty years experience, in California, purchasing Ores 
and dealing in Mines. 

Special attention given to management and sales of 
mines and purchase and shipment of copper produce 

1.05 1,20 

2.25 2.45 

2.70 3.05 

5.75 6.50 


2,70 3.25 


1.00 1 JO 
3.25 3.35 

1.60 1 
3.50 3 95 

3.40 3.80 


4.90 6.25 

1.3) 1.75 

6.50 7S 

1.65 l.S 

3.20 3.65 

00 2.25 

65 .75 

3 90 4 10 4.05 

2 70 2.95 2.75 3 25 

3 45 3.75I3 30 3. a 



3 50 3.703.31 
1.40 1 5'!1.40 
t.25 5.00 4.70 

IM 1.70 

6', 7! 

1.60 1.95 

2.65 3.40 

1 85 1.95 

65 .70 



3 65 

3 65 


Sales at San Franoisoo Stock Ezchange. 


American Railway PDblistiiDg Co. 



"The Street Railway Joarnal,** "Tlie Ameri- 
can Jouraal of Kail way Appliances," 
*• Power— Steam." 

Rkprbbentkd bt JOHN S- EWEN. 

115 Kearny St. (rooms IS & 19), San Fianciaco. 

i^The best advertiein? mediums in their line in the 
world. Rates on appHcatioa. 

Practical Treatise on Hydraulic Mining. 

By AUG. J. BOWIE, Ja. 

This new and important book is on the uee ao'' con- 
struction of Ditches, Flumes, Dams, Pipes, Flow of Water 
on Heavy Grades, methods of mining shallow and deep 
[Placers, history and development of mines, records of 
gold washing, mechanical appliances, such aa nozzles, 
hurdy-gurdys, rockers, undercurrents, etc ; also describes 
methods of blasting; tunnels and sluices; tailing's and 
dump; duty of miners' inch, etc. A very practical work 
for gold miners and users of water. Price, 35, post-paid. 
For sale by Dbwbt & Co., Publishers, 252 Market St.. San 


Patented Sept. 2.S, 1SS6. 


We invite your special attention to 
our uew 

CoiiWe-ActiDs Siierpil Cyl- 
iufler for Deep fells, 

The accompanying cut illustrates the 
Cylinder and its working parts, which ia 
very simp'e in its construction and not 
liable to get out of order. 

We are now offpriop for sale the entire 
patent, either hy State Rights or as a 
whole, at amazingly low figures consider- 
ing the actual worth of such an article. 

Parties desiring to purchase territory 
may reap the benefit of our lowest possi- 
ble terms. 

For a fuU and comp'ete description 
and prices of the same, address 


1738 Twelfth Avenue, 


THE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnta 
™ new lite into tae Antiqnated Horse I 
For the last 14 s'eara the H. H. H. Horse 
Lzniment has been the leading remedy 
tisong Farmers and Stockmen for ths 
care of Sprains, Bruises, Stiff Joints, 
ispavms, WindgallB, Sore Shouiders, etc.. 
»nd for lamily Dse ia without an equal 
j;or Khenmatism, Neuralgia, Aches, Paino, 
Bruises, OntsandSprainsofailcharactero, 
Ihe H. H. H. Lmiment has many iraita- 
Sone, and we camion the Public to ees 
chat the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is OE 
9very Bottle before parchasine. FiiPaaJe 
svurywhers fee 60 cento and Sl.Ofi nai 

For Sale by all Druvelsta 



24 POST ST., S. P. 

College instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything' pertaining to buhiness, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school baa 
its graduates in every part of the State, , 
tiS'SasD FOR Circular. 

E. P. H£ALD, President. 
C. S. HALEY. Secretary. 


San Francisco Cordage Factory. 

Established 1856. 
Constantly on hand a [uU assortment of Uanlla Rope 
Siaa Rope, Tarred Manila Rope, Hay Rope, Whale 
Line, etc, etc 
Extra sizee and lengths made to order on short notice 
611 and 613 Front St., San Francisco, 

Thursday, July 19, 1S3S. I 

200 Alpha 1.80 

100 Alta 1.551 

ino Andes 1.15' 

350 Baltimore 40c 

150 Belcher 3.85 

100 B.&Belcher 3.60! 

S'-O Bullion 1.20l 

300 Bodie 2 20 

200 Burner 80ci 

200 Chollar a. 95 

150 Con VaiOal 9^ 

100 Crown Point 4.2U| 

700 Con. Imperial 50cl 

40 Confideuce 174 

100 Crocker 95ci 

100 Exchequer 1.10' 

50 Gould & Curry. . . 

100 Hale&Nor 

450 Justice 

50 KentucK 

500 Locom.. 




50 N. Belle la ... 

3 06 

100 Nev. Queen 

250 Overman. 


20 Occidental Con.. 

175 Savage 

250- S. B. & M 

...3 50 

100 Sierra Nevada... 

inO Utah 

40 Union 



3 30 

150 YeUow Jacket.... 


J- A. Johnson, 307 Montgomtry sfeet (the Ne- 
vada Bank building) is the general agent of the Stiles 
quartz machinery, and offers easy terms for intro- 

BACKPiLKSof the Mining and Sciknttfio Prfhs) un- 
bound) can be had for §3 per volume of Pix months. Per 
year (two volumes) S5. Inserted in Dewey's patent bind- 
er, 50 oentji ndditional per volume. 


Advertiser wishes to bond good mines for the foreign 
market. Those in active production preferred. Time 
required Address, 

"O.," Box 255 (B) 

San Francisco, Cal. 


2 Triumph Concentrators. 

1 New 1 2-inch, 35 H. P. Engine. 


130 Sansome St., room 12. 


No Vacations. Day and Evbnino Sbbbions. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A.. President. 

A. L. OTT, 

MannfadnriDg Jeweler & Diaionil Setter, 


Above Montgomery, bet. Bush and Sutter, San Franciaco. 

Designs and Estimates furnished on application. 


WORKS : First and Stevenson Sts., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 





MACHINE TOOLS, and full line of 

MACHINE SHOP APPLIANCES carried in slock. 

ELEVATORS ^o^ freight and paesenger uBe, both worm gear and patent double capacity 

WATER METERS of the Worthington pattern. 
ELECTRIC APPARATUS f™ the generation and diatribntion of electricity for LIGHT 

and POWER. Keith System. 
FLOUR MILL ROLLS ground and corrugated, Geak Cuiting a Specialty, 
iW Prices on application. Send for Catalogue, "SS 

July 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


3\r. S- IS-ESITH, 






Incandescent & Arc Electric Lights. 

Electric Uotors, Dynamos, Tramcais, Elevators, Signals and all kinds of Electrical Sj-stoma for lighting and 
UiTismiasion of power, oitlier direct or with Btonigo Battorie;*, 

For Mines, Hoisting Works, Mills, Reduction Works, 

Indoor &nd,Outdoor niuminutlon of every kind. Gas, Oil and Caodltia supersudcl by tho 


Tho only complete and satisfactory incandescent system. Lights reriniro no attentioii and arc under complete con- 
trot. O\err.(>0.000 lights in use in tho United States SE:i..F-KE<ii;t.AT]NG AKC LIGHTS tvini ni^-ht 
into day and afford a means of working tl>e wholu -24 hours; invaluaide to contractors and otIierH to whuiu 
time is au object. Eetiniatos and designs on application. 

Offices and Showrooms, 323 PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

E', Ox-. 

Sytaiioy, a>ar. s. "w. 


21 and 23 Frement Street, 




N. W. Corner Main and Howard Sts., San Francisco, 


Stationary and Compound Engines, Flour, Sugar, Saw 
and Quartz M\ Machinery. 






MARSHUTZ & CANTRELL, Sole Manufacturers. 

Tho Patentee and Manufacturers 
cordially invite nainera to critically 
examine and pass judgment upon 
this improved system of milling 
and amalgamating ores in the fol- 
lowing particulars: 

1. Tho cost is less than one-half of 
stamps of same capacity. 

2. The freight to mine ia less than 
one-half of stamps. 

3. The cost of erecting is less than 
one-fourth of stamps. 

4. The power to drive itis less than 
one-half of ataraps. 

5. The wear is less than one-quar- 
ter of stamps. 

6. There is no wear except on 
shoes and dies. 

7. In point of amalgamation it is 
superior to any other machine 
in use. 

S. In its simplicity of construction. 

We challenge competition with 
Stamps, Ball Pulverizers or and 
other ore crushing machines now 
before the public. 
^Send for Circulars and Price List. MARSHUTZ & CANTRELL. 



23 I*^x*l^_ I*la-oo, nsrox\7- "STorls.- 

We are now so situated 
with our new works as to 
offer to the miners of the 
Pacific Coast small Air Com- 
pressing Plants at such 
prices that almost any small 
mine can afford to put in 
power drills il they have 
none in use. 

By our new and patented 
systems (by which the duty 
or performance of drills is 
not reduced with use) it ia 
no longer necessary to buy 
a Compressor of double ca- 





pacity than the drills are 
I expected to require, in order 
1 to keep up the supply of air 
I necessary on account of the 
I wear of drills and com 
Besides having the newest 
I and lightest designed small 
1 drill plants, the Band Drill 
Company, as is well known, 
I has built, and is now build- 
ing, the larcest Compressor 
I plants in this country, and 
has patterns for all sizes up to 
40-inch diameter of cylinder 

In respect to capacity In speed of drilling, perhaps it is in order to say that in every authoritative contest for 
epeed yet initiated, the Rand Drills have, without exception, been victorious. This fact, coupled with another im- 
portant one, that the drills use much lesi air and cause less repairs, has won for them nearly all of the Eastern 
mining trade, which has kept their works alwaj's busy. 

Since the reasons which formerly restrained us from the California market no longer exist, we are now 
in the field for the businees. 

J^ SPECIAL A'lTENTION is called to the latest designed sectional Compressor just built for the Batopilas 
mine in Mexico, and to the Compound Engine Compressor built for the Anaconda mine in Montana. 

A. T Dewev 
W. B. Ewer.. 
Geo, H. Stkong. 

}Deiey & Co.'s Scientific Press Patent Agency! 


Investors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old, experienced, first-class 
Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates -and Agents in Washington and the capital cities of the principal 
nations of the world. In connection with our editorial, seientifie and Patent Law Library, and record of original 
coses in our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies 
the information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent examination of 
patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of inventions brought before ub, enables 
us often to give advice which will save inventors the expense of applying for Patents upon Inventions which are not 
new. Circulars of advice sent free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 220 Market St., S. F 



Westlnghouse "Standard" and "Junior" Engines, Rocl< Drills and Air Compress- 
ors. Saw and Planing Mill Machinery, Machine Tools, Governors, 
Injectors, Oil Cups, and Lubricators. 


We are prepared to give eatimatea for Hoisting Works and Pumping Plants, Stamp Milla, 
Smelters aud Concentrators. 


This Mill, with a weight of less than 9000 pounds, 

has a capacity equal to 30 stamps, reducing 

two and a half to three tons per hour 

of hard quartz to 40 mesh. 


And renewala will not cost over one-half as much aa for stamps. The attention of parties hav- 
ing Cement Gravel is called to this Mill, as it will run 100 tons per day to No. 8 mesh. 

OUR DRY MILLS are the most economical ever built, and are extensively used with 
record of several years. No grinding in pans. Mill finishes to any fineness desired. 


GIDEON FRISBEE, Manager, ... 461 Howard St., San Francisco 
HOOKER & LAWRENCE, Gen'l Ag'ts, 145 Broadway, New York. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[Jdly 21, 1888 




and others interested in 

Engineers' Tables of Progress 




Section 16x16 feet; length 36 miles. 



For Catalogues, Estimates, Etc. address: 




8 California St., and 21 Fremont St., 




Cast Steel Castiis -^ M Fniis 

Irop apd ^achipe W3. 

UP TO 20,000 LBS. WEIGHT. 

True to pattern and superior In strength, toughness and durability to Oaet or WrouBbt 
Iron In any position or for any service. 

CHINERY CASTINGS of Every Description. 





Best and Cheapest in America. 

Wo imitation, no deception, no planished or rotten 
Iron used. Only genuine Russia iron in Quartz Screens. 
PlaniBhed iron screens at nearly half my former rates. 

T ha\e a large supply of Battery Screens on hand 
suitable for the Huntington and all Stamp Mills, which I 
will sell at 20 per cent discount. 


For Flour and Rice Mills, Grain Separators, Revolving 
and Shot Screens, Stamp Batteries and all kinds of Min 
ing and Milling Machinery. Iron, Steel, Copper, Brass, 
Zinc and other metala punched for all uses. 
Inventor and Manufacturer of the celebrated Slot^Cut 
burred and Slot Punched Screens. 
Mining Screens a specialty, from No. I to 15 (finej. 
Orders promptly attended to. 

San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works, 

Si & ZZS First St., Sau Francisco, Cal. 

JOHN TV. QUICK, Proprietor. 


Gives the highest efficiency of any Wheel in the world' 
and is everywhere recognized as the standard for high 
pressure service. 


From 12 to 20 per cent better results guaranteed than 

can be produced from any other Wheel in the country. 

It is not only most economical of water, but the most 

mple and reliable power for Quartz Mills, Hoisting, 

Pumping, or any other purpose where water power can 




Power from these Wheels can be transmitted by elec- 
tricity several miles with pmall loss, and tirade available 
for running Mills. Pumping and Hoisting Works, Tr=im 
cars, etc. Address 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co., 




For Working 
Rock Drills, Coal Cutters, 
Hoisting Engines and Water 
Pumps in Mines and Tunnels, 
Sinking Caissons, Elevating 
Acids, Transmitting Natural 
Gas, Atomizing Petroleum, &c 
For Catalogues, Etc., address, 

Clayton Air Compressor Works, 


ALSO Steel Rods, from ^ to 3 inch diameter and Flats from 1 to S inch. Angles, Tees, ChanDols and other shape 
Steel Wagon, Buggy, and Truck Tires, Plow Steel; Machinery and Special Shape Steel to size and lengths 
STEEI. RAILS from 12 to 46 potmds per yard. ALSO, Railroad and Merchant Iron, Rolled 
Beams, Angle, Channel, and T iron, Bridge and Machine BoUa, Lag Screws, Nuts, Washers, Ship and Boat 
Spikes; Steamboat Shafts, Cranks, Pistons, Connecting Rods, etc. Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, 
and Iron Forgings of all kinds, Iron and Steel Bridge and Roof Work a Specialty. 


SS" Orders will have prompt attention. Send for Catalogues. Address 

PACIFIC ROLLINO MILL CO., 202 Market St., San Francisco. 





Propelior Engines, either High Pressure or Compound, 
Stern or Side-wheel Engines. 

MINING MACHINERY.— Hoisting Engines and 
Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore Care, Pumping Eneines 
Iind Pumps, Water Buckets, Pump Columns, Air Com- 
pressors, Air Receivers, Air Pipes. 

MILL MACHINERy.-Btttteries for Dry or Wei 
Crushing, Amalgamating Pans, Settl. rs. Furnaces, Re- 
torts, Concentrators, Ore Feeders, Rock Breakers, Fur- 
naces for Reducing Ores, Water Jackets, etc 

Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, Dredging 
Machinery, Powder Mill Machioery, Water Wheels. 

Tustin's Pulverizer 



WM. H. BIRCH & CO., 


No. IIQ Beale St., - - San Francisco 


Steam Engines, Flour Mill, 

Mining, Saw Mill and 

Dredging Machines 
Brodle Rock Crushers, 

Steam Power, Hydraulic, 

Side Walk and Hand-Power 
Manufacturers of B. E. Henricksou's Patent Automatic 
Safety Catches for Elevators. All kinds of machinniy 
made and repaired. i^'OaoBRS Solicttbd. 





Steam Engines, Boilers, 



Flouring Mills, Saw Mills and Quartz Mills Machinery 

constructed, fitted up and repaired. 
Front St., bet. N & O Sts., Sacramento, Oal. 



Either for use on Steamboats or for use on Land. 

Water Pipe, Pnmp or Air Columns, Fish 
Tanks for Salmon Canneries 


Boiler Repairs Promptly attended to and at v^ry moaerace rates. 


X>ea.rxe Stecizao. I^iiaaof^. 

Corliss Engines and Tnstin Ore Pulverizers. DBANE STEAM PUMP. 

Agents and Manufacturers of the Llewellyn Feed Water Purifier and Heater. 


Manufacture Three Kinds of Powder, which are acknowledged by all the Great Chemists of the World as 

The Safest and Strongest High Explosives in the Marl<el. 
GH.A.3sa"T I"0"\7\riD:E3lt or la-g-ixr.A.ivrxi'-ci, 

Of Different Strengths as Required 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE," which contains 94 per cent of NUro-GIycerine, and 

QELAXINE-DTNAMITE, Stronger than Dynamite and even Safer in Handling. 


^?P.J^^^f3?^^?J^^!^J'i^^^ CLEARING. Is from three to four times stronger than ordinary Blast- 

sieSrin^d-iref "^ Si^Xn^!js^J?^SsS^?^A^^ ^.^:""^ '>"'™^'^- »»"" -' 



Golden State & Miners Iron Works. 

MaEufactnre Iron Oastlners and Machinery 
of all Kinds at Greatly Bedncad Bates. 


Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

^rst St., between Ho^rard St Folsozn, S. F. 





129 and ISl Beale St., between Mission and Howud, S.F. 



Works, No. 315 Mission St., Sao Francisco. 
Special attention given to Woodworking Machinery, 
Steam and Gas Engines. Correspondence solicited. 

Mining Engineers. 



Inventor and Manufacturer o! 


Contractor for the Construction of Elbctrio Railways 

Plants for the Transmission and Distri- 
bution of Power by Means 
of Electricity. 

i^'Send for Circulars giving particulars. 
Office, 40 Nevada Blocb, San Francisco. Cal. 
Factory, 1 1 «« 23 Stevenson St. 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer 


Mines, Hining Machinery & Supplies. 

Mines Examined, Keports and Estimates Furnished. 
Contracts made, etc 

Office, 237 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

OAFS and FUSE for Sale 


A specialty. Round, slot 
or hurred slot holes. Gen- 
uine Russia Iron, Homo- 
geneous Steel, Caat Steel or ' 
American planished Iron. 
Zinc, Copper or Brass Screens for all purposes. Call 
forma Pcrtoratinj Screen Co.. 146 & 147 Beale St , S. P 


^p™Hm.n't-|''-^M'-^'°"' <"?""'")■«=«■ Pranoisco 
ooppTr a^dbrilsr °"' ""* '^' """^ °' ™""' "-■ 


Manufacturers of 

Inserted Tootli 






Of all kinds made|to order. Send for Descriptive Cata 
lOErue. 17 and 19 Fremont St., San Francisco. 

Practical, Civil, Mechanical and 
Mining Engineering, 

Snrve7lD& Arcliltectnre, Drawing aM Issayiiig. 

723 Market Street, 

The Hiatory Building, San Francisco. 

A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Preeident. 

Aseayinp: of Oren, S25; Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 

S25; Blowpipe As^ay, f^lO Full course ol assaying, 850. 

Send for circular. 


Civil and Mining Engineer, 


Address " Business Box A," office of this paper, San 


Mining and Hydraulic Engineer, 

No. 307 Sansomb St., San Francisco. 

Back Files of the Mining and Scibntific Prkbs) un- 
houud) can be had for ^3 per volume of six months. Per 
year (two volumes) S5. Inserted in Dewey's patent bind- 
er, 50 cents additional per volume. 

JtJLT 21, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


$i,ooo ci3:_A.XjL:HiDsrGi-:E] I 





(9570.OO) r». O- OB. 

OVER 1400 ARK NOW IN USK. ConcontrmtloM are clean from tho flret workiotr. The wear and 
tear an- uiuroly DODiln&l. A nmctalD« oui b« Beco lo wurkiog order and ready to lu&ke teste at 220 Freiuonl 
Street, Sao FranelHCo. 

The Uontaka Company (Limited), London, October H, 1885. 

DiAR Sirs:— Havtni; tested three of your Pruc Vanner« Iq a comi>otltlvo trial with othtr Bfmllar machines 
(Triumpb), wo have eatUfled oureelves o( tho auperiorlty of your Vaiinor«, att is Bvlduucod by the fact of our havlug 
orderea twenty more of your moohlaes (or Unmcdiatu dullvery. Yours truly, 

N. B. — Since the above was written tho 90 Vaoners havinff been started i^avc such satisfaction that 44 adilU 
tional Fruoa and luure stamps have been purchased, ADAMS & CARTER, 

Protected l.y iiatonttt May 4, 1801); Docomtwr 2^, 1874; September 2, 187D; April 27, 1880; March 22, 1881; Febtu- 
ary 20, 1SS3; Septunil*er 18, 188:1. PatonU applied for. 

ADAMS & CARTER, Agents Frue Vanning Machine Co., 

Room 7. No. 109 California Street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, 



The present improved form of the celebrated " Tridmpu " Ore CoDcentrator possesses many advantages over any 
other style of Vanners, Vanning Machines, or Concentrators, yet introduced to the notice of mining men. These ad- 
vantages consist in the superior features which enter into their construction, and facilitate their operation. 

They are constructed in the best manner; their frames being of iron, insures their solidity, durability, and perfeci 
steadiness of motion when operated. They are built as compactly as their requisite strength will permit, weigh less, re. 
quire less freight space in boxes, by which their cost of transportation is reduced, and occupy less mill room when set up- 

An important improvement has recently been introduced into their construction, which consists of a Riffle Table- 
placed in front of and which takes the discharge from the feed and amalgam bowl. The improvement is in the recipro, 
cal motion which is imparted to this table by the longitudinal motion of the shaking frame to which the table is at- 
tached. We have at hand many testimonials, from well-known Superintendents of mines in different mining diBtricts 
of the United States, bearing evidence of the efficiency and superiority of this form of Concentrator, and we shall be 
pleased to send Circulars covering such letters of testimony, and, as well, directions for setting up and operating these 
<■ w^ » machines, and are ready to quote special prices fo^ any considerable order. 

TnlUIVIPn Unt LONLuNTnATUn. ro-os, 33 to BX JE'roMcxoxi.t: St., Saxx I'ranolsoo, O^X. 


RIX & FIRTH, 225 and 227 First St., San Francisco. 


63 Sold on the Pacific Coast. 




Over 300 in use. All estimates guar- 
anteed. Send for Circular. 


Anwrnu«..tiro„. No ^ears. nobreaKa.e. NATIONAL ROCK DRILL. 

One honjp. will eaailv handle rock or water to a depth 200 Sold on this Coast. Has 

3 50 feet, givinjr entire satisfaction to the prospector. leai* repairs than auy other 
Price, complete, $200. 150 sold on this Coast. 




NOTICE.— All our plates are guaranteed to have 
the full weiyht of silver apreed upon, and are tested be- 
fore leaving our works, thereby avoiding the complaints 
about light weight, made 80 often before we started 
in this branch of industry. 







521 & 523 Market St., San Francisco, 


Assayers' and Mining Material. 




Agent for HOSKINS' 



Silver-Plated Amalgamating Plates 


Our platc8 have provcil tlic best. 

At reduced rati-B. Got our pricen. Three thousand orders Oiled. Filtoon niodala asvrirdei . . ,„- „„ „,.,.,,„ 

and tar superior to others in weight ot silver and duralulity. Old mining plates replated. TliesB J.lates can alsu b., 
purcliaoed of JOHN TA\LOK & CO., cor. First, aud Misslou ht«. 


E. «. DENNISTON, Proprietor. 653 & 65B Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

NOTICE -Our Silved Plited Plates have always proved as represented. Wo have been nianulacturing them tor 20 years, 
and use only the best Lake Superior Copper and Refined Silver. Comparius our plates »ith those of other inanufaeturers. 
attor repeated tests, we can sately guarantee much better plates lot the same money. Our plates are used by all the promin- 
ent mining men on the Pacific Coast, '■""" •"^" ^„n.^TTT . r. 



Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 21, 1888 

WM. H. TAYLOR, President. 

R. S. MOORE, Superintendent. 

L. B. MEAD, Secretary. 


Location of Works, S. E. Cor. Beale and Howard Sts.. San Francisco. 

Manufacturers and Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast for 



Has the Following Advantages: 

60,000 Horse Power now in use. 

Boilers can be seen workinp in San FranciHCO at Palace Hotel, Spring Valley Water Works 
Hueter Bros. & Co., California Jute MiUa, and other places. 

Guaranteed 9Ior« Efficient than any other Boiler made. 

j=t u xx^x) j<: Jr<.)5 ^z^ 

OUABTZ MILI-S— Gold and Silver, Copper and Lead Smelting Works, Roasting Purnacea il all kinds. 

AIR COMPBESS'ORS— Rope Power Transmission, 

HYDRAULIC PUMPING and Hoisting Machinery. 

WROUGHT-IRON WATER PIPE a Specialty. Nora.— Have just completed order for 35 mllefl of 44-lDCh 

pipe of i-inch iron for Spring Valley Water Works Company, San Francisco. 
SAW-MILL MACHINERY of all kinds. 

eTEA3I ENGINES— Corliss, Slide-Valve, Poppet Valve Automatic, Single, and Compound. 
SOLE MANUFACTURERS for Pacific Coast ol the Celebrated "Heine" Patent Safety BoUer (Water Tube); 

60,000 horse power now in use. 
AKACBETH PATENT STEEL-RIM PULLEYS— Fifty per cent lighter and 25 per cent cheaper than nnst- 

iron pulleys; vnU not break in transportation. 

REFRIGERATING MACHINEKT for SteamaUps, Breweries, and Cellare. 


STEAM BOILEBS of all descriptions. 

SUGAR MACHINERY— Sugar Mills, Vacuum Pans, Clariflera, Double Effects, etc. 

STEAMSHIPS — Steam Yachts, Marine £]ngines and Boilers, Screw Propellers, Centrifugal Pumpe, Steamship 

Pumps, Steam Capstans, Cargo Winches, etc 
i^Builders of 120-Btamp Gold Mill for the Alaska Mill and Mlnine Company; 0O-8tamp Mill for Quartz Mountain 

Mining Company. 

Send for Circular and Price I<ists> 



The Hazelton Boiler 

Is acknowledged by the most eminent Engineers in the 

country to he the greatest improvement that has 

ever been made in a Steam Generator. 


A Saving in Fuel of at Least 20 per cent Guaranteed 
over any other form of Boiler. 




1 27 First St., San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 

New York Office, 14S Broadway. 


embracinc: machinery of LATEST DKslGN and 
MOST Improved construction. We offer our 
customers the B£ST RESULTS OF 38 TEARS' 
worI(. and arc PREPARED to furnish the MOST 
DUCTION MACHINERX, adapted to all prades of 
ores and SUPERIOR to that of anj' other make, at 

We are also prepared to CONSTKUCT and DE- 
In any locality, MILLS, CONCENTRATION 


Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coast, 



San Francisco, Oal. 


Nos. 39 to 51 Fremont Street, 


Steam Pumps of all Makes, .^1"^'^^ 11 Stationary, Portable, and Hoisting 





]BE3 Xj T" I n>a- C3r- 





[Manufactured by the Cummer Engine Co., of Cleveland, Ohio. 






Brass Goods 



Hydraulic Mining, Quartz, and Saw-Mill Ma- 
chinery, Hydraulic Gravel Elevators, Hy- 
draulic Giants, "Triumph" Ore 
Concentrators, Automatic 
Ore Feeders. 




Upright Engines and Boilers Connected. 




Single and Double Circular Saw-Mills. 


"Cummer" Bnginea, from Cleveland. Ohio, 

Porter Manufacturing Co.'s Engines and Boilers. 
"Baker" Rotary Pressure Blowers. 

"Wllbraham" Rotary Piston Pumps 
Boggs & Clarke"' Centrifugal Pumps. 

The Volker & Felthousen MTjj Co.'s 

Buffalo Duples Steam Pumps. 

P. Blaisdell & Co.'s Machinitts' Tools. 

An llluBtrut 

BY DBWBY & ao. 


Number 4. 

Cable Railroads. 

In this city, where cable roada origioated and 
where wa have had the f;reate«t experience with 
cable*, there are no electric roada, thouRh sev- 
eral experiments have been made. We are 
bailding more cable roads than ever in San 
Francisco. The Market-street system is run- 
oiog 21 hours a day, with cars 40 seconds apart, 
doing its work cheaply and regularly, with no 

property. The oonvenience of frequent and 
rapid transit attracta people to those looalitiea 
where there are cable roads. It is a proof that 
they are good properties when so roach new 
road is being built in the city where cables have 
been known the longest. 

Tme Eclipse. — The total eclipse of the moon 
which occurred on Sunday night was not ob- 
served in this city or Oakland, owing to the pre- 

The Cogswell Polytechnic College. 

The tirst session of the Cogswell Polytechnic 
College will open for the reception of students 
Monday, Anguet 6, 1888. 

The object of this institution is not to teach 
trades, bat tD prepare students to enter sue 
cessfnlty upon any line of useful work. The 
aim is to fully develop the boy and girl mental- 
ly, morally and physically, thereby producing 

porch. On each side of the door is a niche for 
the placing of pieces of statuary. There are 
also two side entrances — one for boys and the 
other for girts. The main entrance porch is 
approached by a broad flight of stone steps. 
The main hallway is 10 feet wide, and opens 
into a cross-hallway 12 feet wide, which crosses 
the building from end to end. From the oross- 
hall, stairways lead to the second story; stairs 
i also lead to the stage at the rear and to the 

wm JjfPiisiiiSiPiSis 

K /T2\.!f^t-s 


aerioaa stops or breaks. The Clay street, Sut- 
ter street, Presidio, California street, Mc- 
Allister street, Geary street, Powell street, 
Haigbt street, Hayes street, Castro street, 
Larkiu street, and all the main and branch 
lines work successfully day and night, win- 
ter and summer. A four-mile double track 
is being put down on Howard street, and two 
miles on Fell and Oak streets to the park. On 
Clay and Sacramento streets 11,000 feet of track 
is being pat down as a branch to the Powell- 
street road. It will not be long before another 
orosB-tjwn road will be built on Third, Mont- 
gomery and connecting streets. The city will 
soon be a network of cable roads. 

While the first cost of these cable roads is 
large as compared with horse-oar or motor lines^ 
they are so built as to need little repair, and 
immense traffic can ba maintained. The cable 
roads pay well, and, wherever built, have re- 
sulted in enhancing the value of contiguous 

vailing fog. At Mount Hamilton, however, 
they had an excellent night for observing. Prof. 
Holden and Messrs, Scbaeberle, Keeler, Bar- 
nard and Hill were all engaged in the observa- 
tion, and the work will shortly be reduced and 
discussed. Forty-seven drawings were made 
at the telescope, and 11 with the naked eye. 

ArfTHOxr Clark, the veteran miner of For- 
est Hill, says the Dardanelles mine, with a ten- 
stamp mill, is good for $20,000 a month. At 
present there are only five stamps, and they 
are not run right along on account of scarcity 
of watar. List week the cleanup amounted to 
@2600, although the mill was not run all the 
week. This would be an average of more than 
$10 to the carload. 

John Hays Hammond, M, E., has gone to 
inspect a mine about 100 mites south of the 
City of Mexico. 

self-reliant and self-helpful men and women. 
The school and bailding are the result of a do- 
nation of $1,000,000 by Dr. Henry D. Cogswell, 
and the collfge is located at the corner of 26. h 
and Folsom streets in this city. 

The bailding is three stories high, and from 
its imposing and substantial appearance is the 
most notable structure in the southwestern por- 
tion of the city. It is 71 feet in width by 85 
feet in depth, not including the projections. 
On each side there is a wing two stories in bight, 
each 35x40 feet. The bailding is surmounted 
with a high roof, covered with ornamental 
metal Queen Anne shingles, and has a handsome 
cresting on the ridges. lu front a high tower 
rises to a bight of 127 feet, the apex topped 
with a revolving crystal star s6t in a copper 
pinnacle. On the face of the tower, above the 
third-story line, is the dial o^ a clock, and still 
lower down the name of the school. The main 
entrance is spacious and surrounded by a wide 

front of the assembly hall, in the story above. 
It will thus be seen that the means of egress 
are unusually excellent, there being three wide 
doorways from the ground floor ts the street and 
two from the second story to the aesembly hall. 

Health Officer Bargee statas that the 
quarantine stition at this port, for which $103,- 
000 has just been appropriated, will be located 
on Angel island, and constructed under the 
supervision of the Marine Hospital service. The 
appropriation will probably be disbursed in part 
as follows: Disinfecting machinery, $20,000; 
warehoase and wharf, $1000; steam tug, $30,- 
000; small boats, $1000; hospital buildings, $24,- 
000, and annual expenses, $18,000. 

In many of the mines of Butte, M. T., the 
system of payment has been changed from pay 
by the day to the contract system of payment 
per car of producing ore. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 28, 1888 


We admit, unindorsed, opinions of correspondenta.— Eds. 

A Miner's View of Geology. 

Editors Press :— Mythology is reaponsible 
for a great many foolish ideaa taught in oar 
high schools about geology and astronomy. 
Very diflferent ia a miner's view of geology, as 
demonstrated by chemical and microscopical 
aaalyaie, and practically applied in the field by 
topographical and underground explorations. 
When our standard works on geology teach the 
igneous formation theory, and that the world 
inside is a molten mass of liquid heat» it ia mis- 
leading. When they teach that the aqueous 
formation is subsequent to the igneous, it is 
misleading, etc. In tracing back to find what 
the human family were about the beginning of 
the world, I soon found myself in Hindostan. 
They had a mythology with a Board of Gods, all 
baring some creative ability. Buddha, about 
600 years B. C, gave a good code of moral laws, 
and his gods made the world and were not very 
particular what they made it of. The next 
place I found myself was in China. I found 
thinga developing there from way back, but 
coming on up to Confucius' time. They had a 
mythology with a code of moral laws very good, 
and their god had some buainees systemi fcr 
each god had his conatractive department 
allowed to him. They jointly made the world, 
but did not classify the material used in the 
construction. Now I passed over into Egypt 
and found Moses and his mythology. He had 
a wide-awake God that headed anything prior 
to his time. This God made everything — the 
world and our solar system — Himself, with no 
help; but He did not tell Mosea what He made 
all these thinga of, so I found it was left" for the 
human family to find out the material used in 
the construction of the earth. 

I find they commenced by noticing the de- 
bris, coming down from higher elevationa, and 
forming what we call soil. This they settled 
npon as a water formation — aqueous. Next 
they noticed redhot lava coming out of volcanic 
craters. This led them tD believe that the in- 
side of the earth was a molten liquid mass of 
lava, and from this molten mass rocks were 
formed. These are classed as igneous rocks. 
This idea ia tanght in all our high schools 
throughout the civilized portion of the world up 
to data, coupled with Moses' mythology and his 
God. Great effort has been made to make 
geology agree with Mosea' mythology. 

Later on another element came in — astron- 
omy. Science has developed that there is 
unity bettveen geology and astronomy, and 
they both declare war against Moses' mythol- 
ogy and that of all other nations. 

There is no quest'on in my mind about this 
fight. All mythology has got to surrender 
and be wiped out from the human mind. 

Now we come to a period of record where 
theories and facts are compiled and preserved 
for future analysis, coming up to our present 
age. We have chemicals and appliances that 
enable us to analyze and microscopically exam- 
ine any substance. The result of this work 
shows us that every known sub ttnce is a com- 
pound, and the primitive parts are in a gaseous, 
liquid or aqueous solution. Que part has an 
affinity for a second; the first and second 
nnited make an affinity for a third part, and 
so on, forming all substances by affinities. The 
granite and trap families are classed by the old 
standard as igneous rocks. Analysis shows us 
just what the compounds are. The two princi- 
pal compounds are silicates of magnesia and 
silicatas of alumina. Other compounds are sili- 
cates of potash, Eoda, lime, iron and manganese, 
that make up the compounds of all claases of 
rocka. By acid all tbese propeities are held in 
solution in boiling wat^r (a heat as low as 212 
degrees). When our science haa advanced to this 
perfection, we can demonstrate these factj to 
a certainty. 

Cdin any man who has followed mining for a 
buainess practically say that granite is net 
formed from aqueous solutiona ? We have 
classed rocks down to four grand divisions, 
thus: Igneous, aqueous, aerial and metamor- 
phic. These terms are all right except when 
misapplied. Igneous should apply to lava — 
anything produced from a molten mass. Aque- 
ous applies to mechanically, chemically and 
originally formed soil or rock. Aerial applies to 
debris and dutt deposits from currents of air. 
Metamorphic applies to argillaceoua, calcareous 
and cretaceous forraationa. This fourth divis- 
ion includes all rocks mechanically, chemically 
and originally formed from aqueous and acid 
solutions. This division takes ia all quartz, 
feldspar, basalt, trap and the granite family, 
that the old standard claims to be igneous rocks. 
For the igneous theorist I will state that we 
claim no heat higher than boiling water and 
acid in solutions for aqueous formations of all 
rocks; and that there are no igneous rocks or 
formations except those formed from the melt- 
ing of the original aqueous rocks or clay; and 
there is no heat coming from the earth but 
that coming from chemical decomposition of 
the deep aqueoua formations that were once at 
the surface. Now, when we go among the 
human family to find the origin of aqueous 
rocks, we find no authority higher tSan Moses* 
mythology and hia God. When we go into 
chemical analysis, we find there is no compound 
of mineral or vegetible matter, but their ele- 
ments are found in our atmosphere. 
I ask all mining men to apply this aqueous- 

solution theory to all their explorations, and 
study the affinity of minerals and the primitive 
componnds t'aat form them. Geology has juat 
commenced assuming its independence of my- 
thology, and the same of iti sister 
Bcience, astronomy. The two aciencea com- 
bined will soon be able to shame mythol- 
until it will have no existence in 


the human 

What the new era that 
require, will be demon- 

ia coming in will 

strated facts, and will be satisfied with nothing 
short of that. Miner. 

Como, Nevada. 

Editors Press : — Aa we said in our last, ** If 
we continue to increase and prosper, you should 
hear from us again," and aince those conditions 
prevail, we must make our promise good. 

Our population is nowy about 35. We were 
patriotic enough to remember the Fourth, and 
spent about $30 in celebrating. Our fireworks 
were seen in Virginia City, a distance of 20 

Our weather ia deliehtfully cool and pleasant 
to-day, July 11th— 62". Highest temperature 
for the season thus far, 92°, and that only one 

This ia an old camp, and was first prospected 
and worked about 1861. The palmiest days 
were from '61 to '65, when the town of Como 
contiined about 500 inhabitants. Thousands 
of dollars have been squandered here in pros- 
pecting, running tunnels, sinking shafts, etc., 
but always stopping before going far enough to 
develop anything. The deepest abaft is not 
over 250 feet, but considerable ore has been 
taken ont from near the surface in different 
places, and all mining experts who have ever 
visited the district are agreed that the surface 
indications point to the fact that a bonanza 
must exist here somewhere, and they all think 
it will be found when sufficient deptn has been 
attained. Very rich free milling ore haa been 
recently discovered in the Buckeye at about 
100 feet, but in what quantity has not yet been 

The only mine in the district upon which 
active operations are being carried on at present 
is the Eureka Como, but there ia talk of com- 
mencing operations on two or three others in 
the camp, soon. 

The Eureka Co. are going ahead with their 
development work as fast as posaible and will 
soon have their shaft down to the 300-foot level, 
from which they may run a drift to tap a 10- 
foot ledge which is known to exist, and from 
which quantities of good paying ore have been 
taken above the 200 level. They have machin- 
ery sufficient to sink to a depth of 600 feet. 
Thia mine may be the meana of developing the 
whole district. 

A heavy growth of nut pine once covered this 
country, but during the last 25 years it haa all 
been cut and hauled away, until to-day not 
even the stumps remain to tell where a forest 
once stood. Ic ia said that Uncle Sam has been 
robbed of at least $3,000,000 worth of wood in 
this district alone. There is now a sparse 
growth of young pines springing up all over the 
hills which might amount to something within 
the next century if let alone. The scarcity of 
wood will be the most serious drawback to ex- 
tensive mining operations in this district, pro- 
vided rich strikes are made here. Chromo, 
Como, Nevada, July 20th. 

El Dorado County Mines. 

Editors Press: — The Davidson mine, at 
Shingle Springs, ia st II idle, although a most 
excellent propeity. Thia is owing to a want of 
funds to work it since the mill was burnt down. 

The mills of the following mines are all shot 
down at present, viz.: The Con. California, El 
Dorado, Crystil, Oro Fino, Vdante and Crane, 
all in tie vicinity of Shingle Springs; also the 
Mt. Pjicaaant, Morey and Melton, near Grizzly 

The Josephine mine, VolcanovillG, above 
Georgetown, is now erecting a new 20-6timp 
mill, most of the machinery having reached 
Georgetown. The whole is under the superin* 
tendence of Jos. M. Nouges, a San Francisco at- 

The Z^ntgraff mine, at Wild Goose Flat, is 
being worked and the ore being milled by the 
Zsntgraff Bros, ia yielding very satifictorily. 

The Grand Victory mine, three miles above 
Diamond Springs, on the old emigrant road, at 
Squaw Hollow, is one of extreme propoitioue, 
having been worked some 250 feet in width and 
about 200 feet in depth. It ia a quarry of 
porphyry, containing gold. All the ore taken 
out has been pub through the SO-stamp mill. 
The material was very liw grade, yet always 
paid with a profit, as it required but a few men 
to do the whole. The mill ia now closed down. 

The Gopher Boulder mine, near Kelaeys, ia 
now owned by Geo. OuUen Pearaon of London, 
Eogland, who ia now on his way here to com- 
mence active operations. The foreman in 
charge has a force of men at work preparing. 
The company is about to introduce electricity 
as a mctive-power by transmission from their 
dynamo driven by water power. By this 
method not only all their machinery will be 
driven for hoitting and milling, but it is also 
their intention to supply Placerville and George- 
town with electric lights from the same aource. 
This mine is directly on the "mother lode," 
and ia an immense ledge, carrying at times 

quite a percentage of aulphurets of good qual- 
ity. This undertaking will require not only a 
force of men, but also a large expenditure of 

The Taylor mine, near Georgetown, in Gar- 
den valley, ia running ten stamps. This mine 
is paving handsomely and giving entire satis- 
faction in its results. It is in charge of Mr. 
Cbesley as superintendent. 

The Alpine mine and mill is located about 
three miles from Georgetown. It ia owned by 
the Walker Bros, of Salt Lake, and is under 
t|ie management of J. H. Morton, supt. The 
mill is a new one of 10 stamps, l>ut unfortu- 
nately is not built as solidly as it should be, and 
certain defects now exiBting should be reme- 
died. The mine in my opinion is a good one, 
and will pay if the ore is properly milled. 

The owner of the Esperanza mine is a work- 
ing man who has spent some years past on the 
propeity preparing to tie to it to the end, know- 
ing he haa one of the best in the county. Al- 
though of low grade, the ore body is of a 
width of 52 feet in the bottom of shaft. Prep 
arations are now in progress by which work 
will be resumed in sinking immediately, as the 
present hoisting works will do to go down to a 
depth of 500 feet. 

The Church Union mine after having been 
worked for the past 25 years to a depth of 
1700 feet, has finally been shut down by the 
owners, Messrs. Hayward and Hobait. Not 
because it would not pay, as the last winze sunk 
below that level shows better ore than ever. 
Nevertheltfss the mine haa been stripped of the 
hoisting works, engine, boilers, mill-stamps and 
all the appurtenances, a patt of which is being 
transported to Angels camp, and the balance to 
the Dead Horse mine in Tuolumne county, both 
of which are new purchasea by the above gen- 
tlemen. A^arions are the surmises as to whether 
this mine ia to be closed for good or whether on 
account of insufficiency of machinery to oper- 
ate to a greater depth in the future. Anyway, 
it is to be regretted, as it creates a stagnation 
in thia pait of the county which will be severely 
felt. K. 

Tfvo Shafts in Mines. 

Editors Press: — In your paper of date 7th 
inst,, I found a short and sensible article head- 
ed " Two Shafts.'* The item ia, however, er- 
roneous to this extent: it was written under the 
idea that we had no law in this State upon that 
subject, but we have, as you will find in Stats, 
1871-72, p. 413. It is true its proviaiona are 
applicable only where shafts have been sunk to 
the depth of 300 feet, and 12 or more men are 
employed daily . 

It was the best we could do at the time, for 
mine owners fought the proposition all the 
time, and defeated the bill at the previous ses- 
sion, notably the opposition coming from the 
leading miners in Nevada and Amador counties. 

I drew the first bill (session of 1869-70) for 
Sam T. Oates, then assemblyman from thia 
county, who, baing an operative miner, desired 
the honor and credit of the law. It was a 
hobby of his. John K. S^les engineered the 
thing in our county at home by getting up a 
numerously signed petition. The original idea 
had been previously advanced by myself, and 
the groundwork laid by talking about it among 
onr people during years before. 

Oitea gotour bill pushed through the Assem- 
bly by hard work, and because it was about the 
only bill he had introduced. I took charge of 
it in the Senate, procured a favorable report 
from the Committee on Mines, being on the 
committee, made a " big speech" in its favor, 
and had it killed by the lobby — the corpora- 
tions and mine-owners — quicker than a wink. 
Sam Gates aat beside my chair while I spoke 
and while the vote was being taken, and was 
hugely disgusted, notwithstanding I had ad- 
vised him beforehand that the opponents of the 
bill had allowed it to pass through the House 
only aa ** a tub to the whale," and that they 
had a dead thing all cut and dried on beating it 
in the Senate — aa they did, and I knew it — I 
had the liet of yeas and nays made out lying on 
my desk, almost as the roll-call resnlted. 

At the next aeasion, Hon. J. M. Daya, how of 
San Francisco, being then assemblyman from 
Nevada county, introduced the present law, 
and as we had made it pretty hot for the op- 
ponents of the measure before the people in the 
election that year, we were able to carry it 
through. The law is good as far as it goes. It 
should read 200 feet and employing six men; 
perhaps that is the only improvement we could 
make. Suppose you publish the whole law. 
Very truly yours, E, W. Roberts. 

Grass Valley^ Nevada Co. 

Candles. — An item of interest to the mining 
community is that a pool or trust has been 
formed Eist between the 16 or 18 candle fac 
tories, aud for some time the trust has been 
trying to induce the three candle factories here 
to come into the ring. Two of the companies 
desire to go in, but are unwilling to do so with- 
out the third. Candles have advanced recent- 
ly two cents per pound in the Eist, and this 
advance would be made here if the home manu- 
facturers would come in. 

The Northern coast coal mines are doing 
good work and are steadily increasing their 
shipments. So far they have found ready sale 
for their entire Output without making conces- 
sions in price. 

A New Mining Enterprise. 

Editors Press: — Believing that most of your 
readers are more or less intereated in whatever 
pertains to the welfare of the mining industry 
of our coast at large, I submit a few facta con- 
cerning a new incorporation denominated the 
Galena Conaolidated Mining Co. The properties 
embraced in this consolidation are the well- 
known Shannon claims, situated in Washoe 
county, Nevada, about three milea by wagon< 
road west of Galena station on the V. & T. K. K. 
In early mining days large quantities of ores 
were taken from these properties, then known 
as the Indian Boy mines. A large proportion 
of the ore was hauled by teams to Califoruia 
for reduction. The remainder was treated at 
a smelter located on Galena creek. 

Owing to the fact that the treatment of lead 
ores then waa a new industry in this part of 
Nevada and of course imperfectly understood, 
and furthermore the great expense of fuel and 
fluxes for proper smelting of the ores and high 
price of labor, the business of smelting was not 
a success and the rainea were temporarily aban- 
doned. Since then the only method of devel- 
oping the claims has been performed principally 
by leaae-holders, who instead of pursuing a 
systematic ooarae have simply "surface rob- 
bed " the property. Under this system many 
carloads of good ore have been shipped to San 
Francisco, Sdlt Lake and Denver for reduction. 
With reduced smelting charges, even with 
exorbitant freight rates, the lessees have all, 
with a single exception, met with gratifying 
success in their ventures. By reason of inade- 
quate facilities the orea and watte were handled 
a half-dozen times, where, under systematic 
management, the needless expense of handling 
more than onoe might have been avoided. 

The ores are chiefly a hard carbonate, 
although a large poition carry sufficient iron 
and lime to make them self fluxing ores, conse- 
quently may be reduced at a far Icrs cost than 
where flaxes muat be procured. One mine in 
this consolidation shows a ledge of hematite ore, 
and, although of a low grade aa to gold and sil- 
ver, is of great value to a smelting plant on ac- 
count of ita superior qualitiea as a flux. The 
value of the company's propeities here may be 
bett judged from the fact of their once having 
been worked at a profit when all mining ex- 
penses and shipping were much greater than at 

The reeuH from a millrun at the Melrose 
smelting works showed a total average value 
per t)n of §25. 35, being silver §19.35, gold .$6, 
and iron 85 per cent, with a small perceutage of 
lead (leaa than 10). By adding a small quan- 
t'ty of lime in connection with the carbonat3 
ores, it would enable a home smelter to handle 
any ores from thia and adjoining properties. 
This will necessarily be accomplished in time. 
The returns from orea shipped to the variona 
smelting works more recently averaged in 
silver 52^ ounces; gold, two-tenths ounce; lead, 
32 per cett, making tctil value per ton over $75. 
By a cheap preparatory treatment of ore and 
by concentrating, as now proposed, before ship- 
ping, the balk of ores will be greatly reduced 
and the value per ton shipped consequently in- 
creased. In view of the fact that smelting fa* 
oilities are now within 16 miles of the mines, 
instead of hundreds as formerly, moat of the 
ores heretofore considered valueless may now 
be shipped at a profit. Thia fact waa demon- 
strated last April when a small lot of 4800 
pounds waa worked at the Reno reduction 
worka, returning a total value of $93 13, being 
silver $38.95 and lead $54.18— the proportion of 
lead being 38 per cent and all this taken for a 
trial wholly from the waste portions of the 
mine. Samples of ore from stopfs, taken 
carefully for an average test by E. D. Boyle, 
Esq.. assayed: Silver, $138.91; gold, $12.56; 
and lead, 68 per cent. 

Thia is a fine carbonate ore and lies west of 
first workings, the ore now showing in upper 
stopes running lower in silver, no gold, but a 
little higher in lead, viz., silver, $53 57; lead, 
70 per cent. From present indications a large 
amount of these classes of ores may be taken 
out and shipped whenever thought advisable to 
do so. To be profitable, proper facilities both 
for mining and for hauling will of necessity have 
to be provided. 

Several noted mining experts, having ex- 
amined these properties, are unanimous in their 
opinions that the main ore body will be found 
westerly from old workings. This is deter- 
mined by the main feeders pitching in that di- 
rection. In consequence, a shaft will be sunk 
at a point where, at a depth of 200 feet, it will 
intersect the vein. From thia point the mine 
may then be properly and conveniently worked. 
At thia stage great reaulta are expected aa the 

The company feela warranted in asking the 
public to take a hand with them in developiog 
the property and thereby sharing the results. 
The capital stock ia $100,000, divided into 
100,000 shares — $1 each. It is proposed to aell 
one-half of the atock now at ten cents per 
share, the balance, if necessary, at whatever 
valuation future developments may seem to 
warrant. The board ia composed of E. D. 
Boyle, Pres.; F. C. Lord, Sec; E. G. Steven- 
son, F. E. Fielding and W. H. Armstrong, 
Trustees. Any further information will be 
cheerfully given by J, L. Stevenson, Supt., 
Reno, or by the secretary at Virginia City. 
Renoy July IG, ISSS. F. B. h. 

July 28, 1888.1 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The Castle iMouutain Mines. 

The New El Dorado of Meaerber County. 
Mo Q tana. 

[From oar Tnrclioff CorTcspoDdent, B. O. IIcrton ] 

These mineB are loc&ted in the Castle moaot- 
aiiu and receive their name from the resem- 
blaoce tbey bear to the oM cattU raiDa of 
Earope. The miaea are *J5 miles soath of White 
Sniphur Sprioga and aboat (iO mil« north of 
LivinKBton on the North PAoi6c railro»d. The 
firat looatiooB were made here by Hem ley 
Brothers some two years ago, but outside of 
their development nothing woe done until last 
September. By that time their mines were 
opened ap nicely and the information leaked 
Ihat a strike had been made by the Hensley 
Brothers io the Cumberland, and their prospects 
were so Hittering that quite an excitement was 
gotten up on the strength of their showing. 
They now have Messrs. King & Ash interested 
with them and have two shafts down, one 125 
feet and one 150 feet; some levels have also 
been mn. 

Their first shipment of ore to the Aurora 
•melter netted them clear of all expenses $:iO 
per ton. They had 100 tons in transit at the 
time of my vieit. 

They had also begun gradiof; for a smelter of 
their own. The castiugB and machinery neoes- 
aary for a 40 t>D stack were shipped from Chi- 
oapo on the 20th of June. 

The character of the ore is perfectly free 
■melting. In most of prospects opened in the 
camp the lead percentage runs very hif^h. In 
the Cumberland the lead runs from 40 to 70 
per oent and an average of 25 ounces io silver. 
The formation here is limestone. The Yellow- 
stone is a short distance from the Cumberland, 
owned by Heneley Bros., and carries about the 
same value. It is a contact vein between 
porphyry and lime. The shaft ia down 100 
feet, and a '.:0 foot ore body has been crosscut. 
This property is under a bond ti Messrs. Hau- 
ser and Holter of Helena for ¥50,000. This 
bond expires August let, and as these parties 
are heavily interested in the new smelter going 
np at Helena, there is a strong probability of 
their taking up the bond. 

The Hidden Treasure is about two miles 
noith of the Cumberland, and is owned by 
Messrs. Dunn & Donovan. They have a shaft 
down 100 feet, and have some very fine ore. 
Some of the sound carbonatas run as high as 
100 ounces ia silver and from 30 to 45 per cent 
in lead. 

The CorllSB, 

On the same vein aa the Yellowstone, owned by 
Lewis & Chapin, is developed by a tunnel 150 
feet long and a shaft 50 fett deep. They have 
3i fett of solid ore that will run from 70 t^ 80 
ounces silver, and 30 to 40 per cent lead. For 
the amount of work done here it is a fine show- 

The Great Eastern 
Is another location on the same vein, apparent- 
ly. They have a larger amount of development 
work done than any other mine in this district. 
One shaft down 200 fett, and in ore all the way. 
Some short levels have been run and all show 
a tine body of ore. 

The T. v. PoTderly 
la owned by Hensley Bros., Higgios & Chaffee. 
They have a tunnel run 120 feet, which taps 
the lead at a depth of 75 feet, and have three 
feet of fine carbonate ore that assays from 50 to 
130 ounces silver and 40 per cent lead. 

The Alice 
Mine is some five miles north of the Cumber- 
land location, and ia under a bond for $100,000 
to Carter, Barter and others. It is being devel- 
oped by three shafts, 50 feet deep, and they 
struck water at this depth. They are shipping 
ore to the Toston smeHer, and getting very sat- 
isfactory results. They have an immense body 
of ore that ranges from 25 ounces to over 100 
ounces in silver, and from 45 to 60 per cent 
lead. They are now employing about 25 teams 
hauling ore. This, with only a 50 foct abaft to 
extract from, is a wonderful output. Wherever 
they have crosscut the lead, they have from 15 
to 18 feet of ore. 

The American, 
Owned by Hensley Bros. & Rhodes, is devel- 
oped by a tunnel 160 feet, run on the vein. 
There is a three-foot body of free-milling ore, 
the only dry ore thus far found in the district. 
No assays have been made from this ledge that 
were leas than 150 ounces, and as high aa 6400 
ounces have been obtiined — a very encouraging 
outlook for the owners. 

The Cistle district, as it now stands, em- 
braces a Bcope of count''y eight miles in length 
and five in width, and sioce Sept. 1, 1887, 
abont 500 mineral locations have been made 
here. Two cities in embryo have sprung up. 
The original town of Caatle is by far the larg- 
est at present, containing over 100 houses. 
Nearly all branches of business are here repre- 
sented. About four miles north, the town of 
Robinson is building. Here I think the princi- 
pal mining town will be situated, as it ia more 
convenient to a large portion of the mines. 
What building is being done here has an air of 
permanency. There is a very enterprising set 
of fellows located here. 

During my visit they were all busy getting a 
lot of eample ores to ship to the different cities, 
and I dare say that ere this a portion of these 
are on exhibition in San Francisco. Another 
advantage Kobinson will have is a good wagon 

road, which is being built from White Sulphur 
Springs, shortening the distance to less than 20 
miles, and the mercbaoti and bnsinees men of 
the springs will spare oo expense to hold their 
share of the Cattle mines' patronafie. 

Castle mines are progreaaing aa rapidly as is 
healthy for a new cimp. They have already a 
very sprightly little paper fully alive to the 
general interests of the oamp. The North Pi- 
citio K. R. can make a connection with Caatle 
from two pointi by building about <>0 miles of 
road from Livingston, with no intermediate 
travel, and 60 miles east from Townsend, taking 
10 the county seat of Whitd Sulphur Sprin2S 
and the travel of Smith River valley. While 
the grade is probably not quite as good, it is 
sorely the most desirable for tratlio. 

White Sulphur SprlngB. 

The coanty seat of Meagher county, is des- 
tioed to beocme quite a health resort as soon 
as they have toe bemtits of railroad transporta- 
tion. Not many aick men have the nerve to 
tike a 40-mile ttige trip. It ia a very nice lit- 
tle burg of about 1000 inhabitiDt^ and located 
in a central point, for they have gronps of 
mines at each point of the compass. To the 
eat t some mines have been discovered in the 
Crazy mountains, and 35 miles north they have 
the Niehart district. Oo the west are the 
Biroh Creek and Confederate Guloh mines. 

The Russell Process. 

Its Practical Application and Economic 


{Continued from our last.) 

F. -AssaylDg of the Sulphides for Silver. 

The set of experiment! shown in Table V 
was made by Louis Janin, Jr., when in charge 
of the mill at Cuai, In experiments 1 and 2, of 
the 55 grammes of granulated lead, 15 were 
first placed in the aoorifier and hollowed out 
to receive the sulphides, which should not t^uch 
the sides or bottim of the scorifier. The re- 
maining 40 grammes were placed oo the t^p of 
the sulphides. 

In No. 4, the sulphides were firtt treated 
with nitric acid and the silver was precipitated 
from the filtrate with hydrochloric acid and 
filtered off— this filter, with its contents, then 
being added ts the filter containing the residue 
undiasolved by nitric acid. The two filters and 
their contents were then dried and assayed. 

For assaying cupels, pulverize the cupel 
through a 30 menh screen. Use 30 grammes 
fused borax, .SO grammes litharge and 30 
grammes of carbonate soda, and cover with 
salt. Use a slow fire until nearly fused. If the 
crucible tends to boil over, throw in 20 to 25 
grammes of salt. For slags, all the slag from 
the assay is saved and pulverized through a 
20 meah screen, and mixed with fiux used in 
experiment No. 4. 



- n 3 2 


o o o — o --a D 

sad p-d V: j 

bi -I c» to oi t5 ; 

O -J O ^ OS J- cr y. 

O tJ OQ -.O fC ■- 

OOCr- 0^0>' 


Number of Experiment. 

Weight of ouJphides, 
A. T. 

Litharge, grins. 

Sodium Carbonate, 

Borax, grms. 

ir'titatiBimn Cyanide, 

Charcoal, grms. 

Urauuiaied Lead, 

UnroTrected assay value, 
07.. per ton. 

Silver in Slug, per cent. 

Silver in Cupel, per cent. 

'lotal in Slag and Cupel, 
per cent^ 

Corrected Assay Vfclue, 
oz. per ton. 

As shown in Table V, the method by ecorifi- 
cation, using one-tenth of an assay ton, gives 
the highest ** uncorrected " as well as the high- 
est " corrected " assay; but, with the exception 
of No. 3, carries the most silver (1,32 per cent) 
into the filag and cupel. Noa. 5 and S, which 
contain the moat litharge {77 and 85 grammes) 
have the least silver in the alag and cupel (0.2 
per cent); Noa. 6 and 9, with cyanide of potaa 
sium, have a little more silver (0 32 per cent) in 
the slag and cupel. No. 3 ia a common crucible 
assay, made with a nail, but only 22 grammes 
of litharge. The slag and cupel contain the 
most silver (1 36 per cent) of all the methods. 
G.— Assaying of the Sulphides for Gold. 

In assaying for geld the sulphides shoulii 
always be first treated with concentrated nitric 
acid and only the residue assayed. Without 
the preliminary treatment with acid the amount 
of gold obtained by assay will usually fall con- 
siderably short of the true amount. The fol- 
lowing is the exact method : 

Weigh out into a beaker (600 to 800 c. o. ca- 
pacity)! to 3 assay tons of sulphides. Cover 

with a watch-glass and add 200 c. c. of C. F. 
nitric acid, at the rate of 6 or 8 o. o, at a time. 
Set the beaker in a moderately warm place on 
the sand-bath. After action has nearly ceased, 
add a few more centimeters of acid. If action 
begins again, continue to add the acid until it 
ceases. Dilute with about 400 o. o. of pure 
hot water; let stand about an hour, and filter 
off the uudiaaolved residue. Dry the residue 
and filter-paper and barn the latter. As the 
residue wi.l contain considerable silver undis- 
solved, no more need be added on account of 
the gold. 

H.~DeflDltlon of Terms Used. 
The terms "ordinary," " old," or "simple" 
hyposulphite solution and prooeae, refer to the 
sodium or calcium hyposulphite solution and to 
the Kiss and P..l)ra process in which these so- 
lutiona alone are used. 

The t^frm *' Uussell process" includes the 
use of cuprous hyposulphite, ac;d, or any al> 
kaline carbonate, as soda ash, one or more of 
them, either without or in connection with the 
use ot the sodium or calcium hyposulphite so- 
lution aa used in the Kiss and Patera process. 
** Extra solution " properly means the 
cuprous hyposulphite solution of the Russell 
process, and, to save reptt.tton, the tx^o terma 
are used interchangeably in this paper. 

The "special extra solution" is an extra so- 
lution, which has already been used on one 
charge of ore, and is to be used on -a second 
charge juit previously to the use of a fresh ex- 
tra solution on that charge. 

"Apparent extraction "is the extraction in 
percentage or in ounces by leaching in the mill, 
calculated from the value of the tailings and 
ore per ton, or, in other words, is the differ- 
ence between the value of the tailings and that 
of the ore charged to the leaching tinka. The 
apparent extraction is calculated each day. 
" Actual extraction *' is the amount of silver 
actually obtained in the bullion or sulphides. 
When expressed in percentage, it is the amount 
of silver actually obtained, compared with the 
silver in the ore actually charged into the leach- 
ing tanks. The actual extraction is known 
only at the end of each leaching run, asually 
of 100 to 1000 tons of ore. 

Neither the apparent nor the actual extrac 
tion refers to any losses occurring previously to 
the charging of the ore into the leaohing tanks. 
An " acid ore " as used in this paper is a 
roasted ore, the firat waah-watsr from which 
gives an acid reaction. Of this class are the 
ODtirio(in 1883-84) Sombrertt?, San Antonio 
and San Bartolo. 

A " simple alkaline ore " is a roasted ore with 
an alkaline first wash-water, of which the 
Sierra Grande, Daly and Veta Grande ores are 

An " alkaline arsenical ore " is an ore with 
considerable araenical compounds and an alka- 
line firet wash-water. The Yedras ore is the 
only one of this class so far treated by the Rus- 
sell procesa. 

The "first wash-water " ia used before the 
regular leaching solutions and only on roasted 
ores, being employed to extract all salts formed 
in the roatting which are soluble in water. 

The " second wash-water " is used after the 
regular leaching solutions, on all ores, for the 
purpose of extracting the portion of the hypo- , 
sulphite solution remaining in the ore, and also 
for the purpose of maintaining the volume of 
the stock solution. 

"Volume to saturate," for raw ores, means 
the volume of liquid which the charge of dry 
ore has absorbed per ton by the time the sur- 
face of the liquid stands level with the surface 
of the charge. For roastid ores, it means the 
volume of liquid which a charge of wet ore will 
absorb in the same way. By a " wet charge " 
is meant a charge from which water or solution 
has just been drained, but which still retains 
from 10 to 20 per cent of moisture. 

" Rate of leaching " is the nomber of inches 
depth of liquid, measured on the surface of the 
charge, which will pass through that charge 
per hour. 

•' Circulation " is the re-passing of the solu- 
tion (usually the extra solution) through the 
charge of ore. after it has already passed 
through one or more times. 

By "tailings" ia nodertt')od any matsrial 
which has been treated by leaching or amalga- 
mation, either raw or after roasting. In this 
paper, the term "roatting" or "roatted ore" 
will include chloridizing and chloridized ore. 
The term "Howell furnace" will include any 
self-discharging revolving furnace, either par- 
tially or wholly lined with brick. All expenses 
are given in U. S. currency, and the value of 
one ounce of silver is estimattd at $1. 
II. Mill Work. A.-Preparatlon of the Ore 
for the ProcesB. 
a. The CruHhing and the Effect of Various 
Sizes of Crushing on the Rate of Leaching, 
Roasting and Mill /?esKi«fl.— All crushing of raw 
as well as of roasted ores must be dry. Also 
all tailings, which are to be treated by any 
leaching process, must be dried if they contarn 
any wet slimes. For ores which are to be 
roasted, the reason for dry crushing is appar- 
ent In the case of raw ores, a wet cruahmg 
cauaea a separation of the coarse and ^ne parti- 
cles, which ia very objectionable. Table VI 
elves the size of crushing for the Russell proc- 
ess in various mills. The extraction from bil- 
Ter Reef and Raymond and Ely raw ores would 
probably be increased by a finer crushing. 

The leaching rate of roasted ore is greater 

I than that of raw ore, onleaa the soluble salts 

formed in roasting have first been dissolved 

! from the roasted ore before it ia charged into the 

leaching tanka, in which case the leaching rate 
is abont the same as for raw ores. The fineness 
of crushing has, within certain limits, no ap- 
preciable effect on the rate of leaching, if the 
ore is well chloridized and ia charged dry into 
the leaohing tanks. For instance, when treat- 
ing Ontario ore, a charge of the finest flue-duat 
from the farthest duet-chamber of the Stets- 
feldt furnace leaches just aa rapidly as a charge 
of the coarsest material from the furnace shaft. 
This is due to the perfectly roasted oondition 
of the fiue-dufct, which causes the charge to 
maintain a soft and half-doating condition dur- 
ing the whole of the leaching, unless it is al- 
lowed to drain and settle for a considerable 
time. Oo the other hand, at Lake valley, with 
a Howell furnace without an auxiliary fire, 
the flue dust was so poorly roasted that even 
when mixed with the coarseitore it proved a 
great hindrance to rapid leaching. 

Table VI gives the average rate of leaching 
in the mills for various ores cruebed through 
different screens and treated by the Russell 








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Note,— All the above rates of leaohing, except lor 
the Bremen tailings at Silver City, are without 
syphons or vacuum. 

For ores which are to be roasted in a Stete- 
feldt farnaoe, or which are to be thoroughly 
roa'eted in a Howell or reverberatory, there is 
practically no limit to the fineness of orushing 
allowable. But a roasting in a Bruckner fur- 
naoe may have a very bad effect on the rats of 
leaching, as shown further on. 

For raw ores, if rolls are used, the limit of 
coarseness may be put at an eight-mesh screen. 
In the case of raw tailings, the limit of fineness 
allowable has only been reached in the treat- 
ment of the Bremen tiilingsat Silver City, New 
Mexico. The average fineness of that part of 
those tiiliogs which could be successfully treat- 
ed was such that 87.8 per cent would pass 
through a screen of 150 holes to the linear inch, 
or 22,500 holes to the square inch. With this 
fineness of material, a vacuum of 14 inches of 
mercury produced a leaching rate of about one- 
half inch per hour, measured on the surface of 
the charge. These tailings came from the up- 
per end of the Bremen tailing-pits, which, be- 
ing nearest to the mill which had produced the 
tailings, coEtiined the coarsest mateiial. The 
tailings gradually became finer, the leaching 
rata decreasing until it became one-seventh to 
one-tenth of an inch per hour. The treatment 
of the tailings was then abandoned. The ore 
from which these tiilings had been produced 
was originally crushed through screens of 40 to 
60 meshes ti the linear inch. Subsequently 
the tailings had been once amalgamated and 
once concentrated. The extreme finen' S3 of 
these tailings was due to the elate and lime 
composing the ore, which had decomposed and 
weathered during the three previous treatments, 
and during years of exposure to air and moist- 
ure in the tailing-pits. 

[To he Coiitinufd,) 

An electrical power plant to drive a 50-stamp 
mill is being put up at Silver City, Idaho. 

The directors of the Mechanics' Institute are 
busy preparing for the coming fair. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

[JoLi 28, 1888 



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Saturday Morning, July 28, 1888. 


EDITORIALS.— Cable Railroads; Cocswell Polytech- 
nic College, 53. Passing Events; Timber Depreda- 
tions; Aliens and Mineral Lane's; To Investitrate the 
Debris Problem; Lower California Mines, 56. Big 
Assays; The Late H. P. Gregory; The Launch of the 
Charleston; Condensing Chambers in Smelting Plants, 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — The Cogswell Polytechnic 
College, 53. Reverbatory Furnace and Dust Cham- 
ber at Leadville, 57- 

CORRESPONDENOB.— A Miner's View of Geolo- 
gy; Como, Nevada; El Dorado County Minps; Two 
Shafts in Mines; A New Mining Enterprise, 54. The 
Castle Mountain Mines, 55- 

MISOELLANBOUS.— The Russell Process, 55. 

Cast Steel; Rolling Out Chains of Wrought Iron; An 
Unsolved Mv-^tery; Locomotive Building; Lead-Coated 
Sheet Metal Plates, 58- 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS.— Face Reading is not 
a Science; The Direction of Sounds; The Phenomenon 
of Color; Drying Effect of Natural Gas; A Fragment 
of the Iliad; An Ancient Globe; The Horse; A''irtue 
and Vice, 58- 

GOOD HEALTH.— Emperor Frederick and General 
Grant; State Health Report; Fasting and Poisons, 59. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. -Flowers in Chma; 
Artesian Wells in New York City; A Curious Instru- 
ment; Eagles Pursue and Destroy Deer; The Horses of 
Japan; How to Prepare and Color Calcimine; A New 
Fuel for the Prairies, 59- 

ENGINEERING NOTES. -The Nova Scotia Ship 
Railway; De Lesseps and His Canal; The E^ads Jetties; 
The Largeat Drawbridge; DeterioratiOQ of Storage 
Battftries, 59- 

MINING SUMMARY— From the various counties 
of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Mon- 
tana. New Mexico. OrcEron, Utah, Wyoming, 60-81. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco Stock Board, Notices of MeetinsrB, Assess- 
mentSi Dividends, and Bullion Shipments, 64. 

Passing Events. 

The closing down of the Germania emelter, 
Utah, is expected to be followed by the closing 
down of other establishments. This action is 
forced upon the smelting managements by the 
disastrous freight rates exacted by the rail- 
roads. The rata on bullion has been $1S per 
ton, while the roads carry ore out for §12 a ton. 
Ores that come from Nevada and Utah points 
going East have a certain rate to Salt Lake, 
which is much lower than on ores landed in Salt 
Lake for the home smelters. On the 233 inst., 
the rate on bullion from SaltLake to the Missouri 
river was reduced from ^18 to $15 per ton. 

The failure of the new smelter at Colville, 
W. T., is bad for that region. Still it depend- 
ed on the ores of one district, and there was in- 
Bufficient capital to conduct the business. 

Information printed in another column con- 
cerning the Lower California mines bears out 
the prediction made in the Press at the time 
the excitement began. That region has so lit- 
tle water available that it is hard to make any 
gold-mining operations successful. 

The mines of this State generally were never 
in a more prosperous condition, and the quartz 
industry is making rapid progress. 

The recommendation of the committee favor- 
able to the Biggs bill, on the debris question, 
will please the mining community of California. 

The water of the north fork of the Feather 
river, says the Biggs Argus^ has been turned 
into the Big Bend tunnel, and very soon a large 
body of men will be working on the river 
bottom left dry by the tunnel. 

Timber Depredations. 

The Commissioner of the General Land Office 
has, it is said, received a telegram from the 
special timber agent on duty at Eureka, Neva- 
da, to the effect that the depredations commit- 
ted on the public lands by two corporations have 
amounted in that district to 810,000,000; the 
two corporations alluded to being, presumably, 
mining companies. 

How these two companies or any number of 
mining companies could have caused such ex- 
tensive timber spoliation in that part of Nevada 
is matter for surprise, seeing there never was 
grown a single tree within 300 miles of the 
Eureka district suitable for making good lum- 
ber. The woodlands in that section, as well as 
throughout the entire State, save a narrow belt 
along tlie eastern slope of the Sierra, consist 
almost wholly of nut pine, mountain mahogany 
and juniper, all scrubby trees, and having a 
much scattered growth. There occur in a few 
places small patches of white pine, a somewhat 
larger tree, though it seldom reaches a hight of 
more than 40 or 50 feet, and a diameter of two 
feet. The wood is soft, and when converted 
into lumber, warps badly. If two saw-loga are 
cut from this tree the upper one will be full of 
knots, rendering it almost worthless for lumber. 
As for the other trees mentioned, while they 
make good fuel, not even the most inferior kind 
of lumber can be nianufactured from them. If 
they are sometimes employed for building 
cabins and corrals, palisade fashion, this is the 
only use ever made of them except for fuel. 

The congressional law regulating timber- 
cutting on the public domain, enacted June 3, 
1878, authorizes citizens of the United States to 
fell and remove for building, agricultural, min- 
ing or other domestic purpose any trees or tim* 
ber growing on public mineral lands, under 
such rules and regulations as the Secretary of 
the Interior may prescribe. Any one guilty of 
violating the provisions of this Act or of the 
rules and regulations made in pursuance 
thereof, is liable to a 6ne of $500 and to im- 
prisonment for six months. Cutting timber on 
the mineral lands for sale or willfully destroy- 
ing the same are also unlawful acts. 

Although not so stated, the depredations com- 
plained of must, of course, have been commit 
ted in violation of some one or more of the 
above provisions; but, all the same, it puzzles 
us to see how any such amount of damage as is 
here alleged could have been done by these 
mining companies. Ten million dollars is a 
large sum, more, we opine, than all the trees 
ever grown in Central Nevada would sell for 
were they cut and corded up or converted into 

A little figuring will disclose what an amount 
of improbability is involved in this statement. 
As above remarked, the tree growth through- 
oat all that portion of Nevada is not only 
stunted but exceedingly sparse. Over large 
areas it will not yield more than two or three 
cords of wood to the acre, the average yield of 
the whole not exceeding five cords per acre. 
As this wood, before being cut, is worth not over 
$1 per cord, the corporations complained of, to 
cause a damage of $10,000,000, must have de- 
nuded 2,000,000 acres of their trees, an idea 
so preposterous that no one, except perhaps a 
timber agent, would entertain it for a moment. 
If a few thousand acres of these stunted and 
straggling forests have been so cleared off, this 
is probably about the extent of these alleged 
depredations. As the non-mineral public 
lands, valuable chiefly for their timber 
but unfit for cultivation, are sold at the rate of 
$2.50 per acre, the injury done by strip- 
ping these sparsely timbered mountains of their 
trees could in no event be large. 

It was evidently the intent of the Act first 
alluded to that the parties therein named should 
be permitted to use all the timber required for 
their several purposes. 

It was evidently the intent of the Act regu- 
lating timber- cutting on the public mineral 
lands that the occupants of those lands should 
be permitted to cut and use all the timber re- 
quired for their several purposes, yet the course 
pursued of late years by the Secretary of the 
Interior and the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office would seem to evince on their part 
a desire to frustrate such intent. 

As evidence of this take the ruling of Com- 
missioner Sparks, deciding that the charcoal- 
burners must not make use of dead and fallen 
trees, or pinon found on the public domain, and 

this, even in the ore-smelting districts, where 
there may be little or no other use for this sort 
of wood, but where for the smelters charcoal is 
indispensable. The Commissioner holds the 
opinion that it would be better to let this tim- 
ber remain where it is till it finally rots or 
burns up, greatly increasing meantime the 
danger of forest fires, than to have the carbon- 
aros convert it to such beneficent use. There 
maybe law to warrant such decisions, but how 
about the practical sense of the thing ? It 
must be inferred that the timber so taken was 
found on non-mineral lands, otherwise the use 
of it for the above purpose would be warranted 
by the law already quoted. But even then, as 
the removal of these dead trees could result in 
nothing but good all around, there was no need 
for the Commissioner interposing to prevent it. 
Every public officer, being empowered with a 
certain amount of discretion, is expected to 
exercise the same in the discharge of his official 

Aliens and Mineral Lands. 

Eepresentative Hermann of Oregon, from the 
Committee on Public Lands, reported favorably 
to the House on Tuesday the Senate bill pro- 
viding that the Alien Land Act shall not affect 
the title to mineral or mining claims in the Ter- 
ritories, which may be acquired or held under 
the mineral laws of the United States, or any 
mills or other improvements thereon. The com- 
mittee has added an amendment to the bill pro- 
viding that .the Act shall not be construed so 
as to authorize the acquisition or holding of any 
coal or iron lands in any of the Territories of 
the United States by any alien or foreigner. 

The proposed amendment will have the effect 
of withdrawing some of the opposition to the 
bill, and will be rather a benefit than otherwise. 
It is the gold, silver, copper and lead mines in the 
Territories that the miners want to be able to 
sell where they can get the best price. The 
coal and iron interests of the Territories are less 
important, and it is well that no large tracts be 
sold to aliens. But the English companies that 
buy mines of gold, silver, copper or lead gen- 
erally work them in a vigorous, systematic 
manner, put up big reduction works, employ 
many men and benefit the region where they 
operate in many ways. This has been the ex- 
perience so far. They pay less attention to 
" stock " operations than our own people are ac- 
customed to. It was a hardship to prospectors 
and miners in the Territories to pass a law 
which prevented their selling their mines to 
foreigners if they had the opportunity. We 
get big prices for our properties on the Eoglish 
market, and a great deal of harm was done to 
the mining industry when these sales were 
stopped. It is to be hoped that the proposed 
change in the law will be made at once. 

To Investigate the Debris Problem. 

A Washington dispatch states that Repre- 
sentative Biggs' bill, providing for an appro- 
priation of $100,000 for an examination and 
survey of the rivers and lands adjacent thereto 
in California, will be recommended for passage 
by the Senate Committee on Mining, in the 
hope that information looking to a settlement 
of the debris problem will be the outcome of 
the work, which will be prosecuted by Govern- 
ment officials. 

It is well that this subject should be thor- 
oughly examined by competent and disinter- 
ested engineers. It seems somewhat strange 
that there should be organized opposition to the 
measure on the part of certain Californians. If 
it is possible to permit the hydraulic mines to 
again be worked without injury or detriment 
to other interests, we ought to know it. If it 
is not possible, of course matters will remain as 
they are. There is no reason, however, why 
the subject should not be properly investigated. 
It costs the State nothing, the Government 
paying the bills. There is, moreover, no objec- 
tion on the part of the Government to do this, 
since it sold the auriferous gravel land to the 
miners, who bought in good faith. Then the 
U. S. Courts enjoined them from working the 
ground. In fact this scientific examination ot 
the problem should have been made long since. 
It will be a great benefit to the State to have 
the whole matter studied and then definitely 
settled one way or the other. 

CoppEE ore is being shipped from Pioche, 
Nev., to Salt Lake. 

Lower California Gold Mines. 

We had a conversation this week with Geo. 
E. Mills, who has just returned from the gold 
mines in Calmalli district. Lower California. 
These mines are about 260 miles south of En- 
senada by land. Erom the seaport of San 
Domingo they are 50 miles inland, over a sandy 
road, with one large mountain to cross, Mr. 
Mills has a very poor opinion of the mines, 
which he says amounts to little, though many 
people have been going into the district, some 
of them even walking all the way from Ensen- 
ada and San Diego, taking from 25 to 35 days 
for the trip. The placer mines are played out. 
The old Mexicans and others who have been 
working there have been using dry washers, 
but many have abandoned the ground and left 
their washers and implements behind. Shot 
gold is found, the fine gold of course being lost. 
Three men working a claim there said they 
were making from $5 to $7 a week. 

The quartz mines are *' pocket *' claims, and 
from some of the pockets very rich ore 
indeed is found. The veins run from one to 
three feet in width. On some claims they have 
sunk 40 feet, but nothing rich has been fouqd 
except at or near the surface. Some of the ore 
will soon arrive in this city and is not enough 
to attract attention, but there is very little of 
this sort of ore to be had. There is a five- 
stamp mill in the camp whioh has been at work 
some years. 

A good many men have been disappointed by 
going to these mines. There are not more than 
60 men in the permanent population. Mr. 
Mills saw some men come in nearly barefoot, 
having walked the whole 650 miles to get there. 
They get away as soon as they can. It is only 
occasionally that a steamer or vessel comes to 
San Domingo to bring freight. Mr. Mills him- 
self waited from the 19th of April to the Ist of 
July before he got a chance to get back to Ea- 
senada by sea. The common experience is that 
the longer one stays the less money he has. 
Provisions and clothes are very high. Corn is 
12 cents a pound; deer meat, 37 to 40 cents. A 
four-bit pair of overalls costs $4, and every- 
thing else in proportion. The gold is worth 
$1S an ounce, but has to be sold for goods at 
the store, so it really brings about $5 per ounce, 
considering the prices charged. 

Some of the men who leave — for there is no 
work for them — go over to the copper mines 
above Muleje. The Eoglish company^s mines 
on the gulf side, where the seaport is Los An- 
geles, have stopped work. 

There are about 12 quartz mines opened at 
Calmalli. An effort is to be made to sell the 
claims in this city, and the owners expect to get 
about $300,000. If the mines showed any per* 
manence, with ore half as rich as the pockets 
have yielded, they would be very valuable. As 
it is, however, no value can be placed on them, 
everything depending on the occasional pockets 
which are found. 

The Forest Hill Mine Fike.— The fire in 
the Forest Hill mine, in Placer county, which 
cost J. Bowering and Robert McKechnie their 
lives, was caused by the pipe from the black- 
smith shop setting the timbers on fire. The 
shop is located 5S0O feet from the mouth of the 
main tunnel. Over 70 men were inside the 
fire in the tunnel. They retreated to the side 
drifts, where the air remained pure, and when 
the fire subsided, and they started to rush out* 
side, they were horrified to find the bodies of 
over 30 men who had rushed in in the hope of 
rescuing the inside miners, and had suffocated. 
All but the two named above were resuscitated. 

In making test of Oocidental tin ore at the 
Dakota School of Mines one day recently, the 
fact was developed that it carried a consider- 
able quantity of gold. This was a revelation 
even to the men who performed the work upon 
the mine. 

The Maxwell Creek mines, which were tak- 
en to London eome time ago by Wm. Letts 
Oliver, have, it is said, been successfully placed 
in strong hands on that market. The BJg Oak 
Flat ditch will be run in connection with the 

The Frisbee wet mill, illustrated and describ- 
ed in the not long since, is in successful 
operation at the Copper Qaeen mine, Arizona, 
reducing ore for concentration. We shall 
shortly give a report of the results aocom" 

July 28, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Big Assays. 

The Late H. P. Gregory. 

We don't K«t bo much exoiked in CaUfornia I Henry 1'. Gregory, who died at hU home in 

over gold ore " aufayiog " $00,000 to the ton as ( tiklaod on Tueaday night, ocoapted a position ' roundings. 

fine raocb oear the sboree of Monterey bay, 
between Aptos and Sequel, where he had a com- 
fortable country reeidence with pleasant aur* 

we do over that worth $C0; and, in fact, $lo of prominence among the dealers in machinery 

and $20 rock la pretty good in these days, and on this coast. In his death, the community 

pays well if there lb enough of it. Whenever loses a valuable member and an honorable and 

we hear of people rinding S.'iO.OOO or $tiO,000 upright gentleman. Among his associates he 

ore we thiok some follow hav found % ** speoi- was well liked for his genial and pleasant man- 

men" or a little pocket. It is pocket mines nere, and he had acquired an enviable reputa- 

! tion in business oirclea. 

Mr. Cregory entered as a volunteer in the 
U. S. Navy at the beginning of the war, and 
served as an engineer. He was in aotiv« serv* 
ice and in many of the great naval battlee. At 
the cIoBe of the war he oame to this oity. He 
was a member of the Bohemian Club and the 
generally that ihow bunches of ore of great '. tion in business circles. Pacific Club. He was also a member of the 

value, but pocket mines and specimen mines I After having been employed with Treadwell j Loyal Legion, the Anoient Order of United 
do not bring high prices ai mines. In auoh Si Co. for some years, he went into business (or j Workmen, the Knights of Honor, and a Knight 

claims it is well to count on what is in actual 
sight and nothing more. The old-fashioned 
§1000 a ton rock we used to hear about is sel- 
dom mentioned in these days for fear those who 
know anything of the 
subject will "copper" 
the statement and 
have nothing to do 
with the man who 
speaks of it. 

These remarks are 
called out by the dis- 
patches from Michi- 
gan, where we are told 
men this week brought 
in gold rook from the 
Lake Superior Iron 
Co.'s mines. They 
have 'iOO pounds of 
the rich rock. It is 
estimated as worth 
way into the thou- 
sands, and some say 
the assays will show 
§00,000. We don't 
often assay that kind 
of stuff in this coun- 
try, hut take a mortar 
to find out the value. 
'* The quart/, vein on 
which the shaft was 
sunk was discovered 
three years ago by 
lehpemiog men, but, 
with the exception of 
exploding one charge 
of dynamite, which 
exposed a rich pocket 
of gold-bearing quartz. 
nothing was done, be- 
cause the property was 
owned by the Lake 
Superior Iron Com- 
pany, which would 
not lease nor sell it. 
Last summer the com- 
pany put a few miners 
at work on the prop- 
erty, and a teat abaft 
was sunk about 18 
feet, at the bottom of 
which a small pocket 
was struck which pro- 
dnced gold-carrying 
rock which assayed 
$40,000 to the ton. 
All work was suspend- 
ed then and nothing 
done until two months 
ago. Rich rock has 
been encountered all 
along, and the wonderful find has thus set the 
people wild. The shaft is now down 22 feet, 
and is about 13 feet wide at the bottom." 

.This is rather a curious ahaped *' shaft," 22 
feet deep and 18 feet wide. They must be go- 
ing to have a triple compartment outfit on that. 
But it is easy to get up an excitement over gold 
in the East. Out here when a fellow strikes a 
pocket like that he is congratulated and people 
hope he will get another, but they are by no 
means sure of it. Some pocket mines in this 
State have paid handsomely, but there are bo 
many chances to be tiken that it ia aeldom any 
big price is paid for a mine of that character. 

The Prescott Journal-Miner declares that 
what Arizona needs in the way of the develop- 
ment of her mines is men of means who are will- 
ing to invest their capital in legitimate mining 
eoterpriees, and not kid-gloved mining men, 
who take hold of auch a proposition to float the 
stock among their friends, regardless of the 
merit of the property. 

Charles Reed was killed last week by a 
rook falling upon him in the upraise from No. 
9 tunnel, Sierra Buttea mine, Sierra Oity. 

himself in lb74, under the firm name of H. P. | Templar. His cheerful disposition, natural 
(iregory & Co., and afterward established ' politeness and pleasant manners endeared Mr. 
, branch houses in Portland, Oregon, and Sydney, I Gregory to a wide circle of friends. His business 
N. S. W. His brother, Silas P. Gregory, was | associates will join with bis personal friends in 


S^ale ) ind. to 6 fBei.jr Vtj 


associated with him In business until about a 
year since, when he died. 

The firm started in a small way on First 
street between Market and Stevenson, but soon 
enlarged their buslneas and moved to the foot 
of Market street. Soon after the completion of 
Union block, they took the corner store on Fre- 
mont and Mieaion streets. The premises are 
the finest in the city for the class of business 
conducted, and a very large and varied stock is 
carried. Mr. Gregory made frequent visits 
Eist and abroad, and secured many valuable 
agencies, which he conducted with marked 
ability. Being an enterprising man, he has built 
up a fine businesB from very small beginnings. 
Ever since he was established for himself he has 
been a constant advertiser in the Press, and was 
well known, personally, to many of our readers. 

Mr. Gregory was a man in the prime of life 
and with everything to make life attractive. 
Successful in business, he had made for himself 
one of the pleasantest homes in Oakland. He 
was peculiarly a domestic man and enjoyed his 
home life. He leaves a widow and three chil- 
dren, two boys and one girl. Mr. Gregory has 
of late years greatly interested himself in his 

paying the last tribute of respect to his mem 

A BALCONY will soon be built around the 
museum-room of the State Mining Bureau. The 
balcony will ba placed about tan feet from the 
floor, and will be nine feet broad. The want 
of the additional room thus obtained has long 
been felt, as all the available space had already 
been crowded with specimens. 

The mining machinery ia being removed from 
the Noonday and Bsd Cloud mines, Bodie, and 
taken to Anaconda, Montana, but Capt. John 
Kelly says there will be more machinery arriv- 
ing in Bodie within a short time than has ever 
been hauled out of the camp. 

The Lauuch of the Charleston. 

The launch of the steel cruiser from the ship- 
yard of the Union Iron Works, on Thursday 
evening of last week, was an occasion which 
will long be remembered in this city. No inch 
immense orowd ever before gathered in this 
State at anything connected with our industrial 
interests. All the roadways leading to the 
works were crowded with people; the steamers, 
tugs, yachts, and all sort) of craft were loaded 
with passengers; the shipyard was filled with 
an expectant multitude, and from every point 
of vantage were masses, crowds and groups of 
people to watch the launch. 

We have before described the vessel, which is 
still incomplete, the hull having been launched 
to make room in the yard for the other cruiser 
which is to be built. The arrangements for the 
launch were perfect, and there was no delay or 
hitch of any kind. At the appointed hour the 
huge mass of steel slid majestioally and smooth- 
ly down the ways into the bay, amid the blow- 
ing of whiettes, firing of guns, and shouts and 
obeers from thousands of people. 

It must have been a prond moment for Irving 
M, Scott, the man to whose energy the whole 
thing was due. He and his associates were 
busy with the preparations until shortly before 
the appointed hour. On a platform near the 
bow were the Governor of the State, the Mayor, 
Supervisors and Federal and State officials, the 
officers of the army and navy and the Govern- 
ment band. Miss Alice Scott christened the 
vessel. As the great hull moved slowly down 
the waya, the band played ** The Star Spangled 
Banner,'' and the music inspired the vast orowd 
of people in the yard to join their voices in the 
national song. As soon as the launch was 
over, cheers were given for all who had been 
prominently identified with the event. 

No more successful launch was ever made. 
There was no delay, and no accident of any 
kind, and the whole affair reflects credit on 
those who had it in charge. The people were 
proud to know that we had in our midst an in- 
dustrial establishment that was enabled to ac- 
complish so great a work so successfully. 

A California company with $15,000,000 
nominal capital is about to expend $1,000,000 
in a plant for developing iron, coal and lime- 
stone deposits at Iron Oity, Utah Territory. 

There is a quartz vein in Marin county 
which has ore assaying H ounces gold and 14 
ounces silver to the ton, but the mine is not 
developed to any extent. 

Condensing Chambers in Smelting 

In recent numbers of the Press we have given 
descriptions of the Leadville smelting furnaces 
from the U. S. Geological Survey monograph 
No. XII, by Emmons, on the *' Mining Indus- 
try of Leadville." In the Press of May 12, 
18SS, was given the elevations and sections of 
Smelter A. On this page we give engravings 
showing the reverberatory furnace and dust 
chambers of the same smelter. In Fig. 3 the 
chamber is seen in horizontal sections, divided 
into three parts by means of partition walls Wt 
the arrows indicating the circulation of the 
fumes. Fig. 2 ia a vertical section of the same 
chamber, and the construction and working are 
shown by the drawings. About 150 tons of 
dust were collected in this chamber in six 

The roasting furnace is shown in elevation in 
Fig. I, chiefly with a view of giving the dimen- 
sions, for it presents no peculiarity in construc- 
tion. Its width (not indicated in sketch) is 12 
feet. The sketch shows the system of bracing 
by rails; the hinged cast-iron doors d and the 
dotted lines indicate the internal disposition of 
the furnace. 

The roasting furnaoe is used at Smelter A for 
roasting the chamber duet previous to resmelt- 
ing. In the study of metallurgical products, it 
will be seen that it is an expensive and useless 
operation, and that it were better, on the con- 
trary, to use it for the roasting of matte and 
speisB. The former being roasted in heaps, 
lose a great deal of the silver, and the latter is 
not treated in Leadville. The main point of 
interest in this roasting furnace is the flue C, in 
which a good deal of the products utilized dur- 
ing the roasting is condensed; so that this fur- 
nace is admirably adapted for the treatment of 
matte, accretions and speiss — all products con- 
taining a great deal of silver. S represents the 
stick of the furnace; O the damper of the stack. 
The ashpot of the furnace is not visible, but is 
placed at h. 

Sonoma Quicksilver.— The Great Eastern 
quicksilver mine, Sonoma county, is shipping 
upward of 100 flasks of quicksilver monthly. 
The Mount Jackaon mine, adjoining the Great 
Eastern, has been bonded for $111,000. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 28, 1888 


The Secret of Cast Steel. 

The hiBtory of cast Bteel, remarks a con- 
temporary, preHentj a carious iDstance of a 
manufactaring secret stealthily obtained under 
the cloak of an appeal to philanthropy. The 
main distinction between iron and steel, as 
mo&t people know, is that the latter contains 
carbon. The one is converted into the other 
by being heated for a considerable time in 
contact with powdered charcoal in an iron box. 
Now, steel thus made is nnequal. The mid- 
dle of a bar is more carbonized than the ends, 
and the surface more than the center. It is, 
therefore, unreliable. Nevertheless, before the 
invention of cast steel, there was nothing 
better. In 1760 there lived at Attercliffe, 
near Sheffield, a watchmaker named Hnnti- 
man. He became dissatisfied with the watch- 
spring in use, and set himself to the task of 
making them homogeneous. ** If," thought 
he, *'I can melt a piece of steel and cast it 
into an ingot, its composition should be the 
same throughout." He succeeded. His steel 
Boon became famous. Huntsman's ingots for 
fine work were in universal demand. He did 
not call them qaat steel. That was his secret'. 
About 1780 a large manufactory of this pecul- 
iar steel was established at Attercliffe. The 
process was wrapped in secrecy by every 
means within reach. One midwinter night, as 
the tall chimneys of the Attercliffe steel 
works belched forth their smoke, a traveler 
knocked at the gate. It was bitterly cold, 
the enow fell fast, and the wind howled across 
the moat. The stranger, apparently a plowman 
or agricultural laborer seeking shelter from the 
storm, awakened no suspicion. Scanning the 
wayfarer closely and moved by motives of 
humanity, the foreman granted bis request and 
let him in. Feigning to be worn out with cold 
and fatigue, the old fellow sank upon the floor 
and soon appeared to sleep. That, however, 
was far from his intention. He closed his eyes 
apparently only. He saw workmen cut bars of 
steel into bits, place them in crucibles and 
thrust the crucibles into a furnace. The fire 
was urged to its extreme power until the ateel 
was melted. Clothed in wet rags to protect 
themselves from the heat, the workmen drew out 
the glowing crucibles and poured their contents 
into a mold. Mr. Huntsman's factory had 
nothing more to disclose. The secret of making 
oaEt steel had been discovered. 

Rolling Oot Chains of Wrought Iron. — 
The process, some time since announced, of roll- 
ing out chains of wrought iron from the solid 
bar, has, with certain improvements, been suc- 
cessfully resorted to — the principle of forming 
the rollers and the process of rol ing out a 
chain being, in this case, similar in some re- 
spects to the method employed for casting the 
links and having them come out together in a 
chain from a mold. In the latter operation, 
the fiask is made to part equally in four ways, 
and the chain molded while the links are sepa- 
rated so as to divide the spaces equally between 
them, giving as little clearance as possible, 
which will not change their appearance per- 
ceptibly — the flask is divided, the chain ia 
moved, and one is cast in the mold. Similarly, 
a piece of chain is awedged oat of a bar of iron 
in an analogous manner, by means of four con- 
verging dies. Thus, in producing a continuous 
chain in this way, the dies are made continuous 
by having them formed on the circumference of 
four rollers, arranged with dies distributed in 
equal divisions, and the rollers driven by gear 
wheels, so that the four parts of a link will meet 
accurately in place; proper clearance ia given to 
the dies, so as to allow the material to leave the 
matrix freely as the roller revolves. Aa the 
blank ia carried forward between the rollers, 
the dies partially press or swedge out the links 
at right angles to each other, breaking the fin 
or feather edge that is left on the inside of the 

An Unsolved Mystery.— Iron, of all others, 
is the metal in most general use, and unlike 
wood and other materials, which " perish in 
the using," iron when it has served its purpose 
in one position goes to the foundry or forge, as 
scrap iron, and returns for some other use as 
good as new, with very little loea. Old castings 
are recast in some new form and are no way in- 
ferior to castings made of new pig iron. Old rails 
are re-rolled and come out new. It ia only in the 
form of naila and some other small matters that 
iron ia lost. Now when we obaerve the millions 
of tons of pig iron, fresh from the ore, that ia 
added to the stock on hand every year, the 
mystery is that the demand still remains un- 
supplied. The conatantly increasing use of 
iron, in all of its forma, would account for the 
increased output from the furnaces every year, 
if, like other materials, it perished with the 
first usej but as it returns to the common stock 
as new material, why is the demand still main- 
tained ? — Boston Jouvnal of Commerce. 

Locomotive Building. — There are 15 pri- 
vate locomotive-building establishments in the 
United States, which built 1912 engines last 
year, while the railroad-shops turned out 318. 
It was the largest production on record, the 
coat of the locomotives being near $20,000 

Mucilage of acacia, made with acetic acid in 
place of water, makes a good liquid cement. It 
cannot be used for marble. 

Lead-Coated Sheet-Metal Plates. 

A Cneap and Valuable Substitute for Gal- 
vanizing Iron. 

In view of the interest attached to protective 
coating for sheet metal, it ia appropriate to di 
rect attention to a process which has recently 
been adopted by the Ajax Metal Company of 
Philadelphia, the coating used by them being 
lead. The procees is worked under patents 
granted to Mr, Francis J. Clamer of the com- 
pany, and embraces a special treatment for 
cleaning and preparing the sheet metal and a 
separate method of treating the lead'Coating 
bath. It baa been fonnd that where acids 
alone were relied upon to clean the plates — this 
being the method in current use — the surface of 
the plate is not entirely freed from impurities; 
in other words, not chemically cleaned, and the 
coating subsequently applied will therefore not 
adhere perfectly. The Ajax Company, there- 
fore, use the acid bath, when it is employed at 
all, only as a preliminary step in the cleaning 
process for removing quickly tbe greater por- 
tion of the impurities before thorough cleaniog 
is effected by other means. These form the es- 
sential features of their process, and, in cases 
where time is no great object, the acid bath is 
entirely diapenaed with. The plate to be 
cleaned, whether having been first treated in an 
acid bath or not, ia placed in a bath of cyanide 
of potassium and water in about the proportion 
of six ounces of tbe former to one gallon of the 
latter. The plate is then subjected to the ac- 
tion of a galvanic current, being placed in the 
position occupied by the anode in an ordinary 
electro-plating bath. The result is a per- 
fectly clean surface on the plate under treat- 

After being thus chemically cleaned, the plate 
ia immersed in a bath of chloride of zinc, made 
by diseolving metallic zinc in hydrochloric acid 
until the latter ia thoroughly saturated and will 
take up no more of the metal. This bath pre- 
pares the plate for a more ready adhesion of 
the coating to be applied and constitutes an im- 
portant step in the process. 

The method of treating the final bath of 
molten lead which is to be used as the desired 
coatiog is the subject of a separate patent. We 
will explain here that lead, while in a molten 
state, absorbs various gases from its surround- 
inga and from the atmosphere. These absorbed 
gasea prevent the lead from adhering closely 
to the surfaces of different metals which are 
dipped into it, and cause the small holes and 
blisters which are frequently found in ordinary 
lead-coated sheet metal. Molten lead, further- 
more, as many of our readers may know by ex 
perience, is somewhat thick and sluggish, and 
a coating formed in the ordinary way ia there 
fore very apt to be full oE ridges, the reault of 
uneven distribution. To overcome all this the 
Ajax Company treat the lead in a molten state 
with salammoniac, arsenic and phosphate of 
lead. The salammoniac has great cleansing 
power and drives out from tbe lead all the gases 
and impurities which it has absorbed from its 

Tbe arsenic, by its hardening and solidifying 
qualities, renders the lead incapable of taking 
up anv further impurities. It has been found, 
in fact, that it permanently protects the lead 
against these influences, and the metal may be 
melted over and over again without losing the 
effect. The phosphate of lead finally renders 
the mass more flaid. The combined effects of 
the three materials on tbe molten lead have 
been found to be aucb as to make it an excel* 
lent coatiog. 

In preparing tbe lead bath, ordinary pig lead 
is melted in a suitable vessel and covered with 
powdered charcoal to prevent oxidation. This 
having been done, there are added for every 
100 pounds of lead, first three ounces of sal* 
ammoniac, then one-half ounce of arsenic, and 
after this three ounces of the phoaphate of lead, 
and finally one-half ounce of borax or similar 
flax. The substances, it should be noted, are 
introduced separately and immediately, one 
after the other, the molten lead being gently 
agitated in the meantime so as to produce a 
homogeneous mixtare. The plate to be coated 
with the lead, after having been prepared by 
the variona processes above described, is then 
dipped into this bath in the aame manner as 
when coating with zinc. If the bath is not 
needed {or immediate use, the lead may be run 
jnt> bars or ingot j and nsed at any future time. 
We understand that the propoitiona cf salam- 
moniac, arsenic, phosphate of lead and. b:>rax 
may be varied, and the use of the borax or flux 
omitljed entirely. The best results, however, 
are apparently obt iined when the above proper 
tiona are retained. We may remark here, in- 
cident dly, that the claim of the Ajax Com- 
pany is that their coating consists of pure lead, 
and not of any combination, such as tin, lead, 
zinc and others. Mr. J. G. Uendrickson of 
the company informs us thit a separate com- 
pany is being organized to develop the process, 
and will probably be ready for business in a 
aboit time. As we underatand it, it is proposed 
to start sub-companies and lease plant rights 
throughout the Unitad Statea. A small plant 
showing the working of the process is in nae at 
their Philadelphia works in a practical way. 
Mr, Hendrickson further writes that they have 
advanced far enough to prove that leaded iron 
or steel can be put on the market at a price 
fully 50 per cent lower than galvaniziag can be 
done for, with a good profit. The electric 
cleaning process is said to save a good deal of the 
labor which is ordinarily required in cleaning 
sheet-metal surfaces, — Iron Age, 

SeiENTiFie Pf^ogress. 

Pace-Reading is not a Science. 

The CounteDance Is not a Refles of the 
Soul, but Often Only a Mask. 

"Physiognomy is rather a vagary of the im- 
agination than a sofence," said a prominent 
student of human nature the other day, " and, 
therefore," he continued, " I deny that the ex- 
pression of a man's face is really an index of the 
person's soul, as it is generally conceded to be, 
and as tbe object of language ia said to be the 
concealment of thought, so the expression of 
one's countenance ia but the mask to conceal 
one's inner self. 

"There is a tradition that far back in the 
days of which history tells ns nothing, there 
was no speech or language among men, but 
that men read each other's wants and wishes in 
their faces, and as the world was pure nothing 
but purity appeared in the expression of the 
human face. Bat wickedness crept in and 
men songht to keep from their faces the evil 
that was in their heaits, thus preventing 
the countenance from becoming the index of 
the soul. 

**No," the speaker went on, ■*I have no 
faith whatever in physiognomy as a science, 
for as a science it is fanciful and wild. Take, 
for instance, the portrait! of men who have 
become famoas in the world of statesmanship, 
philosophy, science, art and lettera, and search 
and scan their faces for traces to mark their 
fame, and how often you will be disappointed. 
The same is the case with men adepts in 
vice, cunning and crime. Little can be told 
from the external appearance of individuals as 
to their peculiar traits and characteristics by 
which they are known to their fellow-men. 

" That certain habits of life affix their stamp 
to face or form is, no doubt, trae, but the solu- 
tion of that condition is not in the reflex action 
of the mind and soul, but for the reason that a 
cert=iin set of muscles are brought habitually 
iuto play and cause a special development. Is 
the man necessarily all smiles and laughter who 
has wrinkles at the outer corners of the eyes 
and upward-curving lines aronnd his mouth? 
Yet those are the mechanical lines, which would 
indicate a merry*hearted man, if the science of 
phyaiognomy is true. Those lines are only 
muscular, simply the reault of habit, and may 
be dictated by the rankest hypocrisy. 

" Naturally the brutal and ignorant classes 
will have coarser features, and will poEsess 
brotil and animal faces, generally resulting 
from inherited qualities, and, therefore, they 
will do coarse and brutal things. It would be 
an easy matter to trace a resemblance between 
the faces and the crimes of aucb people, in 
whom brutality and coarseness predominate; 
but where will you find the lines and ear-marks 
of brutality in the faces of the handsome 
Wilkes Booth or the cultured and elegant 
Eugene Aram? Look upon the canvaaea bear- 
ing tbe portraits of the beautiful aud angelic 
fiends that ruled the Emperors of Home, and 
vou will see only patrician faces, but they 
brought tbe empire to destruction. 

** Instances of this character might be given 
indefinitely, but every one who has made a 
careful stady of the subject will agree that the 
connection between the facial expres^iion and 
the inner spiritual nature is a very difficult one 
to trace." — A'. Y. Mail and Expresa. 

The Direction of Sounds. 

The difficulty in det3rmining the trae and 
exact direction of tbe sounds we hear meets us 
in various ways. The hnnter hears the note of 
a bird, the bisa or whistle of a deer, and the 
sound indicates identity and proximity, but not 
direction. The hunter waits for repeatsd re- 
newal of the sound to aaceitiin its exact posi- 
tion, and even then verifies hia audition by his 
vision. The hnnter by his campfire may aim 
between the luminous dots of reflected light, 
which he knows to be the eyes of a wolf; but 
he would scarcely be able to aim at or even 
near that spot on simply hearing the howl from 
the wolf that owns the eyes. The plainsman 
hears a about in the distance. He may recog- 
nize it as the voice of a comrade, and fix the 
general direction, as notth, south, east or west, 
but hardly more. He may shout back, and the 
two may come together; but if it be dark, and 
there is no fire or other signal, the shouting 
back and forth must be frequently repeated 
and varied from a simple to a complex sound, 
that each may correct the error of his own 
and.tion, eliminate bis personal equatioo, and 
the found will appear to swing, pendulum-like, 
right and left, with ahoit^r and shortar stroke, 
till tbe comrades come together. How many of 
us going to the next street, running at right an- 
gles to the car trackp, can tell from hearing the 
bell of the approaching street-car bafore the car 
comes in sight whether that car is going north 
or south ? It does not seem that animals can 
determine the direction of aound much better 
than man. The sleeping dog, roused by his 
mastdr's call, is all abroad as to his master's lo- 
cation, and dctsrmines it by sight or scent, or 
both, frequently running in several different di- 
rections before bitting the right one. The deer, 
on being startled by the unseen hunter's tread, 
is not always right in bis selection of tbe route 
tj get out of harm's way. A flock of geese, 
ducks or ether birds, on bearing a gun, is as 
likely to flv toward as from the sportsman, if < 
he has kept entirely out of sight, and the flash 
of hia piece has not been seen. | 

It is a question whether the blind are better 
able to determine the direction of sound by ear 
than are seeing people. It is possible that their 
senses of touch and smell are so highly devel- 
oped that their instantaneous action with that 
of the ear give tbem a decided advantage over 
seeing people in this matter. I have known a 
blind man to be ao senaible of the current of air 
put in motion by the speaking of a single word 
in a room that he could select the speaker by 
his location, though others were present. So, 
too, I have known a blind man to locate and 
identify the various people in the room, he say- 
ing he did it by tbe different scent evolved from 
each, the seeing people there not being sensible 
of any scent from any one. And yet he, when 
Btanding in the middle of the room with his 
nose stopped, could not give the direction of 
one single speaking person. 

Profeasor Alexander Graham BsU reports at 
Saratoga in 1S79 a series of experiments in 
binaural audition, showing, among other things, 
that direction cannot be appreciated by monau- 
ral observation; that when the source of aound 
is at the nadir of the observer the perception 
of its direction is absolutely unreliable, and 
that not one of the many on whom he tried the 
experiment had the alightsat idea of the true 
direotton of a sound produced beneath him. 
We are so much accustomed to the aid of our 
other senses, especially that of sight, that we 
incline to give more value to audition in deter- 
mining direction than it deserves. That is one 
reason why we err ao largely when so placed 
that the eye cannot correct the error of the ear 
— in fact, many people seem to be unaware that 
they have any inability to locate sound by tbe 
ear until they have learned the fact by experi- 
ence, and even then they appear to consider 
marked instances as abnormal. — Popular 
Science Monthly. 

The Phenomenon of Color. — A writer on 
the nature and phenomena of color now asserts 
that, contrary to what has been the gen- 
eral opinion, its causes and effects are de- 
terminable solely by the wave theory of light; 
that color depends, in fact, upon the number of 
tight waves reflected from any object infring- 
ing upon the retina of the eye. According to 
this theory there are in red about 40,000 wavea 
to the inch, and these will strike the eye at 
the rate of four hundred and forty-aeven mill- 
iona of millions of pulsations per second; in 
violet there are 57,000 waves to the inch and 
six hundred and ninety milliona of millions of 
pulsations per second, and tbe other colors have 
wave lights iutarmediate between these two. 
From all this the conclusion ia arrived at that 
color does not exist either in the object or in 
the mind or the brain of the observer — it ia an 
effect. This ia illustrated by tbe fact that there « 
can be no appearance of a fire on a desert island ■ 
where there is no eye within seeing distance; ■ 
the chemical proceas known by the term com- 
bustion goes on, but there is no appearance of 
the fisime save when its light waves strike npon 
the retina of an eye. 

Drying Effect of Natural Gas. — It has ■! 
been remarked that the heat of natural gas ia ■ 
drying to a marked degree above the heat from ■' 
burning coal or wgod. The knowledge of thia 
fact enablea builders in the cities where gas is 
to be bad to virtually dispense with winter. 
Inclosed buildings are easily and cheaply heat- 
ed for the paintera and the plasterers, and even 
exterior conaumption of gas ia reaorted to suc- 
ceaafully in some ioat^tnces to aid the masons. 
The time is coming when such oonveniencea 
will not be confined to the favored regions 
where the Trenton rock cornea up near enough 
to the surface to be tapped. — Lights Beat and 

A t'RAOMENT OF THE Iliad. — The explorer of 
the Fayum, Mr. Petrie, baa discovered " a 
aplendid fragment of the Second Book of the 
Iliad, written on papyrus in the flneat Greek 
band, before the rounded uncial or curaive 
scripts came into use. This precious document 
was found rolled up under the head of a mummy 
which was buried simply in the sand without 
tbe protection of a tomb. It measures appar- 
ently from three and a half to four feet in 
length. The date of the manuscript ia about 
tbe second or third century. It will be edited 
by Prof. Sayce." 

An Ancient Globe —In the National Li- 
brary at Paria there is a Spanish globe 350 
years old, on which the Cougo follows in a re- 
markable manner the course now given to that 
river on the maps. All the best maps in the 
sixteenth century showed the Congo as rising 
in a lake far inland, while in this century we 
first tried to identify the Congo with tbe Niger, 
and then for many years made it flow north. 

The Horse. — The origin of the wild horse ia 
traced through tradition to Central Asia as the 
aboriginal abode of the horae, aaya Mr. Steele 
in his paper on ** Wild Horses," while ear Mex- 
ican mustang and bucking broncho are descend- 
ants of domesticated animals introduced from 
Europe, He gives ns the date of 1537 as the 
landing of the first horse in America at Buenos 

Virtue and "Vice. — A scientist has discov- 
ered a curious regularity in the geographical 
distribution of certain virtues and vices. In- 
temperance is found north of the forty-eighth 
parallel; amatory aberrations south of the forty- 
fifth; financial extravagance in large seaports; 
thrift in pastoral highland regions. 

July 28, 1888.] 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Emperor Frederick and Gen. Grant. 

The Bcaodaloas discaBsioo in regard t) the 
dUeue, treatmeot aod death of the Ut6 Kmper- 
or Frederick of Oermaoy, does DOt indicate a 
very credit ible conditioo of affiira between the 
phyiioiaoa involved in the controversy. In many 
reap«cti there is a striking parallel between the I 
oases of our own lamented ex-Tresident < Irani | 
and that of the Emperor. In both cases the 
heroism manifested in connection with their j 
terrible suffering and doom was far superior to 
the valor which each had shown upon the bat* 
tle-6eld, great as that was. With the exception 
of the case of (wen. Garfield, the history of the 
world doea not afford a parallelism to the pro- 
found and world-wide sympathy which was 
manifest :d in behalf of those distingutshed 
aofferera. The medical bnlletins in each case 
became for many weeks the one engroaaing sub- 
ject of intsrest to an anxious world. In both 
cases the malidy was probibly known from the 
firfet to be cancer and was considered incurable 
by the physicians in attendance. Some political 
aigoitioance undoubtedly had to do with the in- 
decision of the faculty in the case of Prederiofe. 
Sympathy and hope against hope kept the real 
character of Grant's disease in the dark ae long 
as possible. In view of these two notable be- 
reavements, and of the rapidly increasing 
spread of this terrible disease all over the 
world, the question naturally comes up, as it 
has many times before under similar aggravat- 
ing oircumstancea. 

Can Cancer be Cured? 
Uaira Journal of HtaUh^ one of the ablest 
and mo&t reliable jonrnals devoted largely to 
the popularization of matter pertaining to dis- 
eases and their preventionand cures, in alluding 
to this quettion, says: 

Nor is it quita established that cancer is an 
incurable disease. That there have been cases 
of cure by methods unrecognized by practition- 
era of the older schools of medicine is quite well 
established, and the belief is gaining ground 
that there is something oatside of them yet to 
be learned in the healing art. But whenever a 
cure is effected by a specialist it is usual for op- 
posing schools to dispute that the patient was 
really a cancer subject. 

We would call especial attention to the above 
paragraph from so distinguished a source. It is 
but reiterating what we have often said in 
these columns. Further, in the same direction, 
we quota from one of the most reliable medical 
works extant — a standard English book en- 
titled " Cancer, its Varieties, their Histology 
and Diagnosis," by Henry Arnott, F. R. 0. S. 
On page 77 that author, in speaking of the vari* 
ens forma of growths commonly called cancers, 

For it is extremely unlikely that all these 
t'jmora are to he met with the same remedy. 
Granted that so*called *' constitutional reme- 
dies " have always failed to cure new growths, 
it is yet a matter of history that hosts of tumors 
have been permanently arrested in their prog- 
rean^ and it is also a matter of history thai 
among these have been included not a few in- 
stances of genuine cancer. 

The same author, on the second page of his 
preface, says: 

Hitherto our modes of treatment of cancer 
have been, confessedly, unsatisfactory; and so 
long as our ignorance of the pathology of the 
disease prevented us from being able to suggest 
a reliable prognosis in most cases, the result of 
the various remedies from time to t'me pro- 
posed could net possibly be weighed, for, when 
a remedy appeared to be succesBful, there al- 
ways remained a doutt as to the nature of the 
tumor treated, and, consequently, of the share 
of the remedy in its removal. 

In regard to the laltar portion of the above 
paragraph, we would remark that the evidence 
which has been heretofore given in these 
columns would seem ti set at rest all doubts as 
t:) the possibility that any mistxke could be 
made in regard to the character of many of the 
*' tumors " which have been cured in this city. 
We have given the names of patients and the 
attending and operating phyaicians in quite a 
number of cases where **■ tumors " have been re- 
moved once, and sometimes twice, by our most 
distinguished surgeons, whose repatations will 
not admit of a doubt as to their knowledge of 
the charactar of the tumors after they have re- 
moved them. In the cases referred t?, the 
** timers " have come again, presenting pre- 
cisely the aame characteristics, have been pro- 
nounced most unmistakably cancerous^ and have 
been cured by constitutional treatment, aided 
to some extent by aimple, painless, outward ap- 

plications. The character of the physicians re- 
ferred to, wc repeat, will not admit that they 
could have made a "mistake" in their diag- 

We hold that it is due to science and hu- 
manity that such oasea or similar new ones, 
which may be prevented, ahoold be subjected 
to a careful consideration by a competent 
medical commisaion. If the faculty continaea 
to refuse to take such a step, the State author- 
ities will soon be called upon to aot in the 
matter. Money from the State Treasury is be- 
ing applied by the Stats Board of Health in 
many ways of infinitely leas importance th«n 
that which is proposed. 

State Health Report. 

The report of the State Board of Health for 
June shows a very satisfactory condition for 
the month. Reports were rtoeived from 87 
oities and towoEj, aggregating estimated popula- 
tion of 70*2,050. The total number of deaths 
was 904, a percentage of 1.3 per thousand for 
the month, or an annual death rate of 16.3 — 
the lowest death rate reported for the year. 

AmoDg the diseases enumerated, ooosomption 
as usual leads with 156 fatalities; heart disease 
follows next with 67; pneumonia counts 66; 
diseases of the &t)mach and bowels count 117. 
These latter are more or lesa preventable and 
are almost always brought on by excess in 
diet or bad hygienic surroundings, such as 
high temperature, etc. It ia hoped that in the 
near future the time will come, as it surely 
should, when our young people will be more 
thoroughly educated in matters peit lining to 
health — when such matters will be considered 
quit3 as essential in education as reading, writ- 
ing and arithmetic. Under such circumstances 
t!ie application of such knowledge will so con- 
trol the appetite, habits and habitations of our 
people as t? reduce all preventable diseases to 
their minimum. 

It is a matter of regret that the program of 
discussions at the last week's session of 
our National Educational Association did 
not include the subject of hygiene iu our 
common schools among the numerous ed- 
ucational problems to be considered by that 

The other dieeaaes not enumerated above 
were as follows: Alcoholism, 9; erysipelas, 1; 
cerebro-spinal fever, 6; remlttmtand intermit- 
tent fevers, 7; typhoid fever, 35; whooping 
cough, 5; measles, 2; scarlet fever 9; croup, 8; 
diphtheria, 20; congestion of lungs, 10; acute 
bronchitis, 16; other causes, 417. Among the 
latter, 12 are set down for cancer, which ia an 
unusually small mortality from this cause. 

Fasting and Poisons. — It has been ascer- 
tained by careful experiments conduoted by 
M. Roger that poisons lose one fifth of their 
toxic power when taken into the system by 

Useful Inforjviatiojm. 

Flowees in China.— The Chinese have a 
passion for flowers. Yon may see on the hun- 
dreds of canals that cut up the country around 
Shanghai, boats whose dingy and miserable ap- 
pearance betokens the poverty, even the beg- 
gary, of their occupants; and yet near the stern, 
on top of the sawbang or cooking canopy — the 
"galley" — you will see from two to a dozen 
pots of flowers. Little Ohinese girls nearly 
always place a sprig of some bright flower in 
their glossy tresses of raven black, and they 
sometimes show a good deal of taste in the ar- 
rangement of their nosegays. Just about the 
first of February, or near the Chinese New 
Year, one may see men and boys selling 
branches of a small bush that bears a yellow 
flower, somewhat resembling the spice bush 
flowers of Virginia. This flower has, to a 
Chinese, associations bright and pleasant as 
those that clung around the far-famed haw- 
thorn that bloomed in old Eugland on "Old 
Christmas Day." You can bay in the market 
for a few chien, or cash, a -little flower pot with 
a few bulbs of daffodil in it, and by keeping it 
in the window of your room, soon have a few 
bright-looking flowers. The Chinese do not 
pUnt in their parka such elaborate flower-bsds 
as the Americans and Europeans, but they are 
very fond of pot fliwera, — Vick's Magazine. 

Artesian Wells in New York City. — It is 
said that there are over 1000 artesian wells in 
the cit)' of New York, Many establishments, 
such as breweries, malthouses and manufacto- 
ries, which require a large supply of water, 
have found it to their advantage to sink wells 
so as to save paying the city water rate. The 
wells are not always successful, for the pro- 
jectors cannot always tell the nature of the 
tormation they are going to bore through until 
they get there. A contractor agrees to sink a 
well at from $6 to $12 per foot, according to 
the hardness of the strata he has to go through; 
then he goes to work with the aame methods 
perfected in the oil regions, and bores at the 
rate of about 20 feet a day, and after going 
down about 400 feet he probably strikes water, 
though sometimes not until much deeper, and 
sometimes not at all. The one which discharges 
the largest amouut of water is located at the 
foot of West Thirty-ninth street, which, 

while it is only 550 fed deep, discburgea 90,* 
000 gallons daily. The deepest well is at Third 
avenue and Sixty-seventh street, it being 1250 
feet, and it only makea a daily average of 10,- 
000 gallons. These wel la vary very much in 
depth, and the depth of the well is no indica- 
tion of its capacity. 

A CcRiors Insthument. — A writer in the 
Chicago New* aays: It ia a ourioua thing that 
the Italian ocarina, or earth-flute, baa not re- 
ceived more attintion from music-lovers in this 
country. 0/ course it is sold in the stores here, 
and you occasionally hear it in a minstrel show, 
bat DCt one man in a hundred knows anything 
about it. I have beard it played in Italy, and 
the muaic from a quartet of the inttrumentt is 
exquisitj. Itj range is limited, but the quality 
of its tone when skillfully played ia pure and 
queer. It has a paatiral flavor, reminding one 
of piping shepherds, and a cluaical environ- 
ment. The ocarina ia very simple. In shape 
it is 8om(:thing like a pear or a small gourd. It 
is made nf baked clay. Its range ia about 12 
notes. No instrument can be more oaaily 
learned, for it almoat plays itaelf when one has 
maatered the scale, and tnere are no keys nor 
any elaborate fingering to embarrass one. The 
Noith Italian peasants use it oonatantly in the 
fields, and when you hear one of their peculiar 
melodies from a practiced quartet you wonder 
such simple means can prodace so beautiful a 

Eaules Pdrsue and DESTKor Deer. — Capt. 
Thomas Frazer of the Argyll and Sutherland 
Highlanders writas to the Loudon Field: On 
March 22d, as my father's Stroneldirg keeper, 
John Rose, was walking over his ground ao- 
compauied by Lord Covat's keeper, they saw 
five red deer leave a small piece of birch wood 
and stand looking about them for a little. 
Three golden eagles appeared and immediately 
attacked one of them — a hiud. She immediate 
ly bolted at full speed, followed by the eagles, 
and after going about 300 yards, one of the 
eagles drew himself together, hovered, ponnced 
and fixed on her head, holding on for about 
five of her strides, when she fell head over 
heels, and thus ridded herself of the first eagle 
for the time. This occurred about a dozen 
times, the eagles coming to the attack in turns. 
In abouttan minutes the hind seemed exhausted, 
and then the keepers were able to get up to 
her, finding that the poor beast was quita stu- 
pefied, her left hind leg broken, her tongue 
banging six inches out and her mouth open. 

The Horses of Japan are not numerous and 
are used for saddle purposes and for the army. 
They are mostly of the pony build. They are 
the moat gallant brutes on earth, as every lady 
horse they meet on the thoroughfares calls forth 
all their chivalry. The saddle horses go when 
they please and stop when they will, and are 
all shod with iron; all others, as well aa the 
park cows and bulls, have their feet protected 
by a shoe of straw, and very excellent shoes 
they are. The straw sandals for a man cost 
about \^ cents of our money, and a full set of 
shoes do not cost but a trifle more. In some 
parts of the roads they are literally padded 
with worn-out shoes and men's sandals. When- 
ever a wearer finds his foot protection too much 
worn he discards it and dons another, of which 
he usually has an extra pair, and the animals of 
burden are served the same way. The mares 
are employed in raising colta and carrying 

How TO Prepare and Color Calcimine. — 
Soak one pound of white glue over night; then 
dissolve it in boiling water and add 20 pounds 
of Paris white, diluting with water until the 
mixture is of the consistency of rich milk. To 
this any tint can be given that is desired. 
L,ilac — Add to the calcimine two parts of Prus- 
sian blue and one of vermilion, stirring thor- 
oughly and taking care to avoid too high a 
color. Gray — Raw umber, with a trifling 
amount of lampblack. Rose — Three parts of 
vermilion and one of red lead, added in very 
small quantitiea, until a delicate shade is pro- 
duced. Lavender — Make a light blue and tint 
it slightly with vermilion. Straw — Chrome 
yellow, with a touch of Spanish brown. Buff- 
Two parts spruce, or Indian yellow, and one 
part burnt sienna. 

A New Fuel for the Prairies. — An invent- 
ive genius of Pocahontas, Ind., grinds corn- 
stalks and coarse prairie grass together and 
moistens them with water. When this com- 
pound has been reduced to pulp he presses it 
into blocks 12 inches long and 4 inches thick. 
When these are thoroughly dried they burn 
readily, and, it is claimed, give more heat than 
the same amount of soft coal. 

Engijmeef^ing I]otes. 

The Nova Scotia Ship Railway.— Mr, 
Benjamin Baker, one of Eugland'e most cele- 
brated mechanical engineers, recently visited 
the EiBtern Statea and Canada in the interest 
of the proposed ship railway across the noithern 
portion of the peninsula of Nova Scotia. Mr. 
Biker is an enthusiastic supporter of ship rail- 
ways. While on a visit to Pittebnrg, he met 
Col. Jamea Andrews, the chief engineer of the 
Tehuantepeo Ship RiilwayCo., to whom he re- 
marked: "My visit to America is to submit 
the plans for a ship railway across the isthmus 
of Chignecti, in Nova Sootia, to the Kliniater 
of Publio Works of Canada. They have met 
with his entire approval, and I sail for London 
on Saturday to make a repoit to the syndicate 
of Eoglish capitalists who are backing this 
scheme. The work on this railway will likely 
be commenced in the coming month of July, 
and will be finished, it is expected, within two 
years' time. The total outlay will be §5,000,- 
000, all of which has already been subscribed, 
the Canadian Government guaranteeing in re- 
turn an annual dividend of $175,000. The 
railway will be 17 miles long, and, owing to the 
heavy tide in the Biiy of l<'uudy, which rises at 
times as high as 70 feet, ships will have to be 
raised 42 feet by hydraulic pressure. The 
largest vessel that we will be able to take 
across will be 2500 tons burden. The Tehuan- 
tepeo railway will endeavor to carry ships of 
4000 tons burden, but they will have to be 
raised only 14 feet. In other respects the 
smaller railway in Canada will be similar to the 
one in which Col. Andrews is interested. This 
Canadian road will be of much benefit to the 
marine traffic bet>veen the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and American ports. It will save a distance 
of 600 miles of ocean travel. I think that the 
ship railways will be a tuccees." 

De Lesseps and His Canal. — Da Leaseps ia 
either the most sagacious or the moat fortunats 
of engineers which the world has produced. 
No other man ever lived who could have 
unshed such an enterprise as the Panama Canal 
tt such a favorable point of success as that 
great work now holds. The work has been 
carried on under most discouraging and unex- 
pected obstacles, bi^th physical and fiuancial. 
Mure than once the best engineers have thought 
that a crisis had been reached which no energy 
or skill could possibly overcome. Bat De 
Leaseps has triumphed eveiy time. The recent 
reported failure of the lottery scheme and the 
violent opposition of a heavy financial syndi- 
cate, seemed, a few days ago, to have crushed 
out all possibility or hope of success; but late 
telegrams announce that the great engineer has 
once more triumphed, and is now in a position 
to fairly command success. He has become 
reconciled t3 Christophele, Governor of the 
Credit Foncier, whose persistent opposition was 
the principal cause of the great difficulty lately 
in placing Panama lottery bands. The Credit 
Foncier will now receive 120,000,000 francs, 
the sum which is necessary for the company to 
meet its regular payments due on bonds. The 
opposing interests are harmonized, and there 
will be no more trouble with the new loan. 

Japanese Newspaper Reporters must have 
good memories. It is said that they do not 
writ i anytaing themselves, but gather the news 
and tell it to the news writers. Japan has 250 
newflpapers, 1000 milea of railway and 2000 or 
3000 miles of telegraph line. 

Rapid Increase of Values. — The assessment- 
roll of Fresno county for 1888 shows a total of 
$38,657,000. In 1887 the amount waa S16,- 
922,586. According to the school census, the 
population of the county is fully 40,000. 

It Pays — It is said that Ignatius Donnelly 
has made $100,000 from the sale of his book, 
and yet there are those who call hia alleged dis- 
covery a failure. 

The Eads Jetties. — A recent examination 
of Captain Kids' jetties on the Mississippi, be- 
low New Orleans, shows that they are entirely 
successful in preserving the depth of the chan- 
nel. For two and a half milea they reach out 
into the gulf, opening a broad channel navi- 
gable by ateamers drawing 30 feet of water. 
The cuter line of defense against the encroach- 
ments of the waters of the gulf, which was 
made of artificial stone, proved insufficient, aa 
both aea and sand broke over it. Then an in- 
ner line of defense was made by driving two 
rows of cypress piles deep into the sand, laying 
a willow mattress between them and loading it 
down with loose rock. The sea and sand con- 
tinued to break over the outer stone wall, but 
as each wave receded the sand was imprisoned 
between the inner and outer walls till a barrier 
was formed, which promises to withstand the 
ravages of the gulf Et^rms for all time. Behind 
the right-hand jetty a great stretch of shoal 
hai gradually grown into solid beach, extending 
its shore-line seaward till it is nearly flush with 
the extremities of the jetties. 

The Largest Drawbridge in the world is 
now being erected by the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad Company over the Arthur Kill. This 
draw is to be 512 feet long, allowing a clear 
space of 200 feet on each side of the draw be- 
tween the piers. This bridge will give to the 
Baltimore & Ohio and other trunk lines access 
to 10 miles of water-front of Staten island. The 
entire length of the bridge from ehore to shore 
is 800 feet and its bight is 30 feet. The draw, 
which is operated by steam-power, alone weighs 
450 tons. The total cost of the structure is 
$450,000. Trains will pass over the bridge in 
December next. 

Deterioration of Storage Batteries,— It 
is reported that the storage batteries on the 
Brussels tramway have deteriorated so that the 
cost is increased to nearly 11 cents per oar mile, 
as against 10 cents for horse-power. 

There ia no doubt that electric railways are 
growing in popularity. The advocates of other 
systems must look to their laurels. 

The South African diamond-fields last year 
yielded gema valued at over §20,000,000. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

[July 28, 1888 

II]lNl|4G SUMMAf^Y. 

The following Is moatly condensed from journalfl published 
)D the interior, in proximity to the minea mentioned. 


Plymouth Consolidated.— i^-if^er, July 21: A 
report was current last week to the effect that the 
mine was to be opened on Monday last, but that 
day passed without anything being done in that di- 
rection. It is generally believed that the fire is out. 
It is said that it would be next to useless to open the 
mine now, as by the time they got it in running or- 
der the failure of water supply would compel ihem 
to close again. Under these circumstances it is per- 
haps thought best to keep the mine closed, and 
thereby insure beyond a doubt the extinction of the 
fire, UDtil the approach of the fall rains gives a prom- 
ise of enablmg the machinery to be kept running. 
Nothing, however, is definitely known as to the in- 
tention of the managers. 

Amador Gold Mine.— The superintendent of 
this mine hands us the following account of opera- 
tions: While tliis company does not work as many 
men as some others on the lode, yet it keeps steadily 
at it, with a force of about 20 men. The rock in 
the mine of late has been very hard, and the work 
in sinking and drifting has not advanced as fast as 
we would like, but now that we will soon have three 
National drills at work in the mine, we will be able 
to make much better progress. The compressor, 
wheel-pipe and lumber are now on the ground, and 
millwrights are at work setting it up, under the su- 
pervision of J. B. White & Co., who have just fin- 
ished the Itex 40-stamp mill. The south or shaft 
No. 3, where the large hoisting works are to be 
erected, is down 180 feet. The south drift from 
shaft I to connect with the south shaft i'^ in about 
210 feel, and the west crosscut from shaft No. i is 
over 350 feet. We expect to cut the west vein about 
36 feet further on. Ihe company has secured a tine 
mill-site from the Amador Queen, at the lowtr end 
of the Doyle mine, where it gets 400 feet pressure 
for power, which will save the company at least 
$1000 a month in water bills. The company is now 
grading for the mill, and lumber is being delivered 
on the ground. A force of men is at work on the 
road to the millsite. The contractors, J. B. White 
& Co., will commence on the mill as soon as the 
compressor is finished. The Pacific Iron Works of 
San Francisco has the contract to furnish all the ma- 
chinery. A large rock-breaker of the Gates pattern, 
with a capacity of 300 tons daily, will be put in the 
mill 90 feet above the lower fl